Cell cycle TAKE HOME TEST – Honors Bio

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					Cell cycle TAKE HOME TEST – Honors Bio

____   1. Chromatids are
          A) attached at the centriole. B) a pair of chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father.
          C) attached at their centromeres. D) identical until crossing over occurs. E) attached at their chromosomes
          and identical until crossing over occurs.
____   2. Through meiosis
          A) alternate forms of genes are shuffled. B) parental DNA is divided and distributed to forming gametes.
          C) the diploid chromosome number is reduced to haploid. D) offspring are provided with new gene
          combinations. E) all of these
____   3. The distribution of cytoplasm to daughter cells is accomplished during
          A) prokaryotic fission. B) mitosis. C) meiosis. D) cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). E) karyokinesis.
____   4. The spindle apparatus becomes visible during
          A) anaphase. B) metaphase. C) interphase. D) prophase. E) telophase.
____   5. The number of chromosomes found in a eukaryotic cell
          A) indicates the phylogenetic position of the organism. B) is constant during the life cycle. C) is haploid
          among asexually reproducing forms and diploid if they reproduce sexually. D) is doubled by fertilization and
          cut in half by meiosis. E) is dependent on the age of the tissue.
____   6. Homologous chromosomes
          A) may exchange parts during meiosis.
          B) have alleles for the same characteristics even though the gene expression may not be
                      the same.
          C) are in pairs, one chromosome of each pair from the father and one from the mother.
          D) pair up during meiosis.
          E) all of these
____   7. Chromatids that are attached at the centromere are called what kind of chromatids?
          A) mother B) daughter C) sister D) programmed E) either mother or daughter but not sister nor
          programmed
____   8. Copies of chromosomes linked together at their centromeres at the beginning of meiosis are appropriately
          called what kind of chromatids?
          A) mother B) daughter C) sister D) homologous E) none of these
____   9. Meiosis typically results in the production of
          A) 2 diploid cells. B) 4 diploid cells. C) 4 haploid cells. D) 2 haploid cells. E) 1 triploid cell.
____ 10. Which is NOT true of human chromosomes?
         A) The haploid number is 23. B) The diploid number is 46. C) There are 23 pairs of chromosomes.
         D) Human gametes end up with two of each type of 23 chromosomes. E) Human gametes end up one of each
         type of 23 chromosomes.
____ 11. In mitosis, if a parent cell has 16 chromosomes, each daughter cell will have how many chromosomes?
         A) 64 B) 32 C) 16 D) 8 E) 4
____ 12. The chromosomes are moving to opposite poles during
         A) anaphase. B) metaphase. C) interphase. D) prophase. E) telophase.
____ 13. Crossing over
         A) generally results in binary fission. B) involves nucleoli. C) involves breakages and exchanges being
         made between sister chromatids. D) alters the composition of chromosomes and results in new combinations
         of alleles being channeled into the daughter cells. E) all of these
____ 14. Crossing over is one of the most important events in meiosis because
         A) it produces new arrays of alleles on chromosomes. B) homologous chromosomes must be separated into
         different daughter cells. C) the number of chromosomes allotted to each daughter cell must be halved.
         D) homologous chromatids must be separated into different daughter cells. E) all of these
____ 15. Chromosomes are duplicated during which period?
         A) M B) D C) G1 D) G2 E) S
____ 16. Cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division)
         A) in animal cells begins with various deposits of material associated with groups of microtubules at each pole
         of the nucleus. B) in animal cells occurs when the plasma membrane is pulled inward by a ring of
         microtubules that has become attached to the cell plate. C) usually accompanies nuclear division. D) in plant
         cells begins with the deposition of a very rigid lipid bilayer, which is the major constituent of the cell wall.
         E) all of these
____ 17. If a parent cell has 16 chromosomes and undergoes meiosis, the resulting cells will have how many
         chromosomes?
         A) 64 B) 32 C) 16 D) 8 E) 4
____ 18. The chromosomes detach from one another and become visibly separated during
         A) anaphase. B) metaphase. C) interphase. D) prophase. E) telophase.
____ 19. Cells two sets of genetic information are described by the term
         A) polyploid. B) diploid. C) triploid. D) haploid. E) tetraploid.
____ 20. Maternal and paternal chromosomes are shuffled most during
         A) anaphase II. B) metaphase I. C) prophase I. D) telophase II. E) interphase.
____ 21. The chromosomes and genes are actually replicated during
         A) anaphase. B) metaphase. C) interphase. D) prophase. E) telophase.
____ 22. DNA replication occurs
         A) between the gap phases of interphase. B) immediately before prophase of mitosis. C) during prophase of
         mitosis. D) during prophase of meiosis. E) at any time during cell division.
____ 23. The essence of meiosis is that
         A) gametes are formed that receive one copy of each member of each pair of homologous chromosomes.
         B) gametes are formed that are diploid. C) each gamete receives one member of each pair of homologous
         chromosomes. D) gametes are formed that are haploid. E) each gamete receives one member of each pair of
         homologous chromosomes and the gametes formed are haploid.
____ 24. Gamete formation is
         A) the result of the process of mitosis. B) the pairing of homologous chromosomes. C) the formation of sex
         cells. D) the fusion of gametes. E) a process that occurs only in asexually reproducing forms.
____ 25. Asexually produced daughter cells are
         A) identical to each other. B) identical to mother cell. C) different from mother cell. D) different from each
         other. E) identical to each other and identical to the mother cell.
____ 26. Which of the following is the proper sequence for mitosis?
         I.    metaphase
         II.   telophase
         III.  prophase
         IV.   anaphase

            A) I, III, IV, II B) I, II, III, IV C) III, I, IV, II D) IV, I, III, II E) III, IV, I, II
____ 27. Sexual reproduction
         A) leads to uniform characteristics in a population. B) results in new combinations of genetic traits.
         C) produces genetic clones. D) requires less tissue differentiation than asexual reproduction. E) produces
         genetic clones and requires less tissue differentiation than asexual reproduction.
____ 28. When a cell undergoes mitosis
         A) the daughter cells have identical genes. B) the daughter cell has genes identical to those of the mother cell
         that produced it. C) the amount of cytoplasm in the mother cell and in each of the daughter cells is equal.
         D) there is an exact duplication and division of all of the organelles between daughter cells. E) the daughter
         cells have identical genes and the daughter cell has genes identical to those of the mother cell that produced it.
____ 29. The chromosomes have arrived at opposite poles during
         A) anaphase. B) metaphase. C) interphase. D) prophase. E) telophase.
____ 30. The chromosomes are aligned at the spindle equator during
         A) anaphase. B) metaphase. C) interphase. D) prophase. E) telophase.
____ 31. The spindle apparatus is made of
         A) Golgi bodies. B) microtubules. C) endoplasmic reticulum. D) nucleoprotein. E) chromatids.
____ 32. The nuclear membrane reforms during
         A) anaphase. B) metaphase. C) interphase. D) prophase. E) telophase.


Short Answer

       33. What part(s) of the cell cycle is critical to understanding the difference between normal cells and cancer cells?
           Explain Why they are critical (5 points).




     34.If daughter cells are genetically identical to each other, and to the parent cell, how can multicellular organisms
            develop from a single, undifferentiated cell? Explain the nature of the apparent paradox and the solution. (5
            points)
35. The cells of multicellular organisms can do everything that single celled organisms can do; even undergo their own
            replication. So, when do multicellular organisms cease to be a collection of individual “organisms” and
            become a single organism made of a collection of cells? (5 points)




                                                        36.     After the steps shown are arranged in the correct order,
                                                 what would a diagram of the next step show?




                                                          37.     What do the pictures represent? How do you know if
                                                 this is an animal cell or a plant cell?




                                                         38.     List the correct order for the diagrams.




       39. What is the chromosome number of the cell shown?
Answer the following questions with reference to these phases of the cell cycle:
           a.      interphase
           b.      prophase
           c.      metaphase
           d.      anaphase
           e.      telophase

_____40. Condensation and shortening of chromosomes occurs during this phase.
_____41. During this stage homologous pairs of chromosomes are lined up on the equatorial plate.
_____42. Sister chromatids joined at their centromeres are attached to spindle fibers during this phase.
_____43. DNA replicates during this phase
_____44. Chromosomes replicate during this phase
_____45. The centromeres break apart as the separated sister chromatids begin to move to opposite poles.
_____46. Genes replicate during this phase
_____47. The microtubular spindle develops during this phase.
_____48. Spindle fibers first appear during this stage.
_____49. Cytokinesis occurs as this phase of mitosis proceeds.
_____50. New daughter nuclear membranes form during this phase.


            A)   cytoplasm apportioned between the two daughter cells
            B)   final phase of mitosis; daughter nuclei re-form
            C)   two sister chromatids are joined here
            D)   chromosomes condense and mitotic spindle begins to form
            E)   chromosomes line up at spindle equator
            F)   sister chromatids separate; move to opposite spindle poles now
            G)   form mitotic spindle
            H)   half of a chromosome in prophase
            I)   in pairs in some eukaryotic cells; move to poles during spindle formation
____ 51. centrioles

____ 52. telophase

____ 53. chromatid

____ 54. microtubules

____ 55. metaphase

____ 56. centromere

____ 57. cytokinesis

____ 58. prophase