BIO Ch10 The Cell Cycle STUDY GUIDE by steepslope9876

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									Name: ______________________ Class: _________________ Date: _________                                ID: A   Name: ______________________                                                                       ID: A


BIO Ch10 The Cell Cycle STUDY GUIDE                                                                          ____   10. After cell division, each daughter cell
                                                                                                                        a. has a lower surface area/volume ratio than the parent cell.
                                                                                                                        b. has a higher surface area/volume ratio than the parent cell.
Multiple Choice
                                                                                                                        c. has more DNA in its nucleus than the parent cell.
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.                                          d. has less DNA in its nucleus than the parent cell.
____     1. As a cell becomes larger, its                                                                    ____   11. Which of the following happens when a cell divides?
            a. volume increases faster than its surface area.                                                           a. The cell’s volume increases.
            b. surface area increases faster than its volume.                                                           b. It becomes more difficult for the cell to get enough oxygen and nutrients.
            c. volume increases, but its surface area stays the same.                                                   c. The cell has DNA overload.
            d. surface area stays the same, but its volume increases.                                                   d. Each daughter cell receives its own copy of the parent cell’s DNA.
____     2. As a cell grows, it                                                                              ____   12. When during the cell cycle are chromosomes visible?
            a. places more demands on its DNA.                                                                          a. only during interphase                     c. only during cell division
            b. uses up food and oxygen more quickly.                                                                    b. only when they are being replicated        d. only during the G1 phase
            c. has more trouble moving enough materials across its cell membrane.                            ____   13. Which of the following is a phase in the cell cycle?
            d. all of the above                                                                                         a. G1 phase                                   c. M phase
____     3. If the surface area of a cell increases 100 times, its volume increases about                               b. G2 phase                                   d. all of the above
            a. 5 times.                                     c. 100 times.                                    ____   14. Which pair is correct?
            b. 10 times.                                    d. 1000 times.                                              a. G1 phase, DNA replication                  c. S phase, cell division
____     4. The rate at which wastes are produced by a cell depends on the cell’s                                       b. G2 phase, preparation for mitosis          d. M phase, cell growth
            a. ratio of surface area to volume.             c. volume.                                       ____   15. When during the cell cycle is a cell’s DNA replicated?
            b. environment.                                 d. surface area.                                            a. G1 phase                                   c. S phase
____     5. All of the following are problems that growth causes for cells EXCEPT                                       b. G2 phase                                   d. M phase
            a. DNA overload.                                c. obtaining enough food.                        ____   16. Which event occurs during interphase?
            b. excess oxygen.                               d. expelling wastes.                                        a. The cell grows.                            c. Spindle fibers begin to form.
____     6. Compared to small cells, large cells have more trouble                                                      b. Centrioles appear.                         d. Centromeres divide.
            a. dividing.                                                                                     ____   17. Which of the following is a correct statement about the events of the cell cycle?
            b. producing daughter cells.                                                                                a. Little happens during the G1 and G2 phases.
            c. moving needed materials in and waste products out.                                                       b. DNA replicates during cytokinesis.
            d. making cyclin proteins.                                                                                  c. The M phase is usually the longest phase.
____     7. The process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells is called                                       d. Interphase consists of the G1, S, and G2 phases.
            a. cell division.                               c. interphase.                                   ____   18. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about the events of the cell cycle?
            b. metaphase.                                   d. mitosis.                                                 a. Interphase is usually the longest phase.
____     8. Which of the following is NOT a way that cell division solves the problems of cell growth?                  b. DNA replicates during the S phase.
            a. Cell division provides each daughter cell with its own copy of DNA.                                      c. Cell division ends with cytokinesis.
            b. Cell division increases the mass of the original cell.                                                   d. The size of the cell increases during the G2 phase.
            c. Cell division increases the surface area of the original cell.
            d. Cell division reduces the original cell’s volume.
____     9. By the time a normal cell divides, you can assume that
            a. the cell’s surface area has become larger than its volume.
            b. the cell’s volume has become larger than its surface area.
            c. the cell has replicated all of its DNA.
            d. the cell’s mitochondria have been destroyed.




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Name: ______________________                                                                            ID: A   Name: ______________________                                                                            ID: A


                                                                                                                ____   25. The first phase of mitosis is called
                                                                                                                           a. prophase.                                   c. metaphase.
                                                                                                                           b. anaphase.                                   d. interphase.
                                                                                                                ____   26. During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the middle of the dividing cell?
                                                                                                                           a. prophase                                    c. metaphase
                                                                                                                           b. telophase                                   d. anaphase
                                                                                                                ____   27. Which of the following represents the phases of mitosis in their proper sequence?
                                                                                                                           a. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
                                                                                                                           b. interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
                                                                                                                           c. interphase, prophase, metaphase, telophase
                                                                                                                           d. prophase, anaphase, metaphase, telophase
                                                                                                                ____   28. What is the role of the spindle during mitosis?
                                                                                                                           a. It helps separate the chromosomes.
                                                                                                                           b. It breaks down the nuclear membrane.
                                                       Figure 10–1                                                         c. It duplicates the DNA.
                                                                                                                           d. It makes the chromosomes visible.
____   19. Cell division is represented in Figure 10–1 by the letter                                            ____   29. The two main stages of cell division are called
           a. A.                                         c. C.                                                             a. mitosis and interphase.                     c. the M phase and the S phase.
           b. B.                                         d. D.                                                             b. synthesis and cytokinesis.                  d. mitosis and cytokinesis.
____   20. The cell cycle is the                                                                                ____   30. One difference between cell division in plant cells and in animal cells is that plant cells have
           a. series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.                                              a. centrioles.                                 c. a cell plate.
           b. period of time between the birth and the death of a cell.                                                    b. centromeres.                                d. chromatin.
           c. time from prophase until cytokinesis.                                                             ____   31. During normal mitotic cell division, a parent cell having four chromosomes will produce two daughter
           d. time it takes for one cell to undergo mitosis.                                                               cells, each containing
                                                                                                                           a. two chromosomes.                            c. eight chromosomes.
                                                                                                                           b. four chromosomes.                           d. sixteen chromosomes.
                                                                                                                ____   32. Right after a bone breaks, cells at the edge of the injury
                                                                                                                           a. stop dividing.
                                                                                                                           b. begin to divide rapidly.
                                                                                                                           c. form a thin layer over the edge of the injury.
                                                                                                                           d. develop a defect in a gene called p53.
                                                                                                                ____   33. Which of the following is a factor that can stop normal cells from growing?
                                                                                                                           a. contact with other cells
                                                       Figure 10–2                                                         b. growth factors
                                                                                                                           c. a cut in the skin
____   21. The structure labeled A in Figure 10–2 is called the                                                            d. cyclin that has been taken from a cell in mitosis
           a. centromere.                                c. sister chromatid.
           b. centriole.                                 d. spindle.                                            ____   34. Cells grown in a petri dish tend to divide until they form a thin layer covering the bottom of the dish.
                                                                                                                           If cells are removed from the middle of the dish, the cells bordering the open space will begin dividing
____   22. The structures labeled B in Figure 10–2 are called                                                              until they have filled the empty space. What does this experiment show?
           a. centromeres.                               c. sister chromatids.                                             a. When cells come into contact with other cells, they stop growing.
           b. centrioles.                                d. spindles.                                                      b. The controls on cell growth and division can be turned on and off.
____   23. During which phase(s) of mitosis are structures like the one shown in Figure 10–2 visible?                      c. Cell division can be regulated by factors outside the cell.
           a. anaphase and prophase                      c. metaphase only                                                 d. all of the above
           b. prophase and metaphase                     d. anaphase and interphase
____   24. Which of the following is a phase of mitosis?
           a. cytokinesis                                c. prophase
           b. interphase                                 d. S phase

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Name: ______________________                                                                              ID: A        Name: ______________________                                                                                ID: A


____    35. Which of the following explains why normal cells grown in a petri dish tend to stop growing once           ____   47. As a cell’s size increases, it places more demands on its DNA. _________________________
            they have covered the bottom of the dish?
            a. The cells lack cyclin.                                                                                  ____   48. The smaller a cell is, the more difficult it is for the cell to move enough materials across its cell
            b. The petri dish inhibits cell growth.                                                                               membrane. _________________________
            c. Contact with other cells stops cell growth.
                                                                                                                       ____   49. Cell division solves the problem of cell growth by increasing cell volume.
            d. Most cells grown in petri dishes have a defective p53.
                                                                                                                                  _________________________
____    36. When cytoplasm from a cell that is undergoing mitosis is injected into a cell that is in interphase, the
            second cell                                                                                                ____   50. An imaginary cubic cell with a side length of 10 mm would have a ratio of surface area to volume of 6
            a. stays in interphase.                         c. stops making cyclin.                                               : 10. _________________________
            b. enters mitosis.                              d. loses its p53.                                          ____   51. Most of a cell’s growth takes place during the G 2 phase of the cell cycle.
____    37. In eukaryotic cells, the timing of the cell cycle is regulated by
            a. the centrioles.                              c. the spindle.                                                        _________________________
            b. cyclins.                                     d. all of the above                                        ____   52. A cell’s chromosomes are replicated during interphase. _________________________
____    38. Cyclins are a family of closely related proteins that
            a. regulate the cell cycle.                     c. cause cancer.                                           ____   53. If it takes a cell one hour to undergo mitosis, about 50 minutes of the time would be spent in
            b. produce p53.                                 d. work to heal wounds.                                               prophase. _________________________
____    39. Which of the following regulate(s) the cell cycle?
            a. growth factors                               c. p53
            b. cyclins                                      d. all of the above
____    40. Which of the following is an internal regulator of the cell cycle?
            a. cyclins                                      c. the mitotic spindle
            b. growth factors                               d. cancer cells
____    41. Cancer is a disorder in which some cells have lost the ability to control their
            a. size.                                        c. growth rate.
            b. spindle fibers.                              d. surface area.                                                                                                     Figure 10–2
____    42. Cancer cells form masses of cells called
            a. tumors.                                      c. growth factors.                                         ____   54. The structure shown in Figure 10–2 is a replicated chromosome. _________________________
            b. cyclins.                                     d. p53.                                                    ____   55. Typically, the longest phase of mitosis is metaphase. _________________________
____    43. A cell with a defective p53 gene is likely to
            a. divide normally.                             c. accumulate chromosomal damage.                          ____   56. A cell splits into two daughter cells during telophase. _________________________
            b. stop dividing.                               d. combat tumors.                                          ____   57. Normal cells stop growing when they come into contact with other cells.
____    44. Cancer affects                                                                                                        _________________________
            a. humans only.                                 c. multicellular organisms.
            b. most unicellular organisms.                  d. unicellular organisms.                                  ____   58. Proteins called cyclins help regulate the cell cycle. _________________________
____    45. What is a tumor?                                                                                           ____   59. Cancer is a disorder in which some of the body’s cells lose the ability to control growth and division.
            a. an accumulation of cyclins                                                                                         _________________________
            b. a mass of cancer cells
                                                                                                                       ____   60. Lack of control over the cell cycle is the cause of all cancers. ______________________________
            c. the rapidly dividing cells found at the site of a wound
            d. a defective p53 gene
                                                                                                                       Completion
                                                                                                                       Complete each statement.
Modified True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the
                                                                                                                              61. The larger a cell becomes, the ____________________ efficiently it is able to function.
statement true.
                                                                                                                              62. Before a normal cell becomes too large to carry out normal activities, it will usually divide to form two
____    46. As a cell’s size increases, its ratio of surface area to volume increases.                                            ____________________ cells.
            _________________________
                                                                                                                              63. The first stage of cell divisionis called _________________________.

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Name: ______________________                                                                             ID: A    Name: ______________________                                                                            ID: A


      64. Together, the G1 phase, S phase, and G2 phase are called ____________________.
      65. Another name for cell division is the ____________________ phase.
      66. A cell that has 5 chromosomes in the G1 phase will have ____________________ chromatids in the
          G2 phase.
      67. The number of sister chromatids in a human body cell that is entering cell division is
          ____________________.




                                                                                                                                                                          Figure 10–1

                                                                                                                        80. The main events of the cell cycle are labeled A, B, C, and D in Figure 10–1. Name these events. Then,
                                                                                                                            briefly state what happens during each event.
                                                          Figure 10–3                                                   81. Explain the difference between cytokinesis in plant cells and animal cells.

      68. The structure labeled A in Figure 10–3 is called the _________________________.                               82. Distinguish between chromatids and chromatin.

      69. The process shown in Figure 10–3 occurs only in ____________________ cells that have just                     83. Many injuries to the skin heal completely, whereas injuries to the spinal cord, which is made
          divided.                                                                                                          up mainly of nerve cells, may result in paralysis. What characteristic of the two types of
                                                                                                                            cells in these body parts accounts for this difference?
      70. Look at Figure 10–3. Once structure A is complete, another phase of the cell cycle will start. This
          phase will be called ___________________.                                                                     84. Identify a factor that can stop cells from dividing.
      71. During metaphase, the centromere on each chromosome is connected to a structure called a                      85. What effect do the cells surrounding a normal cell have on the cell’s growth and division?
          _________________________.                                                                                    86. The level of cyclins in a cell increases during the M phase of the cell cycle. What might happen to a
      72. If a normal cell is injected with cyclin from a dividing cell, it probably will ____________________.             cell if no cyclins were present during the M phase?
      73. Proteins called ____________________ regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells.               87. Give two examples of chemicals that help regulate the timing of the cell cycle.
      74. Proteins that regulate the cell cycle based on events inside the cell are called ____________________         88. How do cancer cells differ from normal cells?
          regulators.                                                                                                   89. Cells grown in a petri dish tend to divide until they form a thin layer covering the bottom of the dish.
      75. In all forms of ____________________, the cancerous cells fail to respond to the signals that                     How would you expect cancer cells to behave in this situation?
          regulate the cell cycle of most cells.                                                                        90. A scientist suspects that a given cell is cancerous even though it has not yet formed a tumor. How
                                                                                                                            might the scientist test the cell to see if it is cancerous?
Short Answer

      76. List two problems that growth causes for cells.
      77. How might you test the effects of cell size on the extent of diffusion?
      78. What effect does cell size have on a cell’s ability to efficiently carry out its activities?
      79. How does cell division solve the problems of excessive cell growth?



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Name: ______________________                                                                         ID: A    Name: ______________________                                                                           ID: A



Other                                                                                                                    USING SCIENCE SKILLS
                                                                                                                         A student placed three cubes of agar that contained the indicator phenolphthalein in a beaker of
                                                                                                                         vinegar. The sides of the cubes were the following lengths: 3 cm, 2 cm, and 1 cm. In the presence of
            USING SCIENCE SKILLS
                                                                                                                         an acid, such as vinegar, phenolphthalein turns from pink to clear. After 10 minutes, the student cut
                                                                                                                         each cube open and measured the distance that the vinegar had diffused into each cube. She then
                                                                                                                         started to complete the data table.




                                                                                                                                                                       Figure 10–5

                                                                                                                                                        Comparison of Agar Cubes
                                                                                                                          Cube       Surface    Volume      Ratio of     Depth of    Time       Rate of
                                                                                                                           Size       Area       (cm3)      Surface      Diffusion (minutes)   Diffusion
                                                                                                                         (length      (cm2)                 Area to       (mm)               (mm/minute)
                                                        Figure 10–4                                                      in cm)                             Volume

        91. Interpreting Graphics What does Figure 10–4 represent? How do you know if this is an animal                      3         54          27                                     10
            cell or a plant cell?
                                                                                                                             2                                                            10
        92. Inferring What is the chromosome number of the cell shown in Figure 10–4?
                                                                                                                             1          6           1                                     10
        93. Inferring Identify the structures labeled X and Y in Figure 10–4.
        94. Applying Concepts List the correct order for the diagrams in Figure 10–4.                               96. Designing Experiments What is the student probably trying to test? What do the cubes in Figure
        95. Predicting After the steps shown in Figure 10–4 are arranged in the correct order, what would a             10–5 probably represent?
            diagram of the next step show?                                                                          97. Calculating Look at the data table in Figure 10–5. What are the surface area, volume, and ratio of
                                                                                                                        surface area to volume for the cube that is 2 cm in length?
                                                                                                                    98. Comparing and Contrasting Compare the cubes in Figure 10–5 with respect to their sizes and
                                                                                                                        their ratios of surface area to volume.
                                                                                                                    99. Inferring Look at the experimental setup in Figure 10–5. How will the student know how far the
                                                                                                                        vinegar has diffused into each cube?
                                                                                                                   100. Predicting Examine Figure 10-5. In which cube will the vinegar take the longest time to diffuse into
                                                                                                                        the center? In which tube will the vinegar take the shortest time to diffuse into the center?




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Name: ______________________                                                                               ID: A      Name: ______________________                                                                         ID: A


                                                                                                                           114. If you looked at a sample of cells under a microscope, how might you recognize cancer cells?
              USING SCIENCE SKILLS
                                                                                                                           115. Describe how cancer cells are different from other cells. Based on these differences, explain why
                                                                                                                                cancer has been such a difficult condition to cure.




                                                           Figure 10–6

        101. Interpreting Graphics Look at Figure 10–6. Which diagram shows cancer cells? How do you
             know?
        102. Comparing and Contrasting Explain how cancer cells are different from normal cells. Then, relate
             these characteristics to the diagram in Figure 10–6 that shows cancer cells.
        103. Predicting Look at the cancer cells shown in Figure 10–6. What can happen if these cells are left
             untreated?
        104. Applying Concepts Explain the role that p53 might have had in the growth and division of the cells
             shown in each diagram in Figure 10–6.
        105. Problem Solving How might the cancer cells shown in Figure 10–6 be prevented from doing more
             harm to the organism they are a part of?

Essay

        106. Relate ratio of surface area to volume to cell growth and cell division.
        107. What kinds of problems does growth cause for cells? How does cell division help a cell solve these
             problems?
        108. List and describe the main events of the cell cycle. Illustrate your description with a diagram of the
             cell cycle.
        109. Describe what happens during the four stages of mitosis.
        110. Discuss the relationship between mitosis and cytokinesis. What would be the result if one happened
             without the other?
        111. Assume that prophase begins with eight chromatids in the nucleus of a cell. When telophase ends,
             how many chromosomes will be present in each new nucleus? Explain your answer.
        112. Describe how the skin cells near a cut behave. What role does contact with other cells have in the
             behavior of cells near a cut?
        113. Describe how the cell cycle is regulated.

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