GAMETE CELL CYCLE NOTES How is the cell cycle different for GAMETES? Gametes are ____________ _______________________ o Male- sperm o Female – egg Gametes are produced for ________________________ reproduction. Gametes are ____________________________. o They contain half the number of chromosomes as found in body cells (somatic cells) Fertilization: o When two __________________ cells combine, a ______________ __________________ is formed. o The zygote gets _______________ of its chromosomes from each of the parents. I. Phases of the cell cycle (All pictures are from website: taggart.glg.msu.edu/bs110/meiosis.htm) INTERPHASE WHAT HAPPENS? Gametes in interphase are the same as body cells in interphase: When the cell is large enough to divide: Genetic material still appears as ________________. II. What is meiosis? ___________________________ part of the gamete cell cycle Cells go through phases similar to mitosis III. What are the products of MEIOSIS? Produces________ ________________ cells (contain ___________ the number of normal chromosomes) PROPHASE I WHAT HAPPENS? Tetrad of chromosome #1 ________________________ move to opposite sides of cell. Homologous pairs of _________ _____________ #2 join to create a ________________. tetrad: homologous: __________________ _________ can occur. METAPHASE I WHAT HAPPENS? Spindle fibers _____________ line up in the middle of the cell. Tetrad ANAPHASE I WHAT HAPPENS? Also called ______________________. __________________ are pulled apart as spindle fibers are pulled back. Centromeres do not tear apart, so sister chromatids stay attached. _______________________________ can occur. TELOPHASE I WHAT HAPPENS? Cell pinches Cell splits in two (________________________) Each cell contains pairs of _______________ ___________________________. PROPHASE II WHAT HAPPENS? __________________ _____________, move to opposite sides of the cell Sister ___________________ _____________ to spindle fibers. METAPHASE II WHAT HAPPENS? Sister __________________ line up in the of the cell. ANAPHASE II WHAT HAPPENS? Spindle fibers tear the _____________________. Sister ___________________ are pulled to opposite sides of the cell. TELOPHASE II WHAT HAPPENS? A total of _______ ______________ ________________ cells are produced. Haploid = Males: Females: IV. What are differences between mitosis and meiosis? MITOSIS MEIOSIS CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING Answer these questions on the back of this paper or on a separate sheet. 1. IN YOUR OWN WORDS, define these terms: a. centromere b. crossing-over c. cytokinesis d. homologous e. non-disjunction f. tetrad 2. The pairs of words below are easily confused. IN YOUR OWN WORDS explain the difference between these terms: a. diploid & haploid b. centrioles & centromeres c. chromosome & sister chromatids d. gamete cells & somatic cells 3. Why are the end products of meiosis so important to the process of fertilization? Explain more than just the fact that they make eggs and sperm. 4. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis. Be sure to include the end products and the steps of each process. You may use a Venn diagram if that helps. 5. IN YOUR OWN WORDS, review what happens in each step of meiosis. Create a chart to help you organize your information. 6. Siblings are different, even though they have the same parents. How does such variety occur? List the step of meiosis where this variation is created. Explain what happens in this step and why it allows for such variety.
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