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					Probiotics



Lindsey Gourley
   BIOLOGY 251
    Dr. Carman
          History of Probiotics
• Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov first discussed the possible
  benefits of lactic acid bacteria by consuming large
  amounts of yogurt and by drinking sour milk in
  the beginning of the 20th century.
• Within the past 15 years the term probiotics has
  become commonly known and used.
• In 2001 the Food and Agricultural Organization
  and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO)
  defined the term probiotic.
• Recently the term probiotic has become increasingly
  popular.
• The food and healthcare industries are marketing
  probiotics worldwide, and are rapidly expanding.
• According to Menrad (2003), Probiotics are a
  multibillion dollar industry.
• Currently clinical studies continue to research
  probiotics and are trying to determine their role in
  health and disease.
• National Institutes of Health (NIH) is funding a
  large research project known as the Human
  Microbiome project “with the mission of generating
  resources enabling comprehensive characterization
  of the human microbiota and analysis of its role in
  human health and disease”.
     Understanding Probiotics
• What are probiotics?
• How they work?
  – It is important to remember that scientists are
    still researching how probiotics work.
• Why you may need them?
• What are the benefits of probiotics?
• Probiotic sources and marketplace
        What are Probiotics?
• According to the Food and Agricultural
  Organization and World Health
  Organization (FAO/WHO), probiotics are:
  – "Live microorganisms which when
    administered in adequate amounts confer a
    health benefit on the host (2001)".
    Microorganisms that are used as
             Probiotics
•   Lactobacillus
•   Bifidiobacterium
•   Saccharomyces
•   Enterococcus
•   E. Coli
•   S. thermophilus
•   Bacillus
  Not all probiotics are the same
• Strains of probiotics are very important.
• The species may be the same, however they differ
  in function at the species level.
   – Lactobacillus casei Shirota
   – Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001
      • In the above example Lactobacillus is the genus, casei, is the
        species and Shirota and DN-114 001 are the different strains of
        the microorganism.
  Microorganism Colonization of
           Intestines
• Our small and large intestines are fertile gardens of flora
  and fauna.
• Under normal conditions (vaginal birth) there are 500-
  1000 types of bacteria that colonize the intestines.
• Complete colonization of the intestine creates a balanced
  ecosystem of microorganisms which allows the resistance
  of pathogens and no disease expression.
• In the case of abnormal circumstances, such as pre-mature
  delivery, delivery by cesarean section, or the use of
  prophylactic antibiotics in the perinatal period; there is
  incomplete colonization of the intestines and the child is
  more susceptible to allergens, pathogens and immune-
  suppressed disease.
  How Microorganisms Nourish
  the Human Digestive System
• “Friendly” bacteria metabolize waste
  products and convert nutrients into useful
  substances such as vitamin B12 and Vitamin
  K. “Friendly” bacteria also neutralize toxic
  substances.
• Native “friendly” bacteria provide
  protective, structural and metabolic
  functions.
Protective Functions    Structural Functions      Metabolic Functions

•Displace pathogens     •Immune system            •Aid digestion
•Compete for receptor   development               •Produce organic acids
sites with pathogens    •Reinforce intestinal     which inhibit
•Nutrient competition   barrier effects           pathogens
•Production of          •Intestinal cell health   •Synthesize vitamins
antimicrobial           and development           •Increase mineral
substances                                        absorption
                                                  •Detoxify carcinogens
                                                  •Salvage energy

     • Probiotics enhance these functions of our native
                 “friendly” microorganisms.
        Microbial Imbalances
• Dysbiosis (also called dysbacteriosis) is the
  condition of having microbial imbalances
  on or within the body.
• Dysbiosis is most prominent in the
  digestive tract or on the skin, but can also
  occur on any exposed surface or mucous
  membrane such as the vagina, lungs, nose,
  sinuses, ears, nails, or eyes.
What reduces the good bacteria
        in our bodies?
– Incomplete colonization at the time of birth
– Antibiotics
– Stress
– Age
– Pesticides
– A diet with refined foods, saturated fats, hydrogenated
  oil and sugars.
– Preservatives
– Chlorine in the water

All decrease the number of beneficial
 microorganisms in our bodies.
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• Refined foods, saturated fats, hydrogenated
  oils and sugars coat the bowel and impede
  the reabsorption of water. Therefore
  allowing the waste to sit longer in our large
  intestine, and create a place for “unfriendly”
  bacteria and parasites to live.
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• It is crucial that these “friendly”
  microorganisms are replenished and thrive
  in order for our digestive and immune
  systems to be healthy and work properly.
• Natural sources of probiotics and probiotic
  supplements aid in the replenishment of the
  “friendly” microorganisms.
Why do people use probiotics?
       Diarrhea Due to Antibiotic Use
       Traveler's Diarrhea
       Side Effects of Radiation Therapy
       Irritable Bowel Syndrome
       Vaginal Yeast Infections
       Ulcerative Colitis
       Crohn's Disease
       Immune Support
       Lactose Intolerance
       Prevention of Colds
       Allergic Rhinitis / Hay fever
       Constipation
       Colon Cancer Prevention
       Pouchitis
         Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth
         Canker Sores
      Irritable Bowel Syndrome
• Pathogenic Bacteria such as E. coli, Clostridium,
  and Bacteroides are found in high amounts in the
  lining of the gut of patients with Irritable bowel
  Syndrome (IBS).
• IBS pts suffer from abdominal pain and
  discomfort, and have highly irregular, debilitating
  bowel patterns and movements.
     Irritable Bowel Syndrome
• IBS is often triggered by diet and stress.
• Several clinical trials show that many signs
  and symptoms are relieved by probiotics.
           Benefits of Probiotics
• Improve the symptoms of digestive disorders,
  such as IBS.
• Improve your immune system.
   – Reduce the chance that you will get sick, if you eat bad
     bacteria
• Decrease the likelihood of getting viruses that
  cause URI
• Reduce minor gastrointestinal conditions, such as
  flatulence and lactose intolerance.
   – Because they help digest carbohydrates and lactose.
• Decrease blood pressure.
• Improve mood disorders such as depression.
   Where do you find probiotics?
• Probiotics are found in some foods such as cheese,
  yogurt, sour kraut, and milk.
• Not all of the above food sources always contain
  probiotics.
• Live cultures are not the same as probiotics.
• Probiotics must have the following:
   – Be alive microorganisms
   – Have a beneficial health effect
   – Able to
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                                     Probiotic Sources
• Come in several forms: tablets, capsules
  powder, and in food.
• Effectiveness of probiotics is dependent
  upon the strain of microorganism, and it’s
  ability to remain active in the stomach acid,
  and to withstand high levels of heat.
   Probiotics in the Marketplace
• Probiotics are available as supplements in
  the supermarkets, health food stores, and on
  the internet.
• It is important to understand that even
  though a product may claim to be be
  probiotic, it may not necessarily be.
    What to look for in a probiotic?
•   Look for clinical trials and results
•   Look at the strain of probiotic
•   Base the dosage on the clinical studies
•   Check the shelf -life
                         Conclusion
•   What are probiotics?
     – Probiotics are living microorganisms that have shown beneficial
       health effects when taken in sufficient dosages.
•   How do probiotics work?
     – Probiotics help create a balanced microorganism colonization in the
       intestines, by increasing the number of good bacteria.
•   Why you may need probiotics?
     – To help balance the good and bad bacteria in your small and large
       intestines, in order to for our systems to work properly.
     – Good bacteria is reduced with age, stress, diet, and antibiotic use.
•   What are the benefits of probiotics?
     – Probiotics may improve symptoms of IBS, infectious diarrhea,
       vaginal yeast infections, and increase immune support.
         Remember:
“Scientific understanding of
probiotics and their potential
 for preventing and treating
  health conditions is at an
   early stage, but moving
           ahead”.

         http://nccam.nih.gov/health/probiot
                         ics/
                                References

•   Lee Yuan and Salminen Seppo, Handbook of Probiotics and Prebiotics,
    Second Edition, Wiley, 2009.
•   Parkes GC (2007) An overview of probiotics and prebiotics. Nursing
    Standard. 21,20,43-47.
•   Sanders M.E., Gibson G.R., Gil H.and Guarner F. 2007. Probiotics in
    food: their potential to impact human health. Council for Agricultural
    Science and Technology, Issue Paper 36. Retrieved from
    www.castscience.org/displayProductdetails.asp?idPoduct=144
•   http://www.gastro.org/wmspage.cfm?parm1=5617
•   International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics:
    www.isapp.net
•   http://nccam.nih.gov/health/probiotics/
•   www.usprobiotics.org
                        Final Questions
1.   Lactobacillus, Bifidiobacterium, Saccharomyces, Enterococcus, E. Coli,S.
     thermophilus, and Bacillus are all types of microorganisms used in probiotics.
          A.True B. False
2.   What is the condition of having microbial imbalances on or within the body?
         A. Dysbiosis
         B. Epitaxis
         C. Dyspnea
         D. All of the above
3.   Dysbiosis is most prominent in the digestive tract or on the skin, but can also occur
     on any exposed surface or mucous membrane such as the vagina, lungs, nose,
     sinuses, ears, nails or eyes.
          A.True B. False
4.   Probiotics are “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts
     confer a health benefit on the host”.
               A.True B. False
5.   What reduces the good bacteria in our bodies?
         A. Antibiotics
         B. A diet with refined foods, saturated fats, hydrogenated oil and sugars
         C. Age
         D. Stress
         E. All of the Above

				
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posted:3/20/2013
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