CS0398 carbon dioxide alone

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					                                                                                           Operating Manual
JACOBS ENGINEERING                                                                               Section 9.4

CHEMICAL HAZARD SHEET                                                                               M-27-327/3
CARBON DIOXIDE                                                                                    PAGE 1 OF 4
                                                                                                September 1987



         Formula:                                                CO2

         Description:                                   Colourless, odourless gas

         Molecular Wt:                                           44

         Atmospheric Vapour Density:                             1.53

         CASE No:                                                (124-38-9)

         Commonly used as inert gas, or in the soft drinks and fertiliser industries. Liable to collect in pits or
         low areas as denser than air.

2.0      HAZARDS

2.2      EXPLOSION

         Simple asphyxiants do not support combustion nor do they burn, thus there are no flammability or
         explosion hazards.

2.3      HEALTH

         Classified as simple asphyxiants, gases of this type have no specific toxic effect, but they act by
         excluding oxygen from the lungs. The oxygen may be diminished to two-thirds of its normal
         percentage in air before appreciable symptoms develop and this in turn requires the presence of a
         simple asphyxiant in a concentration of 33 percent in the mixture of air and gas. When the simple
         asphyxiant reaches a concentration of 50 percent, marked symptoms can be produced. A
         concentration of 75 percent is fatal in a matter of minutes.

         The first symptoms produced by simple asphyxiant gases are rapid respirations and air hunger.
         Mental alertness is diminished and muscular co-ordination is impaired. Later, judgement becomes
         faulty and all sensations are depressed. Emotional instability often results and fatigue occurs rapidly.

         The major hazard with these gases therefore arises from a false sense of security associated with
         their inert non poisonous nature, and the danger of asphyxiation can be readily overlooked.



3.1.1    All purging operations using these gases should be logged and warning notices posted in the vicinity
         of the operation.

3.1.2    Personnel must avoid inhaling air enriched with these gases and should use a breathing apparatus if

CS0398   \\LONNT01\DATA\Group\PROCESS\oldH&Gstds\ChemHAZ\JEWord\CS0398 Nitrogen CO2 Argon.doc
                                                                                         Operating Manual
JACOBS ENGINEERING                                                                             Section 9.4

M-27-327/3                                                                       CHEMICAL HAZARD SHEET
PAGE 2 OF 4                                                                             CARBON DIOXIDE
September 1987

          local concentrations are suspected or possible (see 3.2.)

3.1.3     Where access to vessels filled with any of these gases is required, for inspection or maintenance,
          either the proper breathing apparatus must be used or the vessel must be air purged. In both cases
          it is essential to maintain close supervision of the men involved.

3.1.4     When breathing apparatus is to be used adequate provision must be made for retrieving the man in
          the event of his being overcome. A lifeline and inertia reel fixed to a safety harness with a trained
          standby man to assist in rescue and giving warning to rescue services must be available.

3.1.5     When the vessel is to be air purged the following procedure should be used. The vessel must be
          isolated from all possible sources of supply of asphyxiant and depressurised, where possible via a
          local high vent. Then pressurise the vessel with air to a minimum of 30 psig, depressure and repeat
          the process, preferably twice. The atmosphere inside the vessel should then be tested as in 3.2.
          Providing the tests prove the vessel atmosphere to be safe, work can commence but a continuous
          slow air purge is advisable.

3.1.6     Particular danger arises because, within seconds of breathing simple asphyxiants a feeling of well
          being and elation is induced such that the victim has no reflex action to fight for breath but simply
          feels good, becomes sleepy and then collapses.

3.1.7     All foregoing to be strictly controlled by `Permit-to-Work' System.


          Air supplied masks, equipped with full face pieces, must be worn for protection where an oxygen
          deficiency - less than 16 percent by volume - may be encountered. Oxygen concentration can easily
          be rapidly measured using standard industrial equipment (e.g. Fyrite gas analyser or Draeger tube,
          oxygen monitor).

          Types of air supplied masks that are available include:

3.2.1     Air-line masks supplied by plant compressed air are suitable for use only where conditions will permit
          safe escape in case of failure of the compressed air supply. Such masks should be used only in
          conjunction with a suitable reducing type or demand type valve and filter. The compressed air
          should be checked frequently to make certain that harmful gases from decomposition of the
          lubricating oil used in the compressor or from impure air supply are not present.

3.2.2     Positive pressure hose masks supplied by externally lubricated blowers are usually preferred to the
          air-line type. Since these masks also depend on a remote air supply, they should be used only
          where conditions will permit safe escape in the event of an air supply failure. Care must be taken to
          locate the blower or air source in an area which is free from air contaminants.

3.2.3     A self contained breathing apparatus which permits the wearer to carry a supply of air compressed in
          a cylinder allows for greater mobility. The length of time a self-contained breathing apparatus
          provides protection varies according to the amount of air supply carried.

          In vessel work, where small manholes are encountered, a self-contained breathing apparatus is

                                                                                           Operating Manual
JACOBS ENGINEERING                                                                               Section 9.4

CHEMICAL HAZARD SHEET                                                                               M-27-327/3
CARBON DIOXIDE                                                                                    PAGE 3 OF 4
                                                                                                September 1987

         usually unsuitable because of its bulk. This difficulty may be overcome by the use of large
         commercial type cylinders located outside of the tank and connected to a face piece by means of a
         regulation hose.

3.2.4    Gas masks must not be used - they are completely ineffective.


         The medical advice below has been obtained by JACOBS from, apparently, responsible sources. It
         should not be taken as endorsement by JACOBS of its use at a particular site or time. The
         responsibility for FIRST AID MEASURES at any site rests with the SITE MANAGER and his
         SAFETY OFFICER. Before a toxic material is first brought on to a site or first manufactured at a site
         the Site Manager should consult with the local medical representative as to what emergency first aid
         measurers need to be taken for casualties. This advice must be published to the operating
         Personnel who should be given full training to ensure First Aid can be readily applied if required. The
         principles are generally as follows:

3.3.1    Remove the victim from the scene of the accident. Rescuers should use breathing apparatus and
         be provided with a lifeline.

3.3.2    Examine mouth for false teeth and chewing gum and remove if present.

3.3.3    Apply artificial respiration is the breathing appears to be shallow or stopped.

         The first few minutes after the discovery of an unconscious, gassed person are vitally important and
         artificial respiration must be resorted to immediately and must not be delayed while awaiting the
         arrival of a stretcher and other equipment. Of the several methods of applying artification respiration,
         the mouth-to-mouth method of positive pressure is considered to be the most efficient for general

3.3.4    Keep the victim warm with the head in a low position. Once the breathing has been properly
         restored further attention can be directed to the adequate treatment of those symptoms indicating
         shock. These are usually pallor, cold, clammy skin and shivering. Absolute rest and protection from
         cold are the first essentials and the victim should be kept in position with the head kept low and
         turned to one side, so as to allow as much of the blood as possible to reach the brain and support
         the vital functions.

         The conscious or semi-conscious person should not be walked about because of the muscular
         activity involved which may lead to heart failure.

3.3.5    Administering of oxygen increases the rate at which simple asphyxiants can be eliminated but such
         treatment must only be carried out by trained personnel.

3.3.6    Give the patient plenty of hot drink. When the patient is able to swallow, hot coffee or tea with plenty
         of sugar BUT NO MILK, should be given freely. To begin with however drink should be given in
         small quantities. DO NOT GIVE ALCOHOL.

3.3.7    Maintain a constant watch over more serious cases. Pending transfer to hospital, careful watch
         must be maintained over the patient in all serious cases because of the tendency to relapse. Should

CS0398   \\LONNT01\DATA\Group\PROCESS\oldH&Gstds\ChemHAZ\JEWord\CS0398 Nitrogen CO2 Argon.doc
                                                                                         Operating Manual
JACOBS ENGINEERING                                                                             Section 9.4

M-27-327/3                                                                      CHEMICAL HAZARD SHEET
PAGE 4 OF 4                                                                            CARBON DIOXIDE
September 1987

          breathing become shallow or very slow or appear to have ceased, artificial respiration should be
          begun and immediate administration of oxygen should be begun or recommenced.

3.3.8     Do not allow patient to suffer any form of exertion


          Previous occurrences of fatalities or near fatalities have been reported by several organisations.
          One such incident involved the death of two men. One man entered the vessel containing nitrogen
          wearing an air mask but for some reason took it off and promptly collapsed. The second man
          outside the vessel, who was incidentally a fully trained safety man, entered the vessel to rescue his
          colleague without raising the alarm, and not wearing an air mask himself. He also collapsed and

          Technically updated:12/71