CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN THE ATMOSPHERE Gross 0.2 t/ha OF PASTURE AND New Zealand GHG CARBON BURPED PLANTS TAKE emissions 2007 AS METHANE, 20 t/ha OF 75.6 MT CO2 EQUIVALENT TO CARBON AS CO2 equivalent 5.7 t OF CO2 FROM THE ATMOSPHERE, EACH YEAR 2.7 t/ha OF 10 t/ha OF CARBON CARBON RETURNED AS RETURNED AS CO2 CO2 THROUGH THROUGH PLANT BREATH RESPIRATION 10 t/ha OF 0.5 tonne of CO2 is CARBON IS retained in the RETAINED IN milk and meat PASTURE AND of cows PLANTS 5 t/ha OF CARBON RELEASED IN THE 1.6 t/ha OF DECAY OF PLANT CARBON ROOTS AND EXPELLED IN . LITTER WASTE 5 t/ha OF CO2 IN CARBON STORED PASTURE IN FOSSIL FUELS CONSUMED BY ANIMALS CARBON IN SOILS DID YOU KNOW? DID YOU KNOW? New Zealand soils store 100-300 tonnes of Methane has a global carbon per hectare. Some soils are losing warming potential 21x that carbon while other soils are gaining it. of CO2 making it a more DID YOU KNOW? damaging greenhouse gas. Almost half of New Zealand’s Prices of carbon refer to its carbon KEY GHG emissions come from dioxide equivalent – which is 3.7x the GHG - GREENHOUSE GASES agriculture. figures given in this diagram. t - TONNE MT - MILLION TONNE t/ha - TONNE PER HECTARE NITROGEN GAS (N2) IN THE ATMOSPHERE Nitrous Oxide has a global warming potential ION FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS 310x that of CO2 making DID YOU KNOW? AT it a more damaging FIX greenhouse gas. 70% of nitrogen consumed by livestock NTS NG NI is returned to the soil in the form of HT PLA LIG dung and urine. E SOM NITROUS OXIDE Animals excretion results in the 10 kg/ha following average annual quantity of RELEASED PER IN YEAR EQUIVELENT nitrous oxide IA ER TO 3.2 t OF CO2 dairy cow: 2.5 kg deer 0.6kg CT beef cattle: 1.6 kg sheep: 0.3 kg BA GENERATES 23% BY OF FARM NITROUS Each year, 5-10% of nitrogen applied to N OXIDE EMISSIONS soils leaches in the form of nitrate. Up IO NITROGEN AT to 20% can be lost to the atmosphere R ISE FERTIL FIX as ammonia gas. GENERATES 77% OF FARM NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FERTILISER FERTILISER DENITRIFICATION ORGANIC PLANT CONSUMPTION MATTER MINE LE R AC ALI HIN ZA G TI ON PLANTS PL AN T CON AMMONIUM SUMPTION NITRATE ON TI I CA NIT RIF RIFIC ATION NIT NG NITRITE HI AC LEA LE CHI NG FIXATION NITRIFICATION LEACHING Where nitrogen gas is converted to Where ammonium in the soil is converted Ammonium is attached to clay particles ammonium by some plants and high-energy into nitrite and then nitrate. whereas nitrate is not. Therefore nitrate natural events such as lightning and leaches readily. forest fires. DENITRIFICATION The conversion of nitrate into nitrogen or MINERALISATION nitrous oxide gas. When the decomposition of organic matter converts nitrogen to ammonium.
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