CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN THE ATMOSPHERE by steepslope9876

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									                   CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN THE ATMOSPHERE




     Gross                                        0.2 t/ha OF                                             PASTURE AND
New Zealand GHG                                CARBON BURPED                                              PLANTS TAKE
 emissions 2007                                  AS METHANE,                                                20 t/ha OF
  75.6 MT CO2                                   EQUIVALENT TO                                            CARBON AS CO2
   equivalent                                     5.7 t OF CO2                                              FROM THE
                                                                                                          ATMOSPHERE,
                                                                                                           EACH YEAR
                                                  2.7 t/ha OF                 10 t/ha OF
                                                   CARBON                      CARBON
                                                 RETURNED AS               RETURNED AS CO2
                                                 CO2 THROUGH               THROUGH PLANT
                                                   BREATH                    RESPIRATION

                                                                                                           10 t/ha OF
                                                0.5 tonne of CO2 is                                        CARBON IS
                                                retained in the                                           RETAINED IN
                                                milk and meat                                            PASTURE AND
                                                of cows                                                     PLANTS


                     5 t/ha OF CARBON
                     RELEASED IN THE                                              1.6 t/ha OF
                     DECAY OF PLANT                                                CARBON
                         ROOTS AND                                               EXPELLED IN
                                                                                         .




                           LITTER                                                   WASTE




                                                5 t/ha OF CO2 IN
 CARBON STORED                                      PASTURE
 IN FOSSIL FUELS                                CONSUMED BY
                                                    ANIMALS


                                               CARBON IN SOILS

                                                                             DID YOU KNOW?
DID YOU KNOW?
                                                                                 New Zealand soils store 100-300 tonnes of
  Methane has a global                                                           carbon per hectare. Some soils are losing
  warming potential 21x that                                                     carbon while other soils are gaining it.
  of CO2 making it a more           DID YOU KNOW?
  damaging greenhouse gas.
  Almost half of New Zealand’s          Prices of carbon refer to its carbon                     KEY
  GHG emissions come from               dioxide equivalent – which is 3.7x the                   GHG    - GREENHOUSE GASES
  agriculture.                          figures given in this diagram.                           t      - TONNE
                                                                                                 MT     - MILLION TONNE
                                                                                                 t/ha   - TONNE PER HECTARE
                                                                                                              NITROGEN GAS (N2)
                                                                                                             IN THE ATMOSPHERE
                           Nitrous Oxide has a
                        global warming potential




                                                                                                       ION
FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS




                        310x that of CO2 making                                                                                                                          DID YOU KNOW?




                                                                                                    AT
                           it a more damaging




                                                                                                   FIX
                             greenhouse gas.                                                                                                  70% of nitrogen consumed by livestock




                                                                                                            NTS
                                                                                              NG
                                                                                              NI                                              is returned to the soil in the form of
                                                                                           HT




                                                                                                         PLA
                                                                                       LIG                                                    dung and urine.




                                                                                                           E
                                                                                                       SOM
                          NITROUS OXIDE                                                                                                       Animals excretion results in the
                             10 kg/ha                                                                                                         following average annual quantity of
                          RELEASED PER




                                                                                                    IN
                         YEAR EQUIVELENT
                                                                                                                                              nitrous oxide




                                                                                                   IA
                                                                                                ER
                          TO 3.2 t OF CO2                                                                                                        dairy cow: 2.5 kg      deer 0.6kg



                                                                                              CT
                                                                                                                                                 beef cattle: 1.6 kg    sheep: 0.3 kg

                                                                                              BA
                                                                                                          GENERATES 23%
                                                                                         BY              OF FARM NITROUS                      Each year, 5-10% of nitrogen applied to
                                                                                          N
                                                                                                         OXIDE EMISSIONS                      soils leaches in the form of nitrate. Up
                                                                                        IO

                              NITROGEN
                                                                                     AT


                                                                                                                                              to 20% can be lost to the atmosphere
                                                                                                                                R       ISE
                                                                                                                                 FERTIL
                                                                                  FIX




                                                                                                                                              as ammonia gas.
                                                                                             GENERATES 77%
                                                                                            OF FARM NITROUS
                                                                                            OXIDE EMISSIONS

                                                                                                                         FERTILISER
                                                                                                                   FERTILISER
                                  DENITRIFICATION




                                                                                            ORGANIC
                                                    PLANT CONSUMPTION




                                                                                            MATTER
                                                                                                               MINE                      LE
                                                                                                                    R                      AC
                                                                                                                         ALI                 HIN
                                                                                                                             ZA                    G
                                                                                                                               TI
                                                                                                                                      ON




                                                                                              PLANTS
                                                                         PL
                                                                           AN
                                                                              T   CON                                                 AMMONIUM
                                                                                     SUMPTION
                                                               NITRATE
                                                                                                                                     ON




                                                                                                                              TI
                                                                                                                          I CA
                                                                         NIT                                           RIF
                                                                            RIFIC
                                                                                    ATION                          NIT                                              NG
                                                                                               NITRITE                                                           HI
                                                                                                                                                            AC
                                                                          LEA                                                                          LE
                                                                             CHI
                                                                                NG




               FIXATION                                                     NITRIFICATION                                               LEACHING
               Where nitrogen gas is converted to                           Where ammonium in the soil is converted                     Ammonium is attached to clay particles
               ammonium by some plants and high-energy                      into nitrite and then nitrate.                              whereas nitrate is not. Therefore nitrate
               natural events such as lightning and                                                                                     leaches readily.
               forest fires.                                                DENITRIFICATION
                                                                            The conversion of nitrate into nitrogen or
               MINERALISATION                                               nitrous oxide gas.
               When the decomposition of organic matter
               converts nitrogen to ammonium.

								
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