abrasion peeling, 96 absolute humidity, 313 absorption, 198 carbon

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abrasion peeling, 96 absolute humidity, 313 absorption, 198 carbon Powered By Docstoc
					Index




abrasion peeling, 96                           alkaline phosphatase – milk, 242
absolute humidity, 313                         alkylcyclobutanones – irradiated foods, 207
absorption, 198                                aluminium cans, 476
   carbon dioxide – gas packing, 411           aluminium foil, 134, 467, 477, 516, 519
   cooking oils, 358, 362                      ambient-temperature processing, 81
   ethylene – fruit ripening, 415              ammonia – refrigerant, 397, 429
   latent heat – phase transition, 9           amylase, 182, 188
   moisture, 46                                anchor and gate agitator, 131
   radiant energy, 381                         annealing, 478
   UV energy, 222                              anthocyanins, 273, 337, 434
absorptivity, 381                              apparent viscosity – fluids, 14
accelerated freeze drying, 370, 447            apples, 95, 104, 239, 274, 389, 406
acetic acid, 177, 182                          applications of enzymes in food processing,
acoustic drying., 225                                   187
active packaging, 413, 497                     aromas produced by baking, 349
additives in foods, 555                        aseptic processing, 4, 264, 268, 374, 378
adiabatic cooling of air, 313                  aspiration – sorting, 94
adsorption                                     atomisers – spray drying, 330
   immobilised enzymes, 187                    attrition force – size reduction, 99
   ion exchange, 160                           automated guided vehicles, 544
aerosol cans, 477, 516                         automatic control, 64, 96, 295, 323, 368
agglomeration – powders, 100, 296, 328, 336,   automation, 2, 64, 531
        456
agitators – mixing, 130                        bacon, 357, 372, 410
aims of the food industry, 1                   bag-in-box, 87, 483, 486, 496, 524
air, 26, 115, 234, 313, 407                    baked beans, 92, 252
   as a drying medium, 314                     baking, 341, 370, 372, 382, 552
   as a freezing medium, 426                   ball drier, 334
   classifiers, 85                             ball mills, 105
   conveying, 535                              band sealer, 521
   fluidised beds, 327                         bar codes, 499
   knives, 459                                 barrier properties – packaging, 46, 413, 463,
air knives, 456, 458                                   481, 497
alcoholic and mixed alcohol-acid               basket centrifuges, 146
        fermentations, 179                     batch culture – fermentation, 171
algorithms – computer control, 72              battered foods, 355
564   Index

batters, 118                                         supercritical extraction, 154
   cakes, 12, 15, 115, 342                           toxicity, 399
   coating materials, 456                         carborundum, 96
beer, 73, 141, 157, 181, 242, 474                 carotene, 108, 204, 248, 337, 373, 435
Beer–Lambert law, 466                             cartons, 267, 490, 512, 519
belt conveyors, 535                               case hardening, 335, 371
Bernoulli’s equation, 22                          casein micelles, 178
BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) monolayer,           cassava, 178
        46                                        catalase, 234
bin driers, 323                                   caustic peeling, 96
Bingham or Casson plastic fluids, 13              cavitation, 112, 113, 224, 330
biological oxidation demand (BOD), 85, 505        cellulase, 191
Biot number, 35                                   cellulose, 183, 470, 482, 484, 490, 519
biscuits, 132, 343, 372, 456, 467, 506            centralised control systems, 74
blackcurrants, 85                                 centrifugal
blanchers, 235, 274                                  atomiser – spray drying, 330
blanching, 58, 233, 252, 317, 337, 370, 372,         clarification, 142
        378                                          clarifiers, 145
blast freezers, 426                                  filtration, 149
blending, 73, 118, 129                               fluidised bed drier, 328
blow moulding – packaging, 489                       force, 91, 103, 128, 141, 290, 329
boards – packaging, 493                              pumps, 538
boiling pans, 244                                 centrifugation, 141, 450, 542
boiling point, 22, 279, 280                       centrifuges, 142, 145
Bond’s law size reduction, 101                    cereals, 92, 178, 295, 332, 486, 493
boundary films, 23, 245, 261, 280, 283, 313,      CFCs, 397
        342, 356, 398, 423, 426                   chain conveyor, 347
bowl centrifuge, 144                              changes during frozen storage of foods, 434
bowl chopper, 105, 132                            checkweighers, 527
bread, 108, 132, 179, 185, 224, 342, 348, 412,    cheese, 14, 140, 179, 415, 484, 489, 553
        418, 482, 492                             chemical oxidation demand (COD), 85, 541
   moulding equipment, 134                        chest freezers, 425
breadcrumbs, 456                                  chill storage, temperature monitoring, 388,
breaded foods, 355                                         398
breading equipment, 459                           chilled foods, 387, 402, 493
breakfast cereal, 154, 300, 305, 311, 351, 352,   chilling, 387, 406
        372                                       chilling injury – fruits, 387
broken heating curve – canning, 253, 257          chlorophyll, 239, 273, 337, 434, 552
bromelain, 191                                    chocolate, 13, 38, 123, 132, 182, 307, 370,
bucket elevators, 538                                      455, 460, 489, 519
bulk density, 11, 335                             chopping, 98
butter, 114, 132, 178, 192, 370, 491              cider, 149
                                                  citrus fruits, 96, 154, 191
cabbage, 178, 407                                 classifiers, 85
caesium – irradiation, 199                        cleaning
cake, 16, 110, 115, 132, 191, 224, 351, 411,         equipment, 15, 71, 210, 396, 533
        427, 456                                     foods, 83, 233, 540
calandria, 285                                       in-place (CIP), 64, 165, 269, 538
calcium chloride – blanching, 239                 climacteric ripening – fruits, 389
can manufacture, 475                              climbing film evaporator, 288
canning, 30, 233, 250, 262, 374, 553              Clostridium botulinum, 201, 251, 411, 433
carbon dioxide, 154, 174, 179                     closures – packaging, 477, 513
  cryogenic grinding, 100                         coated films – packaging, 484
  dry ice, 399                                    coating
  latent heat – cryogenic chilling, 399              foods, 128, 328, 432, 455
  MAP, 407                                           membranes, 164
  product of fermentation, 174                       polymer films, 483, 484, 492
  refrigerant, 430                                   tinplate, 475
                                                                                    Index 565

cobalt – irradiation source, 199                     can seam formation, 514
cocoa, 182, 185, 382                                 checkweighing, 527
cocoa butter, 456                                    closures, 513
coextruded films – packaging, 413, 485               filling and sealing, 511
coffee, 86, 141, 157, 182, 311, 411, 441, 470,       flexible films, 481, 519
        535                                          for heat processing, 252, 262
cold extrusion, 295, 305                             for pie manufacture, 134
cold shortening – meats, 389                         glass, 478, 511
cold stores, 399, 408, 425, 436                      interactions with foods, 501
collapse temperature – freeze drying, 444            intermediate bulk (IBCs), 463
collation sorting, 94                                labelling, 526
colloid mills, 106, 112                              lids for glass and plastic containers, 514
colloidal food systems, 16                           marketing considerations, 462
colour, 50                                           mechanical strength, 472
  changes in foods due to                            metal, 474, 511
     baking, 349                                     paper and board, 490, 519
     blanching, 239                                  printing, 498
     canning, 273                                    retail, 462, 466
     dehydration, 337                                rigid plastic, 487, 511, 516
     evaporation, 291                                shipping, 462, 463, 532
     extrusion, 296                                  textile, 474
     fermentation, 185                               wooden, 474
     freezing, 436                                contaminants in foods, 83, 527
     frying, 359, 361, 362                        continuous culture, 173
     homogenisation, 115                          continuous phase – emulsions, 14, 110,
     pasteurisation, 248                                   115
  printing, 498                                   continuous phase – mixing, 118
  sensors, 69                                     controlled atmosphere storage, 406
  sorting, 86, 92                                 controllers – automation, 70, 532
colourants used in glass, 479                     convection – heat transfer, 26, 29, 233, 259,
coloured indicators – frozen foods, 437                    331, 342, 357, 366
combi-bins, 463, 506                              conversion factors, 563
combined packaging systems, 496                   conveyor drier, 325
commercial sterility, 42, 251                     conveyors, 534
compound coatings, 455                            cook-chill systems, 395
compression force – size reduction, 99            cooked meats, 410
computer control, 64, 72, 103, 179, 264, 276,     cooking oil, 356
        286, 323, 359, 544                        corn syrup, 190, 305, 457
concentration, 157, 172, 278, 397, 418, 441,      corrosion
        449                                          containers, 243, 261, 475
concentric tube heat exchangers, 248, 269            evaporators, 283
condensers                                           heat sterilisers, 263
  freeze drying, 444, 446                            ohmic heaters, 378
  mechanical refrigerators, 396                   corrugated board, 463, 493
  supercritical extraction, 155                   cost of energy, 37
conduction – heat transfer, 27, 233, 252, 331,    counter-current
        342, 357, 366, 446                           blanchers, 238
confectionery, 70, 103, 118, 132, 154, 188,          drying, 326
        295, 304, 415, 455, 482, 493, 512, 519,      extraction, 156
        541                                          flow through heat exchangers, 33, 244,
confectionery moulders, 138                                270
constant rate period – dehydration, 317           cream, 13, 21, 114, 145, 178, 517
contact driers, 333                               crispbread, 132, 305, 343, 372
containers                                        critical
  aerosol, 477                                       angle – drum screens, 91
  aluminium foil, 478                                collapse temperature – freeze drying,
  bag-in-box, 496                                          444
  bar codes, 499                                     control points, 55
566   Index

current density – ohmic heating, 377        dextrose equivalent, 190
  moisture content                          dicing and flaking equipment, 105
     dehydration, 315                       dielectric
     packaging, 470                            constant, 366
  point – near-critical fluid, 154             heating, 37, 366
  pressure – carbon dioxide, 154               properties of foods, 367
  speed – tumbling mixers, 128              diffusion, 18, 153, 162, 316
  temperature – carbon dioxide, 154         dilatant foods, 13, 123
  zone                                      direct heating methods, 37
     chilling, 396                          direct heating ovens, 344
     freezing, 420                          disc bowl centrifuge, 144
cryogenic                                   disc mills, 106, 113
  chilling, 399                             disc sorter, 89
  freezers, 430                             disinfection, 222
  grinding, 100, 400                        disinfestation using irradiation, 203
cryogens – latent heat, 399                 dispersed phase
crystallisation                                emulsions, 14, 110, 115
  cocoa butter, 456                            mixing, 118
  ice, 419, 435, 449                        distributed control systems, 75
  polysaccharides, 339                      distribution chain, 545
  sugars, 118, 190                          dose distribution – irradiation, 200
cucumber, 89, 103, 108, 177                 dosimeters, 200
cullet, 478, 507                            double seam – canning, 515
cyclone separator, 329, 330                 dough, 14, 95, 118, 132, 179, 191, 306, 349,
                                                     493
D values                                    drip losses, 50, 349, 371, 411, 432, 438
  enzymes, 242                              drum
  food pigments, 239                           blancher, 236
  micro-organisms, 42, 229, 254                coaters, 459
  pathogens, 201                               driers, 323, 331
  pigments, 43                                 filters, 150
  vitamins, 241                                screens – sorting, 90
dairy products                                 washers, 85
  concentration, 158                        drums – packaging, 463, 472, 493, 532
  evaporation, 287, 289                     dry bulb temperature, 318
  fermentation, 177                         drying, 311, 371
  high pressure processing, 222                characteristics of driers, 324
  membrane concentration, 159                  curves, 315
  packaging, 489                               novel drying techniques, 334
  pasteurisation, 248                          using heated air, 313
  UHT processing, 265, 272                     using heated surfaces, 321
dealcoholised wine, 161                     dynamic viscosity – fluids, 14
death rate curve, 40
decimal reduction time, 40                  economics
dedicated control systems, 74                  evaporation, 284
deep fat frying, 357                           freeze drying, 446
defrosting, 367, 371                        edible coatings for foods, 486
dehydration, 233, 311, 370, 432             edible protective superficial layers, 415
density of foods, 10, 94, 119, 141          effect of
depositors – confectionery, 138, 139           aw on foods, 47
desludging or dewatering centrifuges, 145      heat on
desorption                                        micro-organisms, 40
  moisture, 46                                    nutritional and sensory characteristics, 43
  unfrozen water, 443                          processing on nutritional properties of
detection of irradiated foods, 205                  foods, 50
detection thresholds – odours, 49              processing on the sensory properties of
detergents, 15, 84, 111                             foods, 48
dew point, 313, 414                         effluents, 65, 159, 234, 540
                                                                               Index 567

egg sorter, 94                                enrobing, 455, 457
eggs, 93, 95, 472, 489, 519                   enthalpy, 399, 430
elastic stress limit– size reduction, 99      enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA)
electric fields – processing, 211                     – irradiated foods, 207
electrical conductivity of foods, 375         enzyme production by micro-organisms, 186
electrical resistance – ohmic heating, 374    enzymic browning, 248, 402, 413
electrodialysis, 160                          equilibrium moisture content, 46, 315, 317,
electromagnetic radiation, 380                        470
electromagnetic spectrum, 223                 equilibrium relative humidity, 46, 467
electron accelerators, 199                    essential oils, 153, 291
electron spin resonance – irradiated foods,   ethanol, 172, 412, 497
         206                                  ethylene vinyl acetate, 483
electronic data interchange (EDI), 64, 546    eutectic plate chillers, 398
elevators, 534, 538                           eutectic temperatures, 421
emissivity, 381                               evaporation, 278, 284
emulsification, 99, 110, 553                  exhausting of containers – canning, 261
emulsions, 13, 15, 110, 116, 224, 308, 372    expellers – oil extraction, 152
encrusting discs – forming, 135               expression – of food components, 150
energy                                        extruders
   audit, 39                                     changes in extrusion cooking, 301
   balances, 22, 27                              operating characteristics, 298
   conservation, 38, 65, 93, 235, 272, 284,      single screw, 299
         305, 323, 348, 359, 525                 twin screw, 301
   consumption in food processing, 38         extrusion
   infrared, 366, 380                            cereal products, 305
   inputs for pumping, 25                        cold extrusion, 305
   losses in fluid flow, 22                      confectionery products, 305
   management, 284, 359                          cooking, 305
   microwave, 368                                foods, 132, 294
   radiant, 381                                  packaging, 481, 486
   radio frequency, 366                          protein based foods, 306
   sources in food processing, 37             extrusion cooking, 295, 300
   transfer in heating, 26
   ultrasonic, 330                            F value – heat sterilisation, 254, 256
   use in                                     F0 value, 254
      baking, 343                             falling film evaporator, 286
      blanching, 234                          falling rate period – dehydration, 315, 317
      drying, 323                             fat-holding capacity
      emulsification, 15, 110                    meat proteins, 114
      evaporation, 284                        feedback control, 71, 527
      extrusion, 300                          feed-forward control, 71
      fermentation, 196                       fermentation, 171
      food distribution, 505                  fermented
      freeze concentration, 450                  cereal products, 178
      freezing, 419, 441                         meat and fish products, 177
      frying, 359                                milk products, 176
      glass making, 487                          root crops, 178
      heat sterilisation, 262                    vegetable products, 177
      high pressure processing, 211           fh/u and g tables – canning, 256
      irradiation, 199                        fibreboard, 467, 493
      milling, 100                            ficin, 191
      mixing, 125                             filling and sealing of containers, 511
      ohmic heating, 374                      films
      packaging manufacture, 504                 boundary – fluid flow, 24, 245, 280, 342,
      pasteurisation, 248                              398
      pulsed light processing, 223               flexible – packaging, 413, 481, 519
      size reduction, 100                     filter cake, 146
      tempering, 370                          filtration, 146, 157, 160, 166, 450, 542
568   Index

fish, 418                                       freezing, 115, 233, 418, 449
   chill storage, 387                              comparison of methods, 426
   cleaning, 83                                    ice crystal formation, 420
   coated products, 455                            plateau, 420
   drip losses in MAP, 411                         point, 419, 444, 449
   effect of frying, 362                        friability, 100
   extrusion of fish products, 306              friction loss – fluid flow, 22
   fermentation, 177                            fried foods, 355
   high pressure processing, 222                Froude number– fluid flow, 123
   modified atmosphere packaging, 410           frozen storage, 418, 432, 433
   tempering, 370                               frozen storage life – indicators, 437
flame peeling, 96                               fruit
flat bed screen, 89                                chilling injury – fruits, 389
flavour, 49                                        cleaning, 84
   applicators, 459                                climacteric ripening, 388
   changes in foods due to                         effect of canning, 273
      added enzymes, 192                           effect of dehydration, 335
      canning, 273                                 effect of feezing, 432
      chilling, 402                                high pressure processing, 218
      dehydration, 336, 337                        inspection, 77
      evaporation, 290                             juice extraction, 105
      extrusion, 308                               modified atmosphere storage, 407
      fermentations, 177, 183                      peeling, 95
      freezing, 432                                ripening, 203
      frying, 357, 361                             size reduction, 102
      homogenisation, 115                          sorting, 91
      modified atmospheres, 408                 fruit juices, 13, 141, 150, 157, 170, 190, 211,
      pasteurisation, 242                                219, 242, 248, 287, 373, 441, 490
      size reduction, 108                       frying, 355, 356, 372
   coatings, 456                                   effect of heat on oil, 361
flavour compounds – supercritical extraction,      effect on foods, 362
         154                                    fuels, 37
flavour enhancers, 192                          functions of packaging, 462
flavour recovery, 292                           fungi, 43, 47, 191, 202, 251, 408
flexible films, 470, 481
flour, 1, 13, 38, 89, 95, 99, 105, 297, 311,    gamma rays, 199
         350, 382, 474, 491, 535, 552           gelatin, 16, 46, 114, 140, 191, 274, 349
fluid flow, 21                                  General Foods Texturometer, 16
   through pipes, 31                            glass, 478, 506
fluidisation, 327, 427                            dosimeters – irradiation, 200
fluidised                                         enzyme immobilisation onto, 187
   bed drier, 327                                 glassy state of foods, 297, 422, 443
   bed freezers, 427                              membranes, 164
   beds, 26, 323, 327, 328, 330, 336, 427         ohmic heaters, 379
flux – membrane concentration, 162, 166           packaging, 86, 478, 513
foam mat drier, 325                               polishing pans – food coating, 460
foams, 16                                         thermal shock – packaging, 262
forced circulation evaporators, 288               transition state, 9, 297
foreign body inspection, 77                     glucose syrup, 170, 190, 460
form-fill-seal equipment, 413, 521              good manufacturing practice, 52, 203, 392,
forming, 118, 133, 134, 294                             540
fouling, 158, 162, 166, 283, 374                grading, 83, 95, 532
Fourdrinier wire, 491                           grain, 86, 316, 372, 382, 407, 474, 535, 552
Fourier number, 35                              grapes, 414, 463
free radicals, 48, 198, 215, 226                Grashof number, 31
freeze concentration, 449
freeze drying, 372, 441                         HACCP, 53, 55, 412, 527, 540
freezer burn, 427, 436, 467                     half-life – irradiation source, 198, 199
                                                                                    Index 569

hammer mills, 106                                   due to carbon dioxide, 430
hard coatings for foods, 460                        due to poor handling or stacking, 544
headspace – containers, 263, 415, 494, 513          from microwaves, 369
heat balance, 27, 280                            instantised powders, 335
heat exchangers, 25, 38, 238, 244, 264, 287,     integrated control systems, 75
        432, 457                                 intermediate bulk containers (IBCs), 463, 472
heat penetration into containers, 252            inventory, 542
heat recovery                                    irradiation, 196, 471
  frying equipment, 359                             applications, 196
  ovens, 347                                        detection of irradiated foods, 205
  plate heat exchanger, 245                         effect on packaging, 205
heat resistance                                     equipment, 199
  of enzymes, 234                                   ionisation of water, 198
  of micro-organisms, 40, 42, 43, 250            isotherms, 46, 467, 470
heat sterilisation, 250, 373, 471
heat transfer, 26                                Kick’s law – size reduction, 100
heat transfer coefficients, 30, 288, 342, 358,   kiln drier, 329
        379, 426                                 kinematic viscosity – fluids, 14
heating curve, 253                               knife peeling, 96
high intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF)
        processing, 211                          lacquers for cans, 475
high pressure processing, 216                    lactic acid bacteria, 57, 175, 182, 411
HLB value – emulsifying agents, 110              LAL/GNB test – irradiated foods, 207
holding time – UHT processing, 267               laminated films, 478, 484
homogenisation, 99, 378                          latent heat, 9
homogenisers, 15, 110, 112                          cryogenic freezing, 399, 430
hot water blanchers, 236                            crystallisation of fats, 457
HTST                                                crystallisation of ice, 419
  extrusion cooking, 295, 305                       energy removed in freezing, 419
  pasteurisation, 242                               evaporation – mechanical refrigeration, 396
humidity, 313, 388, 400, 408, 426, 492, 544         freeze drying, 443
hurdle concept, 47, 57, 210                         from condensing steam
hydrocooling, 398                                      canning, 261
hydrocutter, 104                                       evaporation, 279
hydrogen peroxide, 267, 414, 512, 522               moisture evaporation
hydroshear homogeniser, 113                            dehydration, 313
hydrostatic head, 21, 283                              radio frequency, 368
hydrostatic steriliser, 263                      leaching, 154, 235
hyperfiltration, 157                             lethal rate – heat sterilisation, 258
hysteresis loop – water sorption isotherm, 46    lethality – heat sterilisation, 258
                                                 light
ice, 61, 218, 339, 355, 367, 370, 415, 418,         colour sorting, 86, 92, 95
        442                                         processing using pulsed, 210, 222
ice cream, 12, 16, 76, 99, 110, 113, 190, 264,      thermoluminescence, 206
        429                                         transmission – packaging, 466
ice crystal formation, 420                          ultraviolet, 222, 267
ideal gas equation, 12                           limoninase, 192
image processing, 87, 92                         lipase, 179, 265
immersion freezers, 427                          liquid egg, 157, 208, 211, 244, 264
immobilised enzymes, 188, 414                    liquid nitrogen
impact force – size reduction, 99                   cryogenic chilling, 399
impeller agitators, 129                             cryogenic grinding, 100
indirect heating methods, 38                        freezing, 425
individual quick blanching (IQB), 44, 235           refrigerant, 430
individually quick freezing (IQF), 427           liquid-liquid centrifuges, 144
infrared energy, 380                             liquids mixing, 122
inhibition of sprouting – irradiation, 203       Listeria monocytogenes, 177, 224, 411
injury                                           logarithmic order of death, 40
570   Index

loss factor – radio frequency heating, 366,        chilling, 392
        370, 447                                   freezing, 433
low-fat spreads, 114                               heat on, 40
lye peeling, 96                                    heat sterilisation, 251
                                                   high pressure processing, 217, 221
magnetic                                           irradiation, 198, 200
  detectors, 527                                   modified atmospheres, 411
  elevators, 538                                   pasteurisation, 241
  fields – processing, 226                         pulsed electric fields, 211
  separators, 86                                   pulsed light processing, 223
magnetron, microwave oven, 369                     ultrasound, 224
Maillard browning, 46, 50, 273, 291, 297,       effective cleaning of equipment, 534
        338, 349                                enzyme production, 186
maize, 92, 110, 178, 306                        fermentations, 170
maltodextrins, 190                              heat resistance, 250
mano-thermo-sonication, 225                     heterofermentative, 174
margarine, 16, 110, 114, 132, 398, 484          homofermentative, 174
marmalade, 291                                  hurdle effect, 57
mass balances, 18, 279                          lethality, 258
mass fraction, 20, 87                           packaging, 471
mass transfer, 18, 153, 279, 317, 342, 356,     TDT curve, 43
        420, 443, 470                           temperature sensitivity, 392
material requirement planning systems, 546      z-value, 42
materials handling, 329, 530, 531             microprocessor control, 69, 86, 92, 132, 139,
mayonnaise, 99, 110, 168, 248, 402, 490               328, 343, 347, 400, 413, 527
meat                                          microprocessors, 64, 408, 431, 446
  chill storage, 387                          microwave ovens, 478
  chilling, 399                               microwave susceptor films, 497
  coating with breadcrumbs, 456               microwaves, 69, 218, 367, 443
  cold shortening, 389                        milk, 21, 99, 110
  effect of                                     evaporation, 288
     canning, 273, 274                          fermentations, 178
     roasting, 349                              fractionation of proteins by ultrafiltration,
  emulsions, 114                                      160
  extrusion of meat products, 306               high pressure processing, 216
  fermentations, 177                            homogenisation, 114
  formulation of meat products, 73              packaging, 490, 496
  frozen, 418                                   pasteurisation, 241
  grading, 95                                   powder, 335
  high pressure processing, 222                 separation of components, 141
  lacquers for canned meats, 475                spray drying, 330
  modified atmosphere packaging, 410            UHT processing, 265
  processing by ultrasound, 225                 ultrafiltration, 159
  pulsed light processing, 224                milk chocolate, 457
  rigor mortis, 389                           milling, 99, 100, 108
  size reduction, 102, 103                    mimic panel – automation, 74
  tempering, 370                              minerals in foods, 552
mechanical refrigerators, 396                 minimal processing methods, 210
membrane concentration, 157                   mixers, 25, 29, 112, 120, 127
mesophilic bacteria, 392                        for dry powders and particulate solids, 127
metal cans, 474                                 for high-viscosity liquids and pastes, 131
metal detectors, 86, 527                        for low- or medium-viscosity liquids, 129
metallised films, 484                           motionless, 132
microfiltration, 160                            powder-liquid contacting devices, 129
micro-organisms                               mixing, 25, 105, 118, 532
  decimal reduction time, 42                    efficiency, 132
  effect of                                     indices, 119
     blanching, 234                             multistage, 127
                                                                                    Index 571

modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), 406,         packaging, 205, 462, 511
        409                                          coated films, 484
 gas mixtures, 412                                   coextruded films, 485
 packaging materials, 413                            collapsible tubes, 478, 516
modified-atmosphere storage (MAS), 407               costs, 503
modified atmospheres, 12, 203, 210, 409, 497         edible and biodegradable films, 486
Mogden formula – effluent treatment, 541             effect of ionising radiation, 205
moisture                                             environmental considerations, 502
 content                                             flexible films, 481
     effect of dehydration, 315                      glass, 478
     effect on extrusion, 297                        interactions between packaging materials
     effect on oil extraction, 150                         and foods, 501
 content and loss factor – radio frequency, 366      labelling, 526
 content and water activity of foods, 44             laminated films, 484
 content of foods – wet/dry weight basis, 44         light transmission, 466
 diffusion, 18                                       MAP systems, 523
 effect on size reduction of foods, 100              mechanical strength, 472
 loss during freezing, 436                           moulded paperpulp containers, 495
 loss or uptake – packaging, 467                     moulding and blow-moulding, 489
 movement during baking, 342                         oxygen permeability, 470
 movement during frying, 356                         paper and board, 490
 pickup – stored ingredients, 544                    printing, 498
 vapour permeability – packaging, 413                properties of films, 468
Monod’s equation, 172                                rigid and semi-rigid plastic containers, 487
motionless mixers, 132                               single films, 481
moulders, 134                                        sterilisation by pulsed light, 222
 bread, 134                                          tamper evident, 525
 confectionery, 138                                  tensile strength, 472
moulding, 133, 490                                   thermoforming, 489
multi-deck oven, 345                                 types of sealer, 519
multiple effect – evaporation, 284                   vapour and gas permeability, 467
mushrooms, 203, 262, 432, 441                     pan coating of foods, 459
                                                  papain, 140, 192
natural convection, 29, 252, 344, 398             paper, 467, 491
neural networks, 77                               paperboard, 492
Newtonian fluids, 13, 119                         pasta, 154, 295, 300, 371
non-Newtonian fluids, 13, 299                     paste mill, 113
non-volatile decomposition products – frying,     pasteurisation, 44, 50, 113, 170, 217, 225,
        361                                                241, 370, 395
novel food processes, 211                         pathogenic bacteria – chilling, 392
nozzle atomiser, 330                              peanut butter, 113, 291, 484, 493
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 69, 87,         pears, 89, 262, 273, 406
        207                                       Pearson Square, 21
nucleation – ice crystal formation, 420           pectic enzymes, 182, 190
Nusselt number, 30                                peel oven, 345
                                                  peeling, 83, 95, 233, 540
ohmic heating, 211, 365, 373, 471                 permeate – membrane concentration, 161
oil extraction, 150, 152                          peroxidase, 51, 234, 553
oils, 51, 140, 150, 361, 489, 517, 541, 553       pervaporation, 161
onions, 96, 200, 203, 233                         phase diagram, 9
orange juice, 168, 192, 217, 427                  photodynamic systems – processing, 226
osmotic pressure, 153, 157, 162, 311              photothermal destruction of micro-organisms,
ovens, 37, 343                                             223
overall heat transfer coefficient (OHTC), 33      pickles, 178, 185, 241
overrun, 12, 115, 429                             pie manufacture, 136
oxygen, 407, 471, 489                             pigments, 50, 81, 115, 273, 308, 434
oxygen scavengers, 413                            piston filler, 512
oxymyoglobin, 273, 410                            planetary mixers, 123, 132
572   Index

Plank’s equation – freezing, 423               radiation, 198
plate                                             dose, 199
   and-frame filter press, 149                    electromagnetic, 380
   and-frame membrane systems, 166                heat transfer, 26, 342, 366, 381
   evaporators, 288                               ionising, 50, 196
   freezers, 429                                  microwaves, 369
   heat exchangers, 218, 244, 268, 272, 288,   radicidation, 202
        379, 457                               radio frequency heating, 368
pneumatic                                      radiolytic products – irradiation, 204
   conveyors, 535                              radurisation, 202
   drying, 323, 329                            raw material preparation, 83
   valves, 540                                 ready-to-eat-products-for-extended-durability
polyamide                                               (REPFEDs), 395
   membrane material, 164                      recipe formulation, 19, 21, 304
   packaging material, 413, 486                recirculation
polyethylene, 413, 467, 481, 490, 517, 525        air, 323, 431
polyethylene terephthalate, 482                   evaporation, 287
polymorphic fat, 114, 456                         extraction, 156
polypropylene, 413, 472, 474, 482, 504, 517       milling, 108
polystyrene, 425, 463, 483, 517                   water, 238, 243
polysulphone membranes – reverse osmosis,      recrystallisation
        164                                       cocoa butter, 456
polyurethane, 164, 425, 467                       ice crystals, 435, 438
polyvinylidene chloride, 467, 483, 484         reduction ratio – size reduction, 101
porosity                                       reel oven, 347
   bulk density, 11                            reflectivity, 92, 273, 381, 467
   ultrafiltration membranes, 159              refrigerants, 396, 430
potatoes, 51, 89, 92, 96, 203, 239, 363, 373      properties, 398
powder-liquid contacting devices, 129, 130     refrigerated transport, 388
powders – bulk density, 335                    refrigeration cycle, 397
Power number – fluid flow, 123                 rehydration – dried foods, 335, 339
practical storage life (PSL) – frozen foods,   relative humidity, 46, 313
        436                                    relative vapour pressure, 44
Prandtl number, 30                             relays, 71
pressure filtration, 147                       rendering – fats, 372
pressure homogenisers, 112                     rennet, 140, 159, 192
printing – packaging materials, 498            respiration – fresh foods, 388, 406, 419, 486
printing inks, 470                             retail containers, 462, 466
process control, 53, 63, 75, 264, 304, 547     retorts, 219, 262
programmable logic controllers, 72, 77, 306,   reverse osmosis, 157
        532                                    Reynolds number – fluid flow, 24, 123, 283
propeller agitators, 129                       rheology, 16
properties of gases, liquids, solids, 9        rheopectic food, 13
proteases, 179, 185, 191, 265                  ribbon mixers, 128
pseudoplastic foods, 13, 123                   rigor mortis – meats, 389
psychrometrics, 312, 436                       ripening – fruits, 203, 388, 408, 413
psychrophilic bacteria, 392                    Rittinger’s law – size reduction, 101
puff drying, 328, 334                          roasting, 328, 341, 382
pulping equipment, 105                         rod mills, 105
pulsed electric field processing, 210          roller
pulsed light processing, 222                      bread moulders, 134
pumps and valves, 538                             Calender stack – packaging, 491
                                                  coating, 458
quality assurance, 2, 52, 252, 516, 527, 540      confectionery moulder, 139
quantitative descriptive analysis, 16             conveyor, 93, 535
                                                  corrugating – packaging, 493
radappertisation, 202                             drying, 323, 331
radiant heaters, 382, 447                         mills, 108, 132
                                                                                  Index 573

   peeler, 96                                    slicing, 98, 103, 108, 238, 432
   press, 105, 152                               slow freezing, 432, 442
   printing, 498                                 smoked foods, 345, 484
   sorter, 91                                    snackfoods, 1, 73, 92, 118, 295, 300, 356,
rotary                                                    467, 486
   band sealers – packaging, 521                 soft coatings for foods, 460
   drier, 329                                    software for process control, 75
   drum filter, 150                              solar drying, 330
   fillers, 512                                  solid-liquid extraction, 153
   fruit crusher, 105                            solids mixing, 119
   hearth oven, 345                              solutes, 153, 158, 279, 335, 418, 445
   heat steriliser, 263                          solvent extraction, 154
   knives – size reduction, 103                  sorption isotherm, 46, 467
   pumps, 538                                    sorting, 83
   screen – sorting, 89                          sources of heat, 37
   valves, 235                                   sous-vide products, 395
                                                 soy sauce, 182, 183, 185
safety of foods, 2, 52, 395, 411, 412            specific
safety of operators, 53, 154, 196, 226, 398,        electrical resistance, 375
        484                                         gravity, 10
Salmonella spp, 202, 433                            growth rate – micro-organisms, 171
saturated air – dew point, 313                      heat, 29
saturated steam, 234, 261                           rate of heat transfer, 241
saturated water vapour, 44, 315                     resistance
sauces, 113, 123, 168, 188, 217, 378, 402,             filter cake, 147
        489, 493, 517                                  ohmic heating, 376
sauerkraut, 178                                     viscosity – fluids, 14
sausage, 73, 105, 110, 114, 168, 177, 372,          volume, 12
        400, 418                                 spices, 3, 89, 98, 108, 154, 202, 307, 456
SCADA software – control systems, 76             spin-flash drier, 328
scraped surface heat exchangers, 399, 429        spiral freezers, 427, 428, 431
scraped-film evaporators, 289                    spiral wound membranes, 166
screw                                            spirits
   conveyor mixers, 132                             distillation, 229, 291
   conveyors, 145, 156, 400, 535                    packaging, 474, 480
   expellers – oil extraction, 152               spray drier, 329
   extruders, 294, 299                           stainless steel, 27
   mixers, 127, 129                              starter culture, 175
   presses, 105, 307                             static mixer, 133
   thread – packaging, 513                       steady-state heat transfer, 27
seaming machine – canning, 515                   steam
sensors, 65, 87, 401, 408, 532                      blanchers, 235
separation and concentration – food                 flow closing, 261
        components, 140                             infusion – UHT, 268
shallow frying, 357                                 injection
shape sorting, 89                                      bakery ovens, 351
shear rate, 13, 123, 298                               UHT, 37, 268, 271
shear stress, 13                                    peeling, 95
shearing forces, 100, 105, 110, 129, 131, 146,      properties of saturated steam, 261
        152                                      Stefan-Boltzmann equation, 381
shellfish, 202, 206                              Stoke’s Law, 111
shipping containers, 462, 472, 483, 493, 506,    storage life of frozen foods, 436
        532                                      storage – raw materials, ingredients and
shredding, 105, 132                                       products, 542
shrinkage – dehydration, 335                     storage temperatures for fresh fruits, 389
shrink-wrapping, 472, 483, 524                   storerooms, 543
size reduction, 98, 101, 105                     streamline (or laminar) flow – fluid flow, 24
size sorting, 89                                 stress-strain diagram for foods, 99
574    Index

stretch-wrapping, 472, 483, 524                          frying, 360
sublimation, 372, 399, 430, 442                       expansion – coefficient, 31
sugar, 70, 118, 138, 153, 160, 284, 305, 456,         history of cooking oil, 362
        544                                           lag factor – canning, 255
sugarless coatings, 460                               shock to containers, 243, 262, 480
sun drying, 330                                       shock to foods, 432
sunlight – wavelength distribution, 223               wheel, 39, 323
supercooling – freezing, 419, 420, 449             thermoluminescence – irradiated foods, 206
supercritical carbon dioxide, 154                  thermophilic bacteria, 263, 392
surface activity, 14                               thixotropic fluid, 13
surface heat transfer coefficient, 30, 252, 318,   throttling factor – extruders, 298
        356,                                       tinplate, 477, 504
surface tension, 15                                tomato ketchup, 13, 248, 490
surimi, 306                                        tomato puree, 264, 289, 478
swept surface heat exchangers, 244                 tomatoes, 13, 92, 103, 159, 203, 274, 463
                                                   torbed drier, 328, 459
tamper-evident packaging, 511, 525                 total quality management (TQM), 53, 392
tea, 1, 95, 146, 153, 311, 382, 474                transitional flow – fluid flow, 25
tempeh, 183                                        tray drier, 323
temperature monitoring – chill stores, 401         trough drier, 327
tempering                                          tubular heat exchangers, 268, 272, 379
   chilled foods, 368, 370                         tubular membranes, 165
   chocolate, 222, 456                             tumbling mixers, 128
   frozen foods, 370                               tunnel
textile containers, 474                               annealing – glass manufacture, 479
texture, 16, 49                                       blancher, 235, 243
   changes to foods due to                            cooker-cooler – heat sterilisation, 263
      baking, 348                                     cooling, 138, 459
      blanching, 239                                  drier, 325
      canning, 274                                    freezers, 426, 431
      dehydration, 335                                microwave drier, 372
      emulsification, 114                             microwave heater, 369
      extrusion, 297, 308                             oven, 347, 372
      fermentation, 170                               pasteuriser, 243
      freezing, 432                                   radiant heater, 382
      frying, 362                                     shrink-wrapping, 525
      high pressure processing, 222                turbulent flow, 24, 30, 129, 166, 267
      size reduction, 108                          Twintherm – UHT heat exchanger, 271
   dairy products, 178
   ice cream, 115                                  UHT processing, 265, 375, 494
   margarine, 114                                  ultrafiltration, 157, 159
texturised vegetable protein, 308                  ultrasonic
thawing, 368, 370, 438                                cleaning, 85
thermal                                               cutter, 102
   centre of containers, 253, 261                     drying, 330
   centre of foods, 357, 419                          energy, 113
   conductivity                                       heat sealer – packaging, 521
      of containers, 252, 262                         homogenisers, 112
      of foods, 27, 35, 95, 234, 252, 321, 342,       nozzle atomiser – spray drying, 330
         356, 371, 423                                processing (Ultrasonication), 224
      of gases, 408                                ultrasound, 69, 224
      of water and ice, 370, 438                   ultraviolet light, 86, 267
   death time (TDT) – micro-organisms, 42,         unfrozen water, 418, 422, 443
         254                                       unit loads – materials handling, 505, 531
   diffusivity, 29, 423, 438                       unmixing, 119
   efficiency                                      unsteady-state heat transfer, 27, 35, 233, 389,
      baking, 344                                           423
      evaporators, 331                             usage value – materials handling, 543
                                                                                      Index 575

vacuum                                             voidage – fluidised beds, 26
   band and shelf driers, 332, 382                 volatile decomposition products – frying, 361
   chamber – deaeration of juices, 244             vortex – formation in fluids, 122, 124, 129
   cooler, 398
   drying, 323                                     warmed-over flavour – chilled foods, 402
   evaporation, 282, 287                           wash column – freeze concentration, 450
   fillers, 512                                    washing equipment, 540
   filtration, 149, 450                            wastes and liquid effluents, 540
   flash coolers, 269, 291                         water absorption index (WAI) – extrusion, 297
   freeze drying, 441, 446                         water activity, 10, 44, 177, 278, 295, 311,
   gauge, 12                                               418, 434, 441, 467, 470
   headspace, 234, 261, 337, 471, 513, 526         water solubility characteristic – extrusion, 297
   packing, 198, 395, 406                          water vapour
   pervaporation, 161                                movement in
   puff freeze drying, 443                              baking, 342
   pumps, 12, 150, 261, 285, 442, 538                   chilling, 467
   seals – packaging, 515                               cold stores, 426
   skin packaging, 406, 409                             dehydration, 313
   thawing, 439                                         diffusion, 18, 46
   thermoforming – packaging, 489                       evaporation, 278
vaned disc impeller, 129                                freeze drying, 442
vapour pressure, 16, 44, 278, 313, 342, 356,            freezing, 432
         432                                            frying, 356
vapour recompression, 39, 284, 431                      permeability of packaging materials, 411,
variable-aperture screens, 91                              467, 483
vegetables                                         water-holding capacity
   blanching, 233                                    meat proteins, 114
   chilling, 400                                   wax coating – packaging, 492
   effect of                                       weighing, 532
      canning, 273                                 weight sorting, 93
      drying, 337                                  wet bulb temperature, 318
      freezing, 432                                wettability – powders, 336
   fermentation, 177                               wheat, 95, 100, 108, 552
   modified atmosphere storage, 413                wine, 141, 150, 181, 244, 441, 474, 553
   peeling, 95                                     wooden containers, 474
   size reduction, 102
   sorting, 92                                     X-rays
   storage temperatures and humidities, 389          irradiation, 196
vibratory conveyors, 535                             sorting, 86
video cameras – sorting, 92
vinegar, 182, 441, 489                             yeasts, 43, 47, 145, 179, 181, 182, 202, 217,
viscoelastic foods, 14, 123                                241, 433
viscosity, 13, 24, 111, 119, 359                   yield stress, 16
vision system – sorting, 77                        yoghurt, 13, 170, 178, 217, 270, 387, 489
vitamin C, 108, 204, 248, 291, 338, 351, 402,      Young’s modulus, 472
         434,
vitamins – effect of processing, 43, 50, 115,      Z blade mixer, 131
         185, 204, 238, 274, 308, 338, 350, 362,   z values
         434, 448                                     enzymes, 234
vitamins in foods, 549                                micro-organisms, 42, 251, 273