Women and Work in Towns in the Late by qingqinglxkc

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									             WOMEN & WORK IN TOWNS IN LATE MIDDLE AGES

I.   INTRODUCTION
     A.   GENERAL REMARKS
          1.   IT IS NOT EASY TO RECONSTRUCT LIFE OF WOMEN IN MA
          2.   TOO INFREQUENTLY MENTIONED IN SURVIVING SOURCES
          3.   PARENTS MENTORS
          4.   TEACHING THEM THEIR TRADE
          5.   OR HOW TO BE A WIFE TO A FARMER
          6.   HOW TO RUN A HOUSEHOLD
          7.   MOST IMPORTANT TASK TO TEACH
          8.   FOR MOST ALL WOMEN WOULD MARRY
          9.   ONLY ABOUT 7-10% DID NOT
          10.  WORKPLACE OR SHOP ATTACHED TO LIVING QUARTERS
          11.  ONLY IN FEW SPECIALIZED SKILLS SUCH AS SILK MANUFACTURE
          12.  DID WOMEN GO OUTSIDE HOME OR FAMILY-RUN SHOP
          13.  SOMETIMES A FORMAL APPRENTICESHIP CONTRACTED
          14.  IN AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT OCCUPATION
          15.  IF PARENTS COULD AFFORD FEES
          16.  WOMEN WOULD CONTINUE TO PRACTICE OCCUPATIONS THEY HAD
               LEARNED AT HOME
               a.     WHILE TAKING CARE OF THEIR FAMILY
               b.     OR ADD NEW ONES
          17.  OR LEARN THEIR HUSBAND'S TRADE ENOUGH TO ASSIST HIM IN
               FAMILY RUN SHOP
          18.  IN CONTRAST MEN PURSUED A MORE OR LESS STEADY COURSE
          19.  WHETHER THEY PEASANTS, URBAN WORKERS OR NOBLES
          20.  TOOK UP THEIR OCCUPATION,
          21.  ACQUIRED NECESSARY SKILLS FOR IT
          22.  & CONTINUED TO WORK UNTIL OLD AGE OR DEATH
          23.  MARRIAGE & FAMILY MIGHT MAKE THEIR WORK MORE OR LESS
               PROFITABLE BUT DID NOT CHANGE WHAT THEY DID
          24.  WOMEN`S OCCUPATIONS ON OTHER HAND, VERY INFLUENCED BY
               CHANGES IN THEIR LIFE CYCLE
          25.  UNMARRIED WOMEN GENERALLY HELD LOWER-STATUS JOBS IN
               CLOTH MAKING OR WERE DOMESTIC SERVANTS,
          26.  WOMEN WHO OPERATED THEIR OWN BUSINESSES = FEMME SOLES
          27.  ONLY IN WIDOWHOOD WOMAN COULD BE FEMME SOLE
               a.     CHOOSE MARRIAGE STATUS
               b.     CONTINUE W/HUSBAND'S BUSINESS
          28.  MAGISTRATES OF ENGLAND RECOGNIZED WOMEN DABBLERS
               a.     ALL MEN REQUIRED TO CHOOSE A TRADE & CONFINE
                      THEMSELVES TO IT EXCLUSIVELY,
               b.     BUT WOMEN NOT LIMITED TO ONE JOB,
               c.     ALLOWED TO CHANGE WORK AT AS MANY DIFFERENT JOBS
                      AS THEY WANTED
          29.  BECAUSE WOMEN'S TRAINING PRIMARILY FOR DOMESTIC SPHERE
          30.  THEY UNLIKELY TO DEVELOP SKILLS PERMIT THEM TO ENTER HIGH-
               STATUS POSITIONS
          31.  MEN RELUCTANT TO ADMIT WOMEN INTO THEIR CRAFT & ITS
               MYSTERIES
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     32.  WIFE & DAUGHTER MIGHT BE TAUGHT PART OF MYSTERY,
     33.  BUT THEY WOULD NOT COMPLETE WHOLE PRODUCT
     34.  NT ABLE TO BECOME FULL MEMBERS OF GUILD THAT REGULATED
          CRAFT
     35.  MEN BELIEVED THAT IF WOMEN ENTERED THEIR CRAFT THEY
          WOULD TAKE OVER BECAUSE PAID LESS
     36.  ONCE CRAFTS BECAME MORE REGULATED INTO GUILDS, IT BEGAN
          PROCESS OF ELIMINATING WOMEN FROM THOSE JOBS
     37.  MEN DISCOURAGED WOMEN FROM ORGANIZING THEIR OWN
          CRAFTS INTO GUILDS
     38.  MEDIEVAL WOMEN HAD MORE ACCESS TO HIGH-STATUS AND
          INDEPENDENT EMPLOYMENT THAN WOMEN DID LATER
B.   MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS
     1.   WOMEN INVOLVED IN WIDE VARIETY OF OCCUPATIONS
     2.   SPINNING MOST TYPICAL ACTIVITY FOR BOTH URBAN AND RURAL
          WOMEN TO LEARN
          a.     MOST GIRLS LEARNED IT ALONG W/WEAVING
     3.   TANNERS, SKINNERS
     4.   BUTCHERS
     5.   SPICERS
     6.   MERCERS, DRAPERS - DEALERS IN CLOTH
     7.   GROCERS
     8.   VINTNERS - WHOLESALERS OF WINE
     9.   TANNERS, GLOVERS, SKINNERS
     10.  BAKERS
     11.  PARCHMENT MAKERS, ARMORERS, NET MAKERS
     12.  BLACKSMITHS, PAINTERS, POTTERS, GOLD THREAD SPINNERS
     13.  PROSTITUTES
     14.  PROSTITUTION UNDERWENT CHANGES IN MA
     15.  UNTIL 14 C VARYING DEGREES OF TOLERATION
     16.  IN 14 -15TH C INSTITUTIONALIZED
          a.     MUNICIPAL AND STATE AUTHORITIES REGULATED IT
     17.  NOT UNTIL 16-17TH C REPRESSED
C.   JOAN THE RETAILER
     1.   I SELL CANDLES I BUY FROM CHANDLER
     2.   WAX FOR SEALS AND EVEN FINISHED SEALS
     3.   WITHOUT ME AND ALL OTHER WOMEN WHO PLY MY TRADE TOWN
          LIFE WOULD NOT BE POSSIBLE
     4.   WE BUY AND SELL ALL FOOD ITEMS, PERSONAL ITEMS AND
          HOUSEHOLD WARES
     5.   SOME PEOPLE HAVE TAKEN TO CALLING US HUCKSTERS OR
          REGRATORS, WHICH ARE NOT FLATTERING TERMS
     6.   I LIKE TO CALL MYSELF A RETAIL TRADER
     7.   HUCKSTERS ARE USUALLY SO POOR THEY HAVE TO HAWK THEIR
          WARES IN STREET
     8.   REGRATORS BUY THEIR GOODS IN MARKET AND SELL THEM LATER
          IN THE DAY, WHEN SCARCITY DRIVES THE PRICE UP
     9.   CONSUMERS FEEL THEY CHARGE TOO MUCH THEN
     10.  COURTS PREJUDICE AGAINST US - HANDLING OUT MORE STIFF FINES
          TO US THAN TO MEN
     11.  I HAVE SET UP SHOP AND RENT SPACE IN TOWN WALL
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                a.     MY FRIEND LIZZIE HAS STALL IN MARKETPLACE
           12.  WE AREN'T ALLOWED TO SELL ANY OF OUR ITEMS PRIVATELY FIRST
                BUT MUST OFFER THEM TO ALL
                a.     OTHERWISE RICH PEOPLE WOULD GET BEST OF EVERYTHING
      D.   OVERSEAS TRADER - ALICE CHESTRE
           1.   I LIVE IN BRISTOL, LARGEST TOWN EXCEPT FOR LONDON
           2.   I HAVE BEEN TRADING NOW FOR OVER 12 YRS
           3.   I BEGAN W/EXPORTING WOOLEN CLOTH TO IRELAND
           4.   AREA AROUND BRISTOL NOT ONLY PRODUCES CLOTH BUT RAISES
                SHEEP
           5.   WITH MONEY I GOT FROM IRISH TRADE ABLE TO BUY GREATER
                AMOUNTS OF CLOTH
           6.   & BEGAN EXPORTING ENGLISH WOOLEN CLOTH AS WELL AS WELSH
                CLOTH TO LISBON & OTHER TOWNS IN SPAIN
           7.   I WOULD THEN BUY IRON FROM SPAIN AND WINE FROM FRANCE
           8.   SOME OF MY FRIENDS IMPORT SMALL QUALITIES OF ITEMS FROM
                FRANCE, SPAIN & IRELAND, BUT IT IS MOSTLY FOR THEIR LARGE
                HOUSEHOLDS
           9.   BY BUYING DIRECT THEY SAVE A LOT OF MONEY
           10.  I BUILT 1ST SHIP-LOADING CRANE IN BRISTOL AT THE COST OF £41
           11.  I HAVE PURCHASED SEVERAL SHIPS THAT CARRY MY GOODS
                a.     SO FAR I HAVE BEEN LUCKY NOT TO HAVE ANY PIRATES
                       ATTACK MY SHIPS & STEAL MY GOODS
           12.  MY WIDOWED FRIEND MARGERY RUSSELL OF COVENTRY WAS NOT
                AS FORTUNATE
           13.  SHE WAS ROBBED BY SPANISH PIRATES OF MERCHANDISE WORTH
                £800
           14.  SHE OBTAINED LETTERS OF MARQUE FROM THE KING LICENSING
                HER TO SEIZE AS COMPENSATION SPANISH OWNED MERCHANDISE
                IN SOME OF THE ENGLISH PORTS
           15.  I REBUILT MY HOUSE ON MAIN ST IN BRISTOL = HIGH ST
           16.  GROUND FLOOR HAS A SHOP
           17.  OVER THE SHOP IS A HALL W/A BEAUTIFUL ORIEL WINDOW
           18.  I HAVE TWO MORE FLOORS AND ANOTHER ORIEL WINDOW
           19.  HARDLY ANYONE HAS ORIEL WINDOWS BECAUSE THEY ARE SO
                NEW AND COSTLY,
           20.  I HAD A NEW ROOD LOFT BUILT, & 22 CHRISTIAN SAINTS CARVED
                FOR IT
           21.  I GILDED ALTAR OF OUR LADY &
           22.  MADE AN ELABORATE TABERNACLE FOR THERE
           23.  BOUGHT MANY VESTMENTS, ALTAR CLOTHS & ORNAMENTS
           24.  IT IS NOW THE 10TH OF DECEMBER 1485
           25.  I HAVE BEEN VERY POORLY AND HAVE DECIDED TO MAKE OUT MY
                WILL
           26.  (SHE DIED 16 OF DEC)

II.   BREWSTER=ALE WIFE - MARGERY KEMPE
          1.   DICTATING MY MEMORIES IS SO DIFFICULT
          2.   IT IS SO HARD TO RECALL WHEN I WAS A BREWSTER
          3.   MY LIFE IN SERVICE TO GOD & MY PILGRIMAGES ARE SO MUCH
               CLEARER TO ME
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     4.   I HAVE LIVED IN BISHOP'S LYNN IN NORFOLK FOR YRS
     5.   & IT WAS ALWAYS A PROSPEROUS MEDIEVAL PORT
     6.   I WAS BORN IN 1373 BUT THAT WAS SO MANY YRS AGO
     7.   MY FATHER JOHN BRUNHAM, WAS A PROMINENT BURGESS
     8.   I MARRIED JOHN KEMPE WHEN I WAS 20
     9.   HAD 14 CHILDREN - BUT NOT ALL ARE STILL ALIVE
     10.  I NEVER HAD ENOUGH MONEY FROM MY HUSBAND'S INCOME TO
          KEEP ME IN THE PROPER STYLE WHICH I HAD BEEN ACCUSTOMED
          TO
     11.  MY HUSBAND ALWAYS LAMENTED WHAT HE CALLED MY
          EXTRAVAGANT BUYING,
     12.  BUT I HAD A POSITION TO UPHOLD, BEING DAUGHTER OF A
          PROMINENT MAYOR
     13.  SO I DECIDED TO SET UP IN THE BREWING BUSINESS TO
          SUPPLEMENT MY INCOME
     14.  MANY WEALTHY MERCHANT WIVES DO THIS EVEN IN GREAT CITY
          OF LONDON
     15.  WE KNOWN AS EITHER ALE-WIVES OR BREWSTERS NOT BREWERS -
          THOSE ARE MEN
     16.  ALL THE TAVERNS BREWED THEIR OWN ALE
     17.  AFTER THEIR NEW BREW, THEY PUT ALE-STAKE OUT,
          a.    A POLE TOPPED W/A BUSH OF LEAVES TO LET THEIR
                CUSTOMERS KNOW THEIR BEER READY
     18.  SINCE BEER & ALE WERE SUCH FAVORITE BEVERAGES I JUST KNEW
          I WOULD BE ABLE TO DO WELL
     19.  I BECAME ONE OF THE GREATEST BREWSTERS IN TOWN FOR 3-4 YRS
     20.  BUT THEN THINGS DID NOT GO RIGHT
     21.  IT COULDN'T HAVE BEEN DUE TO MY POOR MANAGEMENT;
     22.  IT MUST HAVE BEEN BECAUSE MY SERVANTS BECAME DISHONEST
          & TOOK ADVANTAGE OF MY NOT BEING ABLE TO READ THE
          ACCOUNTS.
A.   JACOBA
     1.   YOUNG DOCTOR LIVING IN PARIS
     2.   MOVED HERE FROM GERMANY WHERE I WAS BORN 30 YRS AGO TO
          PRACTICE MEDICINE
     3.   I AM JUST BEEN INDICTED BECAUSE THEY SAY I DO NOT HAVE
          LICENSE FROM FACULTY OF MEDICINE AT UNIVERSITY OF PARIS
     4.   BUT EVERYONE KNOWS THEY DON'T ALLOW WOMEN INTO
          UNIVERSITIES
     5.   BUT I HAVE BEEN WELL TRAINED IN ALL MEDICAL ARTS THAT
          PHYSICIANS HAVE LEARNED PLUS SOME OF MORE PRACTICAL ONES
          SURGEONS & BARBERS EMPLOY
     6.   THEY ACCUSE ME OF GRAVEST MISDEMEANORS
          a.    EXAMINING URINE & MEASURING PULSE
                (1)   DIAGNOSTIC METHODS ONLY ACADEMIC PHYSICIANS
                      SAY THEY CAN EMPLOY
     7.   SINCE I HEALED MEN ALSO THEY BLAMED ME SINCE AS A WOMAN I
          SHOULD NOT HAVE TREATED THE MALE SEX BUT ONLY WOMEN
     8.   THAT IN CONTRAST TO PREVAILING CUSTOM, I DID NOT DEMAND
          PAYMENT IN ADVANCE BUT ONLY AFTER I CURED A PATIENT
          a.    THAT I WAS ABLE TO CURE PATIENTS WHERE OTHER
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                        DOCTORS HAD FAILED
            9.   I DID NOT WIN THE CASE
            10.  THEY EXCOMMUNICATED & FINED ME
       B.   FRANCESCA
            1.   AS MY FATHER PHYSICIAN I ABLE TO PRACTICE ART OF SURGERY
                 AFTER BEING TESTED BY REPRESENTATIVES OF FACULTY OF
                 MEDICINE AT UNIVERSITY OF SALERNO
            2.   BUT I HAD TO RECEIVE APPROVAL OF DUKE OF CALABRIA,
                 CHARLES,
            3.   IN OTHER PLACES SURGEONS MEMBERS OF GUILDS BY THEMSELVES
                 & NOT CONNECTED W/BARBERS
            4.   THAT IS BECAUSE SURGEONS ARE MORE RESPECTABLE
            5.   SOME OF MY REMEDIES & MEDICINES
                 a.     ORRIS ROOT
                        (1)  REMOVES SPOTS & FRECKLES
                        (2)  TOOTHPASTE TO MASSAGE GUMS & TEETH
                        (3)  LABORED BREATHING & PAIN IN CHEST
                 b.     MARIGOLD
                        (1)  ANTIDOTE TO PESTILENCE & PAINFUL STINGS
                        (2)  SOME SAY GOOD FOR THE PLAGUE WHEN MIXING
                             W/HONEY
                 c.     PEONY
                        (1)  DRIED ROOTS CAN CURE EPILEPSY
                        (2)  PETALS & ROOTS BOTH FOR A TEA FOR PEOPLE
                             SUFFERING MELANCHOLY
                 d.     SAGE (BOTANICAL NAME SALVIA, FROM LATIN SALVEO,
                        MEANING I AM WELL)
                        (1)  SAGE ALE & SAGE TEA POPULAR SEDATIVE HEALTH
                             DRINKS
                        (2)  MEDIEVAL PHYSICIANS PRESCRIBED SAGE FRESH &
                             GREEN TO CLEAN THE BODY OF VENOM & PESTILENCE
                        (3)  CHEWED SAGE TO WHITEN THEIR ROTTING TEETH
            6.   PAIN KILLERS
                 a.     SPONGES SOAKED W/OPIUM
                 b.     MANDRAKE ROOTS, DRIED & SOAKED IN HOT WATER &
                        INHALED

III.   BLUE DYEING
       A.   AGNES LE PATINIERE - 13TH C
            1.   FOR YEARS MY PARENTS DRUIN & MARIIEN PATINIERE
            2.   & NOW I AND MY HUSBAND JEHAN DOU HOC
            3.   SPECIALIZE IN DYEING WOOLEN & FLAX CLOTH BLUE
            4.   I DIDN'T HAVE TO SERVE AN APPRENTICESHIP BECAUSE MY
                 PARENTS WERE DYERS
            5.   BUT OTHERS WHO ARE NO SO LUCKY WHEN THEY BECOME
                 APPRENTICES HAVE TO AGREE TO FOLLOW STRICT RULES
                 a.    THEY HAVE TO SWEAR AN OATH
                 b.    NOT TO GET MARRIED
                       (1)   CAN BE WAIVED IF YOU GIVE THEM MONEY
                 c.    NOT TO FREQUENT TAVERNS
                 d.    NOT TO REVEAL TRADE SECRETS
                                                                   6
          e.    NOT TO ROB MASTER
B.   PROCESS
     1.   SOMETIMES WE DYE THE SPUN YARN,
     2.   RARELY DO WE DYE THE RAW WOOL LIKE THEY USED TO
          a.    & WHERE THEY GOT THAT SAYING
                (1)    DYED IN THE WOOL
     3.   MOSTLY WE DO THE FINISHED CLOTH
     4.   WE MIX TOGETHER
          a.    ALUM = FIXATIVE
          b.    WOOD ASHES =TEMPERING AGENT
          c.    LEAVES OF THE WOLD PLANT FROM SPAIN
     5.   STIR IT INTO TUB OF VERY HOT WATER
     6.   WE THEN DIP THE CLOTH INTO THE TUB
     7.   BUT IT IS SO HEAVY
     8.   WE THEN STIR THE CLOTH W/POLES SO OUR HANDS WILL NOT BE
          COLORED BLUE
C.   OTHER DYERS
     1.   SPECIALIZE IN OTHER COLORS
          a.    SCARLET
          b.    REDS ARE HIGHLY PRIZED & EXPENSIVE
     2.   IN ITALY DYERS GET TO DYE VELVET & SILK
     3.   WE DYERS ARE JUST ONE OF 25 CRAFTS ASSOCIATED W/THE CLOTH
          INDUSTRY
     4.   BUT WE HAVE ALMOST AS MUCH STATUS AS THE WEAVERS &
          TAILORS
          a.    BUT OF COURSE WOMEN DON'T WEAVE EXCEPT FOR THEIR
                FAMILY'S OWN PERSONAL GARMENTS
          b.    AND I DON'T KNOW OF ANY WOMEN TAILORS
     5.   CARDERS, SHEARERS, AND FULLERS ARE NOT AS WELL REGARDED
     6.   FULLING IS ALSO VERY HARD WORK
          a.    NOT TOO MANY WOMEN DO THAT
          b.    BECAUSE YOU EITHER HAVE TO BEAT THE CLOTH
                W/HAMMERS OR POUND ON IT WITH YOUR FEET
                (1)    LIKE MARGERY THE WALKER DOES
     7.   SPINNERS OF THREAD ARE ALL WOMEN
          a.    THEY USED TO HAVE TO DO IT WITH ONLY A DISTAFF
          b.    BUT SOME HAVE THAT NEW SPINNING WHEEL
D.   FRAULEIN ANNA
     1.   I AM A MID-WIFE FROM NUREMBURG GERMANY
     2.   MY LAST NAME IS MUEHLER BUT SINCE THEY CONSIDER US OF
          LOWER STATUS,
     3.   MY LAST NAME IS NEVER RECORDED IN ANY OF THE DOCUMENTS I
          AM INVOLVED WITH
     4.   I SERVED A 4 YR APPRENTICESHIP
     5.   YOU HAVE TO BE SINGLE AND HAVE YOUR WITS ABOUT YOU - NO
          LIGHT-HEADED GIRLS
     6.   MARRIED WOMAN W/FAMILIES WERE NOT PERMITTED TO BECOME
          MIDWIVES AS AUTHORITIES FEARED THEY WERE TOO BUSY
          W/THEIR OWN HOUSEHOLDS
     7.   I WAS NOT ALLOWED TO DELIVERY A BABY UNTIL I HAD 1 YRS
          TRAINING AND THEN ONLY IF EXPECTANT MOTHER ALREADY HAD
                                                                7
      SEVERAL CHILDREN
8.    MY TUTOR RECEIVED OVER £30 FROM THE AUTHORITIES TO ACCEPT
      ME AS AN APPRENTICE AND FREE CITIZENSHIP
9.    WE ARE TO TREAT RICH AND POOR ALIKE
10.   WE CANNOT LEAVE A POOR WOMAN TO ATTEND A RICH ONE FOR
      WHOM WE RECEIVE MORE PAY
11.   EXCESSIVE WINE-DRINKING FORBIDDEN
12.   WE CANNOT DISPENSE STRONG DRUGS
13.   DELIVERING BABIES NOT OUR ONLY TASK
14.   WE DISTRIBUTE PUBLIC WELFARE TO POOR EXPECTANT MOTHERS
            (1)   BEDDING, BREAD, LARD
15.   WE BACK UP OTHER MEDICAL PEOPLE DURING OUTBREAKS OF
      PLAGUE & OTHER EPIDEMICS
            a.    WHICH OCCUR QUITE OFTEN
16.   WE GIVE ANNUAL EXAMINATIONS FOR LEPROSY
17.   WE DO FEMALE VAGINAL EXAMINATIONS FOR DOCTORS
18.   WE DO CAESAREAN SECTIONS ON DEAD OR DYING MOTHERS
19.   WE CARRY CHILD WE BROUGHT INTO THIS WORLD TO CHURCH FOR
      ITS BAPTISM CEREMONY
20.   WE ARE UNDER OATH ALSO TO REPORT IMMEDIATELY ALL
      ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN
      a.    WHO THEIR PARENTS ARE, WHETHER CHILD BORN DEAD OR
            ALIVE,
21.   BECAUSE WE DO NOT GIVE OUT ALMS TO MOTHERS OF
      ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN THEY ARE MANY TIMES FORCED TO
      ABANDON, HAVE KILLED OR KILL THEIR INFANTS
22.   IF WE TRY AND COVER UP AN ABORTION OR INFANTICIDE THEN WE
      CAN BE PUNISHED JUST AS HARSHLY AS MOTHERS
      a)    BURIED ALIVE
      a.    BURNED AT STAKE
      b.    DROWNED IN SACK
23.   DELIVERY PROCESS
24.   WE RUB PATIENT'S STOMACH W/A SECRET OINTMENT NOT ONLY TO
      EASE HER LABOR BUT TO MAKE IT QUICKER
25.   WE OFFER COMFORTING WORDS
26.   IF LABOR IS DIFFICULT WE THEN HAVE SERVANTS
      a.    OPEN ALL DOORS, DRAWERS & CUPBOARDS IN THE HOUSE
      b.    UNTIE ALL KNOTS
      c.    GIVE A PIECE OF JASPER FOR MOTHER TO HOLD
            (1)   GOOD ALSO FOR PREVENTING CONCEPTION
      d.    DRIED BLOOD OF A CRANE & ITS RIGHT FOOT ALSO ARE
            HELPFUL
      e.    ONE AUTHORITY RECOMMENDS WATER IN WHICH A
            MURDERER HAS WASHED HIS HANDS BUT THAT IS JUST SILLY
27.   WHEN BABY BORN, I TIE THE UMBILICAL CORD & CUTS IT AT 4
      FINGERS' LENGTH
28.   WASH THE BABY & RUB HIM ALL OVER W/SALT
29.   THEN CLEANSE HIS PALATE & GUMS W/HONEY, TO GIVE HIM AN
      APPETITE
30.   DRY HIM W/FINE LINEN & WRAPS HIM SO TIGHT IN SWADDLING
      BANDS ALMOST COMPLETELY IMMOBILIZED
                                                                      8
E.   JULIANA FULL OF LOVE
     1.   I WAS A MAID SERVANT, BUT MY MASTER ACCUSED ME OF
          STEALING HIS SILVER SALT CELLAR
     2.   AND HE MADE SURE NO ONE ELSE WOULD HIRE ME, EVEN THOUGH I
          WAS NOT GUILTY
     3.   I AM NOW A PROSTITUTE, LIVING ON HOT STREET HERE IN BRISTOL
          AND ENJOY IT
          a.    THIS WASN'T ORIGINAL NAME OF STREET, BUT NOW
                MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES REGULATING MY PROFESSION,
                NAME CHANGED
          b.    LIKE THEY HAVE DONE IN MANY TOWNS HERE IN ENGLAND
                AND ON THE CONTINENT
     4.   NOW THAT WE HAVE OUR OWN STREET WITHIN THE TOWN IT IS SO
          MUCH BETTER
     5.   AND SOON I WILL BE ABLE TO AFFORD MY OWN HOUSE
     6.   YEARS EARLIER P HAD TO RESIDE OUTSIDE THE WALLS OF THE
          TOWNS
     7.   THEY EVEN FORBIDDEN TO TOUCH FOOD IN MARKETPLACE - JUST
          LIKE JEWS
     8.   P IN EARLIER TIMES ALSO COULD BE EXPELLED AT WILL BY TOWN
          OFFICIALS
     9.   SOME P EVEN HAD THE DOOR & WINDOWS OF THEIR HOUSES
          REMOVED TO FORCE THEM TO LEAVE A CERTAIN AREA
     10.  PEOPLE WERE FORBIDDEN TO RENT HOUSES TO THEM
     11.  THEY HAD TO BE FAR FROM CHURCHES, CEMETERIES &
          MONASTERIES
     12.  VICAR OF MY PARISH CHURCH HAS EXPLAINED TO ME HOW
          CHURCH FEELS ABOUT PROSTITUTION
          a.    BUT PROSTITUTES KEPT LICENTIOUSNESS FROM SPREADING
                ALL OVER
     13.  FOR CHURCH, PROSTITUTE IS CONTEMPTIBLE CREATURE NOT
          BECAUSE SHE POSES AS A LOVING WOMAN AND HAS SEXUAL
          RELATIONS WITH MEN IN RETURN FOR FINANCIAL REWARD
          a.    BUT BECAUSE HER ENTIRE LIFE IS DEVOTED TO LUSTS OF
                FLESH
                (1)   WHICH ARE PRIME SIN
     14.  WE ARE STILL TODAY FORCED TO WEAR CERTAIN TYPES OF
          CLOTHING
     15.  ALL TOWNS AUTHORITIES HAVE STRICT RULES OUTLINING WHAT
          WE ARE TO WEAR OR CAN'T WEAR
          a.    IN SOME TOWNS THEY EVEN MEASURE THE DEPTH OF OUR
                DECOLLETAGE
                (1)   HEIGHT OF OUR HEELS
                (2)   AND THE FABRIC OF OUR DRESS
                (3)   BECAUSE WE ARE NOT SUPPOSED TO DRESS TOO
                      LUXURIOUSLY
          b.    HERE IN BRISTOL WE MUST WEAR A STRIPPED HOOD
          c.    TIROL IN GERMANY - PIECE YELLOW FABRIC ON SHOES
          d.    LEIPZIG & VIENNA - HAD TO WEAR YELLOW
          e.    ZURICH - HAD TO WEAR RED
          f.    AUGSBURG & OTHER TOWNS - GREEN
                                                                   9
     16. 1 TOWN EVEN REQUIRES THEIR BROTHEL KEEPERS TO WEAR A RED
         HOOD W/A BELL ATTACHED
     17. HERE IN BRISTOL, SOME OF THE MORE COMMON P OR ONES NOT SO
         PRETTY OR TOO OLD USE THE BATH HOUSES TO SOLICIT
         CUSTOMERS
     18. THE GIRLS GO AFTER HOURS WHEN THE BATHS ARE SUPPOSED TO
         BE CLOSED
     19. BUT THEN SOME MEN SNEAK TO THE BATH HOUSES, PEERING IN ON
         ALL WOMEN NOT JUST THE COMMON ONES ON DAYS SET ASIDE FOR
         WOMEN
     20. SOME PEOPLE CALL THEM PEEPING TOMS
     21. AND IN OTHER PLACES IN ENGLAND, MANY OF THE BROTHELS HAVE
         BECOME KNOWN AS STEWS
F.   MARGARET OF BRUGES - BEGUINE NUN
     1.  I AM A POOR BEGUINE NUN LIVING HERE IN BRUGES
         a.    VERY IMPORTANT TOWN IN FLANDERS
         b.    WHERE SO MUCH ENGLISH WOOL IS WOVEN INTO CLOTH
     2.  I BEGAN MY RELIGIOUS LIFE LIVING WITH MY PARENTS
     3.  WHERE I SPENT MY TIME BETWEEN PRAYER & CHARITABLE DEEDS
     4.  NOW I LIVE WITH OTHER NUNS IN A LARGE HOME
     5.  SOME OF MY SISTERS ARE WIDOWS
     6.  OTHERS HAVE SEPARATED FROM THEIR HUSBANDS & HAVE COME
         TO JOIN US
     7.  BUT MANY OF US, INCLUDING ME,
     8.  HAVE CHOSEN TO LIVE TOGETHER
     9.  AS WE DID NOT WANT TO GET MARRIED & HAVE MEN DOMINATE
         OUR LIVES
     10. WE LIVE BY RULES WE HAVE SET OURSELVES
     11. NOT ONES THAT THE CHURCH HAS DETERMINED
     12. AND BY NOT JOINING ONE OF THE OTHER MONASTIC COMMUNITIES
         SUCH AS THE POOR CLARES,
     13. THE FEMALE BRANCH OF THE FRANCISCANS
     14. WE DO NOT HAVE TO TAKE STRICT VOWS
     15. SO I GUESS WE COULD LEAVE HERE IF WE WANTED TO
     16. & WE COULD EVEN GET MARRIED IF WE SO CHOSE
     17. HERE WE SET ASIDE SPECIAL TIME TO PRAY TOGETHER
     18. WE TAKE CARE OF THE ELDERLY AND SICK
     19. & MANY OF US DO LACE WORK
     20. SEE SOME OF MY WORK THAT I HAVE DONE
     21. SOME OF MY OTHER SISTERS WASH THE WOOL FOR THE WEAVERS
         IN THE CANALS ALONGSIDE THE BEGUINAGE
         a.    THAT IS WHAT THEY CALL THE LARGE HOUSE WE LIVE IN
     22. IN OTHER TOWNS SOME OF THE BEGUINES OPERATE SCHOOLS
     23. SOME OF MY SISTERS EVEN HAVE CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS IN THE
         TOWNS THEY LIVE IN
     24. SOMETIMES THE GUILDS FEEL THAT WE ARE TOO PROSPEROUS
     25. & ARE VEXED AT US
     26. I SUPPOSE THEY HAVE SOME JUSTIFICATION
     27. BECAUSE WE DO NOT PAY ANY TAXES HERE IN BRUGES
     28. PERHAPS WE ARE TOO MUCH COMPETITION FOR THE GUILDS
         BECAUSE OF THAT
                                                                  10
     29.  BUT WE ARE JUST TRYING TO MAKE A LIVING & FOLLOW A GODLY
          LIFE
G.   OTHER BEGUINES
     1.   WE BEGUINES FOSTER INDEPENDENT THINKING
     2.   BUT THE CHURCH DOES NOT LIKE THAT
     3.   SOME BEGUINES TRANSLATED HOLY SCRIPTURE INTO GERMAN &
          FRENCH
          a.    TOTALLY FORBIDDEN BY CHURCH AUTHORITIES
     4.   THEY EVEN DEBATED QUESTIONS OF FAITH AFTER READING
          TRANSLATIONS OF THEOLOGICAL WORKS
     5.   AROUSING CRITICISM
     6.   WHEN MARGARET PORETE COMPOSED A MYSTICAL WORK
          a.    MIRROR OF SIMPLE SOULS
          b.    IT WAS DENOUNCED AS A HERETICAL WORK
          c.    AND IN 1310 SHE WAS BURNED AT THE STAKE
     7.   THE AUTHORITIES ARE ALWAYS GETTING SO ANGRY
     8.   AT MY SISTERS WHO DO NOT LIVE IN BEGUINAGES
     9.   THE AUTHORITIES CHARGE THESE WOMEN WITH
          a.    VAGRANCY
          b.    BEGGING
          c.    ILLEGAL PREACHING & DOCTRINAL ERRORS
          d.    IN SOME CASES THEY WERE EVEN ACCUSED OF ENGAGING IN
                PROSTITUTION OR LESBIAN RELATIONS
     10.  IT WAS ACCEPTABLE, HOWEVER BY THE CHURCH
     11.  IF A BEGUINE BECAME IMMERSED IN ECSTASY OF LOVE FOR CHRIST
          a.    SOME CALL THEM MYSTICS
     12.  A FEW OF THESE WOMEN DID NOT RISE FROM THEIR BEDS FOR
          YEARS

								
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