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					                                    APPENDIX H
            CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE SAMPLING PROCEDURES
                                  INTRODUCTION
     Our ability to collect and analyze              ° Medical personnel who provide
toxic and chemical agents in time of                   prophylatic or postcontamination
war is very important. Clear cut                       treatment.
procedures to collect, package,
document, and transport chemical                     ° National leaders who ensure that
warfare samples are needed so that we                  foreign governments comply with
can collect in a variety of battlefield                existing CB warfare treaties.
environments. These procedures are
outlined in this appendix. These                     This appendix provides guidance for
procedures are critical for--                   acquiring and packaging suspected CB
                                                samples for safe shipment. It also
     ° Battlefield commanders who need          designates the elements who carry out
       to know if the enemy might               these tasks. This includes procedures
       retaliate with chemicals and, if         for proper handling, labelling,
       they do, how to avoid or safely          packaging, and transporting supsected
       cross contaminated areas.                CB samples from the battlefield to the
                                                laboratory.
                               OPERATIONAL CONCEPT
    Current battle doctrine presupposes         warfare is suspected to minimize its
a nonlinear battlefield where nuclear           effects. Some of the indications of
and chemical weapons are tactically             CB warfare are:
integrated. By using long-range
weapons, the depth of the battlefield               ° Unexplained sickness or death.
is extended and close-in, rear, and
deep operations may be fought                       ° Ordnance (munitions) containing
concurrently.                                         known or suspected CB agents.
    Operations in this environment are              ° Attacks involving an uknown
extremely fluid and highly lethal.                    causative agent.
Clearly, NBC doctrine and procedures,
including reconnaissance operations                 ° Outbreaks of mission-degrading
are critical to mission accomplishment.               symptoms.
    Commanders must consider the                    When CB warfare is suspected,
potential for enemy use of biological           samples are collected, labelled,
weapons. They must be prepared to act           secured, and transported to the
quickly when chemical or biological             appropriate facility for analysis.
                       COLLECTION AND MANAGEMENT

    Samples suspected of containing CB      medical and nonmedical units and teams
agents are divided into two categories      are responsible for collecting samples
according to their origin:                  suspected of containing CB agents.
environmental and biomedical. Both
                                          H-1

 160-1917O--94-6
     Use the followng procedures to           safety of personnel handling the
collect and manage environmental and          samples in transit as well as making
biomedical samples following a                sure that the samples are not
suspeted CB attack. WEAR APPROPRIATE          contaminated. Use the following
MISSION—ORIENTED PROTECTIVE POSTURE           procedures to identify and document
(MOPP) CLOTHING. The packaging                environmental and biomedical samples.
procdures listed here can ensure the
                           ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES
     Personnel responsible for the            perimeter of the attack site and use
collection of environmental samples           these as baseline data for
are--                                         comparisons. Collect these the same
                                              way you collect samples from
    ° NBC reconnaissance teams                contaminated areas; however, package
                                              each of the samples separately.
    ° TECHINT teams.
                                                     Complete a Sample Documentation
    ° Preventive medicine units.                Form 1, Agent Data, on all samples.
                                                (See Figure H-1.) Use agent detector
    ° EOD teams.                                kits. Record the results on the Sample
                                                Documentation Form 1; this form can be
NOTE: When possible, obtain background          used with the NBC-6 report.
samples from "clean" areas beyond the
                                     Types of Samples

    Environmental CB agent samples are           ° Soil.
collected in the field. They include
samples of--                                     ° Water.
    ° Liquid aerosols or vapor.                  ° Small animals.
    ° Vegetation.                                ° Equipment and ordnance.

                                   Packaging Samples
    Package the samples in accordance               ° Return the sampling tube to the
with the instructions that follow.                    piglette.
Liquid aerosol and Vapor.                           ° Mark the outside with a sample
                                                      identification code. See Figure
    To sample liquid aerosols                         H-2.
vapors--
                                                    ° Close the ends tightly.
   ° Use an electric or hand pump to
     collect the air in two Tenax                   ° Attach a Sample Documentation
     GC-Type Chemical Tubes. (Record                  Form.
     the type of pump used and the
     volume sampled.)


                                          H-2
Vegetation. Collect vegetation which            area and place it in a separate
appears in any way different from               mylar bag and seal. The minimum
normal nearby vegetation, such as               sample size of value is three
discolored or withered vegetation or            leaves or three handsful of
vegetation having powder or droplets            grass.) One leaf is of little
Present. Vegetation samples should be           value but is better than
collected at several locations within           nothing. Bark is acceptable but
suspected contaminated areas. To                not preferred.
collect samples--
                                               ° Mark the bag with a sample
    ° Cut several affected leaves or a           identification number.
      handful of grass. (Do not crush
      the sample.)                         Soil. Collect samples from areas
                                           stained with oils or powders, from
    ° Place the sample in a mylar bag      discolored areas, or from areas that
      and seal it.                         look different in appearance from the
                                           surrounding soil. A similar soil
    ° Collect similar reference            sample from an unaffected area is
      vegetation from an unaffected

                                         H-4
needed for reference (soil of the same                contaminants in water.
type and texture is preferred.) The
minimum sample volume is approximately              ° Methanol and distilled water is
the size of a cigarette pack on its                   used to prime the SepPak.
side.
                                                     Slowly draw 200 milliliters (ml) of
    ° Use a knife, spoon, spatula, or           sample water through the cartridge with
      piece of metal to collect the             a 50 ml syringe. Discard the liquid
      sample.                                   and syringe. Place the cartridge in a
                                                teflon battle marked with a sample
    ° Place the sample in a mylar bag.          identification number.
    ° Mark the bag with a sample                    To obtain a sample of sludge on the
      identification number.                    shore or from a shallow bottom:
Water. Use the M272 water test kit or              ° Scoop the top of solids with an
other appropriate test kit to--                      open bottle.
    ° Determine the presence of                    ° Close the bottle and seal it with
      chemical agents.                               parafilm.
    ° Record the test results on a                 ° Mark the bottle with an
      Sample Docummtation Form 1.                    identification number.
    ° Take samples at standing pools or            ° Place several sample bags in one
      along streams where dead animals               mylar bag.
      are seen.
                                                   ° Place the reference samples in a
    To collect bulk water samples                    separate mylar bag. (Do not
(preferred when oily globules or                     overfill.)
suspended solids are present):
                                                   ° Press excess air from the bag and
    ° Skim surface water into teflon                 seal the adhesive end.
      bottle.
                                                   ° Seal the package with tape.
    ° Fill the bottle, screw on the
      top, and ensure the seal is leak-            ° Mark sample identification
      proof with parafilm or plumber's               number(s).
      antiseize tape.
                                                   ° Include the Sample Documentation
    ° Mark a sample identification                   Form 1.
      number on bottle.
                                                Small Animals. Mammals are preferred.
     When using the SepPak Cartridge for        To package small animals for
liquid sampling, consider the                   evacuation--
following:
                                                  ° Place the animal in a mylar bag.
    ° The C-18 SepPak cartridge
      extracts and concentrates                   ° Press excess air from this bag.



                                          H-6
     ° Seal the adhesive flap and seal               from casualties can be important
       the bag with tape.                            sources of CB agent samples. To get a
                                                     sample--
     ° Mark with sample identification
       number.                                           ° Place the equipment or clothing
                                                           in a large mylar bag.
     ° Attach the Sample Documentation.
       Form 1.                                           ° Fold, expel excess air from the
                                                           bag, and seal.
E q u i p m e n t a n d O r d n a n c e . Before
approaching or handing any exploded or                   ° Mark the bag with an
unexploded ordnance, contact the DOD                       identification number.
unit for assistance. The EOD unit
attempts to identify the ordnance by                     ° Place the bag in a second mylar
physical characteristics or markings                       bag.
and then render it safe. If the
ordnance is CB in origin, EOD packs the                  ° Seal and mark with an
sample in the field and transfers it to                    identification number.
a TECHINT element for transfer to
CONUS.                                                   ° Complete and attach the
                                                           Documentation Form 1.
    The sample must be marked with a
sample identification number. It must                    ° Form the sample to TECHINT for
be documented with the Sample                              transfer to corps G2.
Documentation Form 1 and DD Form 1911,
Materiel Courier Receipt.                                ° Document the transfer on DD
                                                           Form 1911.
     Protective equipment and clothing
                                  BIOMEDICAL SAMPLES
     We get biomedical samples from                      In the theater of operations, these
acutely ill soldiers having symptoms of              team can obtain biomedical samples
CB agent intoxication or from personnel              from patients and cadavers.
killed in an attack. The following
elements collect these samples:                          The best biomedical sample is an
                                                     acutely ill soldier or a cadaver
      ° Battalion-level medical units.               evacuated to CONUS immediately.
                                                     Complete Sample Documentation Form 1,
      ° Division-level medical treatment             Figure H-1, Sample Identification and
        facilities.                                  Control, Figure H-2, and Sample
                                                     Documentation Form 2, Figure H-3 on all
      ° Comabt zone hospitals.                       biomedical samples. A copy of the
                                                     physical examination or an extract of
      ° Communications zone hospitals.               significant findings is enclosed with
                                                     the biodmedical samples.
      ° Evacuation hospitals.
                                                          The following samples should be
      ° NBC reconnaissance teams (small              collected whenever casualties occur.
        animals only)                                They should be collected in triplicate:
                                                     distributing two within CONUS and
      ° Medical TECHINT teams.

                                                   H-7
sending one to the area medical                 ° Collect sputum only from acutely
laboratory.                                       ill patients (x 3). These
                                                  samples are collected in urine
    ° Urine.                                      cups. Secure the cup with wide
                                                  tape and place it in individual
    ° Whole blood or serum.                       sealable mylar bags.
    ° Sputum.                                   ° Collect cerebrospinal fluid (2 ml
                                                  per sample x 3) in red-top blood
    ° Cerebrospinal fluid.                        tubes and place in individual,
                                                  sealable bags.
    ° Organs and tissues.
                                                ° Take at least 30 grams of organs
    ° Mediastinal lymph node.                     or tissues (human, postmortem x
                                                  3) and place in a sterile
     Once collected, samples are                  container in individual, sealable
refrigerated or chilled immediately.              bags. Refrigerate immediately.
DO NOT FREEZE. Sample Documentation               (Liver, spleen, lung,
Forms 1 and 2 (see Figure H-3) are                subcutaneous fat, cerebral spinal
completed on all biomedical samples.              fluid, kidney, heart, and brain.)
Medical personnel perform biomedical
sample collection to ensure that a              ° Collect at least two mediastinal
valid sample is obtained. The                     lymph nodes.
following guidance applies to
collecting samples.                             ° Take animal tissue samples as a
                                                  lower priority to human samples.
   ° Collect samples from patients
     during acute phase and at day 7.           ° Animals should be mamalian only
                                                  (no birds).
   ° Collect urine samples (20-50 ml
     per sample x 3) in urine specimen          Once critical and significant
     cups. Secure the top of the cup        biomedical samples are identified in
     with wide tape, and place the cup      OCONUS, they are turned over to TECHINT
     in individual sealable bags.           for disposition to appropriate
                                            laboratories (CONUS or OCONUS). Sample
   ° Collect whole blood or serum           Documentation Forms 1and 2 provide
     samples (5ml per sample x 3) in        sample and corroborative information.
     red-top blood tubes and place in
     individual, sealable bags.
                             PACKAGING BIOMEDICAL SAMPLES
    Biomedical samples must be properly         ° Remove excess air and seal
packaged. Proper packaging keeps the              tightly.
sample from getting contaminated. It
also ensures that illness, disease, or          ° Mark the container with a sample
death does not result during transport            identification number.
and storage. To properly package
biomedical samples:                             ° Place 1 to 2 inches of packing
                                                  material (vermiculate or foam)
    ° Place the mylar bag(s) or sample            around the sample bag in a rigid
      container(s) in a plastic bag.              container.
                                          H-9
   ° Wrap jars, tubes, or specimen             ° Inspect the packaging prior to
     cups in a bubble wrap or other              its departure from the OCONUS
     suitable material so they do not            theater of operation to CONUS.
     move in the container.
                                               ° The procedure should further meet
   ° Place a lid on the container and            the specification contained in TM
     seal with wide tape.                        38-250, para 10-51; Title 42,
                                                 CFR71-25; and CFR49, parts
   ° Place a warning on the outside of           173,386 and 173,387 for
     the container as follows: "DO               etiological agents.
     NOT OPEN. CONTAINS HAZARDOUS OR
     INFECTOUS MAERIAL OR SUSPECTED            ° Document all samples with Sample
     CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENTS."             Documentation Forms 1 and 2.
   ° Place the environmental and               ° Number samples per instructions
     biomedical samples in an                    in Figure H-2.
     insulated chest.
                                               ° Forward samples through
   ° Ensure that the sample is packed            intelligence channels to corps
     tightly and an adequate supply of           G2. (Finding units are
     refrigerant is available.                   responsible for this.)
   ° Seal the chest and label                  ° Document the sample transfer with
     accordingly.                                DD Form 1911, Materiel Courier
                                                 Receipt. See Figure H-4.

                                   EVACUATION
     When it is necessary, the G2              The corps G2 coordinates sample
ensures that additional packaging and      shipments to approved CONUS and OCONUS
consolidation of doubly wrapped samples    laboratories and to the area medical
is done before the materiel is shipped     laboratory. The G2 must notify the US
on to CONUS. The G2 completes the          Army CB Agent Technical Evaluation
sample identification in accordance        Board (CBATEB) within one hour after a
with Attachment B and document sample      sample suspected of containing CB
transfers on DD Form 1911.                 agents is receivd. The G2 also makes
                                           any other required notifications
     Division surgeons send samples        promptly.
through channels to the Corps G2.
When people die from CB causes, the             Generally, samples are evacuated
division or the corps surgeon              through MI channels. Combat units make
coordinates with combat units and          sure samples are delivered to someone
graves registration units to transfer      who can get the material to the G2.
the bodies quickly to battalion-,          The G2 is responsible for properly
division-, or corps-level medical units    packaging, documenting, and notifying
or hospitals to obtain biomedical           packaging. Figure H-5 lists
samples. They use DD Form 1911 to          these responsibilities.
document sample transfers.




                                        H-10

				
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