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					                                    APPENDIX D
                          HANDLING AND EVACUATION
                                  INTRODUCTION
     This appendix covers the                  ° The echelon requiring the item
procedures for handling and evacuating           is responsible for coordinating
routine CEM as well as TECHINT CEM.              and tasking evacuation and
CEM may or may not be of intelligence            handling.
interest. Some basic guidelines and
procedures on how to handle TECHINT            ° The capturing unit always
interest items follow:                           notifies higher command of the
                                                 capture and then safeguards the
     ° CEM evacuation channels and               known or possible TECHINT item
       handling procedures are usually           until higher command provides
       the same as similar US items.             disposition instructions.
       For example, we will usually
       want to route captured                   ° Special handling and evacuation
       petroleum, oil, and lubricants             procedures are often situation
       (POL) samples through our POL              dependent and cannot always be
       points.                                    foreseen and included in SOPs
                                                  and operation orders.
                               GUIDANCE AND DECISIONS
     The plans, policies, and              as raw material found in railroad
procedures for evacuation of foreign       yards, is best established in advance
materiel are prescribed by joint,          in the command’s various operation
unified, and theater headquarters.         orders and SOPs. Special situations,
These plans are based on DA and DOD        as in the case of high priority
policies and guidance. Each command        TECHINT interest items, require active
echelon in theater Army must esnure        coordination among the command’s
that its plans comply with theater         different assets to get the job done.
Army directives and the theater Army
TECHINT plan. The final disposition             Coordinating and tasking is the
of CEE and associatd technical             job of the echelon commander's staff.
documents (ATD) rests with the             Their ability to coordinate between
capturing nation.                          the logistic units that move the item
                                           and the specialists (such as TECHINT,
    As stated before, the echelon          EOD, and NBC) often required to do it
wanting the captured item is               safely, is the key to the reuse and
responsible for coordinating and           intelligence exploitation of CEM. An
tasking its handling and evacuation.       overview of the coordination involved
Routine CEM evacuation guidance, such      is shown in Figure D-1.



                                         D-1
                LOGISTIC CHAIN OF RESPONSIBILITIES AND FUNCTIONS

    Logistic assets evacuate CEM.        carrying out the directives issued by
They do this according to available      the G4.
assets and the priorities set by the
commander and staff. The G4 is the            The division medical supply
principal staff officer charged with     officer (DMSO) or the medical supply,
coordinating the bulk of this task.      optics, and maintenance (MEDSOM)
The command surgeon, responsible for     elements manage the command’s
medical items, coordinates class VIII.   collecting, inventory, and evacuating
                                         procedures and functions for captured
     The G4 provides staff guidance to   medical materiel.
the MMC and the movement control
office (MCO) or the movement control          The MMC manages the command’s
center (MCC). The MMC controls combat    other collecting, inventory, and
service support and maintenance          evacuating functions. This includes
inventories and is the management arm    captured materiel. The MMC operations
that ensures proper accountability.      staff is organized by function and
 (See Figure D-2.)                       commodity. The division MMC manages
                                         classes I through VII, and IX
    The support commands                 materiel. Personnel in the division
Divisional Support Command (DISCOM),     MMC keep the records for, as well as
COSCOM, and Theater Army Area Command    provide allocation and disposition
(TAACOM). They exercise command and      instructions for, the class of supply
control over supporting units in         they oversee.




                                   D-3
                    TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND ALLOCATION

     The G4 coordinates logistic         movements control element use the
support to evacuation operations by      transportation plan to task invidual
developing a command transportation      transportation units. (See Figure
plan. (See Figure D-3). The command      D-4). The transportation units carry
transportation officer and the           out the missions tasked to them.




                             DISPOSAL AND TRANSFER
    Simply because we acquire foreign     naval materiel and   ATDs to the Navy or
materiel does not mean we own it.         the Air Force at     the lowest practical
This is especially true of items          level. Until the     actual transfer,
acquired during belligerent or            these item remain     in Army channels.
peacekeeping operations. For example,
when captured or confiscated foreign           We return items originally
materiel is regulated by international    evacuated for Amy intelligence
law or could be claimed by an ally,       exploitition to logistic channels when
disposition must be coordinated with      exploitation is completed. This is
the SJA.                                  done after TECHINT elements make sure
                                          that no other echelon or agency needs
    The Army transfers foreign air and    the item.




                                    D-4
                                EVACUATION CHANNELS
     As stated in the introduction, we          The process is much the same in
will usually want to evacuate CEM          light divisions. However, evacuation,
along the same channels as like US         especially of heavier items, depends
items. The system must, however, have      on COSCOM assets. This is because
the flexibility to evacuate high           light divisions do not have the
priority intelligence item directly        transportation assets that heavy
from division collection points to the     divisions do.
Theater CMEC. Routine evacuation
channels are described below.                   POL units establish their own
                                           section and sites to handle captured
     Abandoned or unserviceable US and     POL materiel. Supply units also
captured foreign materiel is evacuated     establish POL sites and sections.
to collection pionts for                   Commanders test and use captured POL
classification, segregation, and           at the lowest echelon possible. Only
disposition. Collection points             samples of POL items are evacuated to
operate wherever needed throughout the     TECHINT analysts. (See Figure D-7.)
theater of operations.
                                                Class V ordnace, including
      In the corps area, at least one      missiles, is evacuated through
materiel collection point is               conventional ammunition supply points
established. Others are established        (ASPs). Ammunition supply units
in TAACOM. Collection points in the        establish their own sections and sites
 communications zone are generally         to handle captured Class V. (See
 operated by the collection and            Figure D-8.)
 classification element of general
 support maintenance battalion.                 Class VIII medical items are
                                           evacuated through established medical
     In division areas, DISCOM             supply points, the DMSO, and the
maintenance companies operate materiel     MEDSOM elements. (See Figure D-9.)
collection points. Figures D-5             Medical materiel must never be
through D-1O show the evacuation flow      destroyed. If unable to evacuate, it
through the collection points for each     will be left in place and unharmed.
class of supply. Captured items are
handled and processed the same way as          Captured aviation items,
similar US items.                          especially airframes, are evacuated
                                           through aviation maintenance channels
     Salvage points established by         or with assistance from aviation
related supply units are located near      maintenance units. (See Figure D-10.)
unit maintenance collection points
 (See Figures D-5 and D-6). These two          In a low-intensity conflict
points handle the collection,              environment, large and heavy items are
classification, inventory, and             evacuated on an ad hoc basis.
disposition of Classes II, VII, and IX
materiel. The heavy division (armor            Except for NBC hazardous materiel,
and mechanized infantry) has the most      foreign materiel requiring evacuation
suitable assets for evacuation of          to CONUS is eventually shipped to the
foreign materiel. It can handle large      Transportation Officer, Foreign
item such as tanks.                        Systems Division, Army FSTC.


                                         D-6
                              RESPONSIBILITIES

     The personnel, activities, and           prisoners; they, therefore, have
elements responsible for the recovery         similar evacuation responsibilities for
and evacuation of CEM are usually the         captured enemy personnel and any
sample as those responsible for handling      documents and equipment found on them.
like US items. A good example is the          MI interrogators and TECHINT analysts
MP responsibilities.                          exploit these sources of intelligence
                                              along the evacuation chain.
    MPs are responsible for US
                             THE CAPTURING UNIT
     The capturing unit always is            either EOD or NBC assets to do it
responsible for reporting,                   safely. The command orders
safeguarding, and initiating                 destruction of CEM to prevent its
accountability of CEM. The capturing         reuse by the enemy. The one case
unit reports the capture with either a       where it is illegal to destroy
SALUTE report or a PRETECHREP. (See          captured enemy materiel involves
Appendix E). It safeguards the item          captured enemy medical materiel. The
within mission parameters, until             staff surgeon always determines the
relieved. It initiates accountability        disposition of medical materiel.
by marking and tagging the item              According to the Laws of Land Warfare,
according to established procedures.         if friendly forces cannot use it for
 (See Figures D-11 and D-12).                EPWs, refugees, and indigenous
                                             population, we must leave it in place
     The capturing unit usually is           and unharmed.
tasked to move captured items wanted
for intelligence exploitation to a                The capturing unit must report the
collection point. If the capturing           discovery of unusual mechanisms used
unit is tasked with evacuation, it           as booby traps through intelligence
coordinates any assistance required          channels to the CMEC and EOD by SALUTE
with the command responsible for             report. Countermeasures must be
direct support maintenance at their          coordinated with EOD personnel. EOD
echelon.                                     personnel are responsible for the
                                             final disposition of explosive
    The capturing unit may be tasked         components or hazardous materials
with the destruction of the item.            associated with such devices and
This may require combination with            recovered ammunition.
                        EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL
     As already discussed, TECHINT           method that minimizes damage to the
units have a profound interest in            item. For more information on EOD
foreign explosive ordnance. The              assistance to evacuation operations,
assistance of EOD personnel in the           see Appendix C.
examination, movement, and evacuation
of explosive ordnance cannot be                   Collection of TECHINT data may
overemphasized. All item of foreign          require dismantling of ordnance and
ordnance should first be rendered safe       stripping fuses and other dangerous
by EOD personnel. If this is not             components. These operations will be
feasible, the item should be rendered        performed only by experienced
safe in place by any destructive             personnel. Dismantling and stripping
                                           D-13
are conducted only in response to a        specialists should analyze or test
specific requirement for such action.      captured mines and booby traps.
The request must be placed through         Exercise extreme caution when taut
TECHINT and EOD staffs.                    wire and pull releases or similar
                                           devices are encountered.
    Only trained weapons and munitions
                       NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL
    All CB hazardous items are handled     samples, after theater tactical
and shipped in accordance with command     exploitation, should be shipped to:
SOP and national policy. Evacuation        US Army Chemical and Biological Agent,
is best handled after coordination         Technical Evaluation Board, Aberdeen
with either an NBC reconnaissance          Proving Ground, Maryland, 21005. (See
team, NBC qualified TECHINT team, or a     Appendix H.).
task organized medical element. NBC
                       TECHINT ANALYSTS AND THE CMEC
    When evacuation is either              on-site analysis. This can provide
unecessary or can be delayed, TECHINT      immediate tactical information and
personnel may be tasked to perform         countermeasures vital to the combat
                                         D-17
 force commander. On-site analysis                At times, a large number of like
 also ensures the recoverry of intact         item will be acquired. The TECHINT
 components which become useless once        collection teams must have the
 wires are clipped and subcomponents         opportunity to examine the materiel
 have been disturbed. This type of           thoroughly. They will be especially
 analysis is limited by the battlefield      interested in lot numbers, dates of
 situation and available assets.             manufacture, and factory markings.
                                             When a sufficient number of items are
     During on-site analysis, TECHINT        gathered, they are processed through
 teams look for--                            normal evacuation or salvage supply
                                             channels and are no longer needed by
    ° Equipment operational                  MI.
      characteristics, performance,
      capabilities, and                           TECHINT my also be tasked
      vulnerabilities.                       with on-site supervision of the item’s
    ° New weapons and devices.               handling and evacuation. The CMEC
                                             will coordinate with appropriate
                                             staffs to evaluate the need to use
    ° Modifications.                         TECHIINT personnel to--
    ° Possible countermeasures.
                                                    ° Supervise the evacuation.
    ° Identification and proper                     ° Arrange necessary technical
      handling of radioactive                         escorts to the CMEC or to sites
      materiel.                                       in CONUS.
    ° Specific orientation and siting
                                                  TECHINT teams are capable of
      of equipment.                          coordinating the handling and shipping
    ° Recovery and evacuation of             with the necessary medical,
                                             intelligence, NEC, and strategic-level
      explosive ordnance and NBC             elements for captured CB items.
      munitions.

                              MARKING AND TAGGING
     Labeling CEM properly is vital to           captured with; since sometimes they
the timely exploitation of the item.             become separated in the evacuation
It speeds up the often slow process of           process.
producing effective countermeasures for
the soldier in combat. Proper labeling           There are two procedures for
provides the analyst team information        marking and tagging CEM. The acronym
necessary for the item's timely              CEM includes CEE and ATDs. The
exploitation. It also allows                 procedure used depends on whether the
interrogators and TECHINT teams to           captured item is associated with a
match up knowledgable prisoners with         captured person or not.
the documents or equipment they were

                             CEM Captured With Personnel
    For CEM captured with personnel,         associated CEM with the three-part tag
tag the captured person and any              shown in Figure A-6.

                                          D-18
Be careful to use this tag 0NLY to          particular captured person. (See
label items either captured with or         Figure D-11).
known to be associated with a
                              CEM Captured By Itself
     For CEM captured by itself, tag the    believed to be of a technical nature
piece of equipment or associated            such as operator manuals, with the flag
document with the tag shown in Figure       word "TECHDOC." (See Figure D-12.)
A-5. Furthermore, label all documents
                                 Responsibilities
     These responsibilities must be         be affixed to the ATD in a way that
clearly established by command SOP.         will not deface the document.
The equipment and document tags
accompany the materiel to its final              The capturing unit is responsible
destination. Article 103 of the             for tagging items of foreign materiel.
Uniform Code of Military Justice is         Weather-resistant equipment tags
printed on the reverse side of the tag      facilitate the segregation, collection,
to prevent indiscriminate tampering.        analysis, and evacuation of materiel.
                                            These tags are normally produced within
    As part of core training, all           the theater. They are securely
personnel should be instructed in how       attached to the item itself and to the
to tag. They should know the                shipping container. If weather-
consequences when personnel and             resistant tags are not available, use
equipment are not properly tagged.          any materiel (for example, rations
Training should stress protecting and       packing) on which pertinent capture
preserving the original markings on         data can be recorded.
materiel at the time of capture.
                                                The CMEC is responsible for
     The first unit that performs           retagging, marking, and arranging the
exploitation for intelligence purposes      preparation of captured materiel for
will tag CEE with the serial number and     shipment to CONUS. The preservation
any ATD with the serial number. In          and packaging platoons in COSCOM supply
addition, the flag word “TECHDOC" will      units prepare item for shipment.
                           SECURITY AND ESCORT
     Many items of foreign materiel         responsible for safeguarding materiel,
acquired by US forces and determined to     based on instructions from the next
be of TECHINT value require                 higher headquarters. The materiel must
safeguarding in storage as well as          be protected from looting, loss,
during evacuation. Such items may be        destruction, or recapture. When
sensitive due to their criticality or       foreign materiel is sensitive or of
because of a US classification              special value, MP elements nomally
assigned. At all stages during the          provide physical security during its
intelligence exploitation processs, CEE     storage and evacuation.
and ATDs will be placed under guard to
prevent looting, misuse, or                     Particular attention must be paid
destruction.                                to the peculiarities of nulcear
                                            weapons’ escort and the technical
    Initially, the capturing unit is        escort requirement for NBC materiel.
                                         D-19
                RECOVERY AND EVACUATION OF TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS

     Technical publications and               chain. The S2/G2 routes all enemy
manuscripts of concern to TECHINT             documents to the nearest interrogation
relate to the technical design or             element for tactical exploitation.
operation of the materiel. Such               Interogators screen the documents for
documents may be acquired separately          immediate information and forward them
from the materiel they refer to.              to higher command, as required.
Therefore, it is essential that TECHINT
personnel coordinate with interrogation            In any case, all known or suspected
elements to exchange information about        technical documents are marked
related documents.                            "TECHDOC" and treated with highest
                                              priority and forwarded by way of the
     All enemy documents captured on the      intelligence officer up through the
battlefield are sent immediately to the       higher command until their value is
first intelligence staff officer in the       detemined.
                           Associated Technical Documents
     Under certain circumstances an ATD       make a suitable facsimile, and forward
is both exploited and evacuated at the        the original. An exception is engraved
same time to allow a thorough document        materiel, such as manufacturer's
exploitation of technical data as well        plates, permanently attached to the
as a translation. Under these                 CEE. This not considered a
circumstances, photograph the ATD or          document.
                    Documents Associated with a Captured Person
    Documents obtained through liaison             ° A special interrogation report.
with interrogation elements should be
accompanied by pertinent interrogation             ° An intelligence information
reports. These reports will be in the                report.
form of--
                                                   ° A biographic report in accordance
      ° A SALUTE report.                             with DIAM 58-13.
      ° A tactical interrogation report.           ° A knowledgeability brief.

              Cryptographic and Other Electronic Equipment and Documents
     TECHINT units use special                target exploitation element as soon as
procedures for handling captured C-E          possible after initial tactical
equipment and documents. These items          exploitation.
are tagged and evacuated to the nearest
                                  WAR TROPHIES
     Foreign equipment is frequently a        established to ensure that these items
target of souvenir hunters. An                are not retained or destroyed
effective war trophy policy must be           unnecessarily by the capturing unit.


                                           D-20

				
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