HANDLING AND EVACUATION
This appendix covers the ° The echelon requiring the item
procedures for handling and evacuating is responsible for coordinating
routine CEM as well as TECHINT CEM. and tasking evacuation and
CEM may or may not be of intelligence handling.
interest. Some basic guidelines and
procedures on how to handle TECHINT ° The capturing unit always
interest items follow: notifies higher command of the
capture and then safeguards the
° CEM evacuation channels and known or possible TECHINT item
handling procedures are usually until higher command provides
the same as similar US items. disposition instructions.
For example, we will usually
want to route captured ° Special handling and evacuation
petroleum, oil, and lubricants procedures are often situation
(POL) samples through our POL dependent and cannot always be
points. foreseen and included in SOPs
and operation orders.
GUIDANCE AND DECISIONS
The plans, policies, and as raw material found in railroad
procedures for evacuation of foreign yards, is best established in advance
materiel are prescribed by joint, in the command’s various operation
unified, and theater headquarters. orders and SOPs. Special situations,
These plans are based on DA and DOD as in the case of high priority
policies and guidance. Each command TECHINT interest items, require active
echelon in theater Army must esnure coordination among the command’s
that its plans comply with theater different assets to get the job done.
Army directives and the theater Army
TECHINT plan. The final disposition Coordinating and tasking is the
of CEE and associatd technical job of the echelon commander's staff.
documents (ATD) rests with the Their ability to coordinate between
capturing nation. the logistic units that move the item
and the specialists (such as TECHINT,
As stated before, the echelon EOD, and NBC) often required to do it
wanting the captured item is safely, is the key to the reuse and
responsible for coordinating and intelligence exploitation of CEM. An
tasking its handling and evacuation. overview of the coordination involved
Routine CEM evacuation guidance, such is shown in Figure D-1.
LOGISTIC CHAIN OF RESPONSIBILITIES AND FUNCTIONS
Logistic assets evacuate CEM. carrying out the directives issued by
They do this according to available the G4.
assets and the priorities set by the
commander and staff. The G4 is the The division medical supply
principal staff officer charged with officer (DMSO) or the medical supply,
coordinating the bulk of this task. optics, and maintenance (MEDSOM)
The command surgeon, responsible for elements manage the command’s
medical items, coordinates class VIII. collecting, inventory, and evacuating
procedures and functions for captured
The G4 provides staff guidance to medical materiel.
the MMC and the movement control
office (MCO) or the movement control The MMC manages the command’s
center (MCC). The MMC controls combat other collecting, inventory, and
service support and maintenance evacuating functions. This includes
inventories and is the management arm captured materiel. The MMC operations
that ensures proper accountability. staff is organized by function and
(See Figure D-2.) commodity. The division MMC manages
classes I through VII, and IX
The support commands materiel. Personnel in the division
Divisional Support Command (DISCOM), MMC keep the records for, as well as
COSCOM, and Theater Army Area Command provide allocation and disposition
(TAACOM). They exercise command and instructions for, the class of supply
control over supporting units in they oversee.
TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND ALLOCATION
The G4 coordinates logistic movements control element use the
support to evacuation operations by transportation plan to task invidual
developing a command transportation transportation units. (See Figure
plan. (See Figure D-3). The command D-4). The transportation units carry
transportation officer and the out the missions tasked to them.
DISPOSAL AND TRANSFER
Simply because we acquire foreign naval materiel and ATDs to the Navy or
materiel does not mean we own it. the Air Force at the lowest practical
This is especially true of items level. Until the actual transfer,
acquired during belligerent or these item remain in Army channels.
peacekeeping operations. For example,
when captured or confiscated foreign We return items originally
materiel is regulated by international evacuated for Amy intelligence
law or could be claimed by an ally, exploitition to logistic channels when
disposition must be coordinated with exploitation is completed. This is
the SJA. done after TECHINT elements make sure
that no other echelon or agency needs
The Army transfers foreign air and the item.
As stated in the introduction, we The process is much the same in
will usually want to evacuate CEM light divisions. However, evacuation,
along the same channels as like US especially of heavier items, depends
items. The system must, however, have on COSCOM assets. This is because
the flexibility to evacuate high light divisions do not have the
priority intelligence item directly transportation assets that heavy
from division collection points to the divisions do.
Theater CMEC. Routine evacuation
channels are described below. POL units establish their own
section and sites to handle captured
Abandoned or unserviceable US and POL materiel. Supply units also
captured foreign materiel is evacuated establish POL sites and sections.
to collection pionts for Commanders test and use captured POL
classification, segregation, and at the lowest echelon possible. Only
disposition. Collection points samples of POL items are evacuated to
operate wherever needed throughout the TECHINT analysts. (See Figure D-7.)
theater of operations.
Class V ordnace, including
In the corps area, at least one missiles, is evacuated through
materiel collection point is conventional ammunition supply points
established. Others are established (ASPs). Ammunition supply units
in TAACOM. Collection points in the establish their own sections and sites
communications zone are generally to handle captured Class V. (See
operated by the collection and Figure D-8.)
classification element of general
support maintenance battalion. Class VIII medical items are
evacuated through established medical
In division areas, DISCOM supply points, the DMSO, and the
maintenance companies operate materiel MEDSOM elements. (See Figure D-9.)
collection points. Figures D-5 Medical materiel must never be
through D-1O show the evacuation flow destroyed. If unable to evacuate, it
through the collection points for each will be left in place and unharmed.
class of supply. Captured items are
handled and processed the same way as Captured aviation items,
similar US items. especially airframes, are evacuated
through aviation maintenance channels
Salvage points established by or with assistance from aviation
related supply units are located near maintenance units. (See Figure D-10.)
unit maintenance collection points
(See Figures D-5 and D-6). These two In a low-intensity conflict
points handle the collection, environment, large and heavy items are
classification, inventory, and evacuated on an ad hoc basis.
disposition of Classes II, VII, and IX
materiel. The heavy division (armor Except for NBC hazardous materiel,
and mechanized infantry) has the most foreign materiel requiring evacuation
suitable assets for evacuation of to CONUS is eventually shipped to the
foreign materiel. It can handle large Transportation Officer, Foreign
item such as tanks. Systems Division, Army FSTC.
The personnel, activities, and prisoners; they, therefore, have
elements responsible for the recovery similar evacuation responsibilities for
and evacuation of CEM are usually the captured enemy personnel and any
sample as those responsible for handling documents and equipment found on them.
like US items. A good example is the MI interrogators and TECHINT analysts
MP responsibilities. exploit these sources of intelligence
along the evacuation chain.
MPs are responsible for US
THE CAPTURING UNIT
The capturing unit always is either EOD or NBC assets to do it
responsible for reporting, safely. The command orders
safeguarding, and initiating destruction of CEM to prevent its
accountability of CEM. The capturing reuse by the enemy. The one case
unit reports the capture with either a where it is illegal to destroy
SALUTE report or a PRETECHREP. (See captured enemy materiel involves
Appendix E). It safeguards the item captured enemy medical materiel. The
within mission parameters, until staff surgeon always determines the
relieved. It initiates accountability disposition of medical materiel.
by marking and tagging the item According to the Laws of Land Warfare,
according to established procedures. if friendly forces cannot use it for
(See Figures D-11 and D-12). EPWs, refugees, and indigenous
population, we must leave it in place
The capturing unit usually is and unharmed.
tasked to move captured items wanted
for intelligence exploitation to a The capturing unit must report the
collection point. If the capturing discovery of unusual mechanisms used
unit is tasked with evacuation, it as booby traps through intelligence
coordinates any assistance required channels to the CMEC and EOD by SALUTE
with the command responsible for report. Countermeasures must be
direct support maintenance at their coordinated with EOD personnel. EOD
echelon. personnel are responsible for the
final disposition of explosive
The capturing unit may be tasked components or hazardous materials
with the destruction of the item. associated with such devices and
This may require combination with recovered ammunition.
EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL
As already discussed, TECHINT method that minimizes damage to the
units have a profound interest in item. For more information on EOD
foreign explosive ordnance. The assistance to evacuation operations,
assistance of EOD personnel in the see Appendix C.
examination, movement, and evacuation
of explosive ordnance cannot be Collection of TECHINT data may
overemphasized. All item of foreign require dismantling of ordnance and
ordnance should first be rendered safe stripping fuses and other dangerous
by EOD personnel. If this is not components. These operations will be
feasible, the item should be rendered performed only by experienced
safe in place by any destructive personnel. Dismantling and stripping
are conducted only in response to a specialists should analyze or test
specific requirement for such action. captured mines and booby traps.
The request must be placed through Exercise extreme caution when taut
TECHINT and EOD staffs. wire and pull releases or similar
devices are encountered.
Only trained weapons and munitions
NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL
All CB hazardous items are handled samples, after theater tactical
and shipped in accordance with command exploitation, should be shipped to:
SOP and national policy. Evacuation US Army Chemical and Biological Agent,
is best handled after coordination Technical Evaluation Board, Aberdeen
with either an NBC reconnaissance Proving Ground, Maryland, 21005. (See
team, NBC qualified TECHINT team, or a Appendix H.).
task organized medical element. NBC
TECHINT ANALYSTS AND THE CMEC
When evacuation is either on-site analysis. This can provide
unecessary or can be delayed, TECHINT immediate tactical information and
personnel may be tasked to perform countermeasures vital to the combat
force commander. On-site analysis At times, a large number of like
also ensures the recoverry of intact item will be acquired. The TECHINT
components which become useless once collection teams must have the
wires are clipped and subcomponents opportunity to examine the materiel
have been disturbed. This type of thoroughly. They will be especially
analysis is limited by the battlefield interested in lot numbers, dates of
situation and available assets. manufacture, and factory markings.
When a sufficient number of items are
During on-site analysis, TECHINT gathered, they are processed through
teams look for-- normal evacuation or salvage supply
channels and are no longer needed by
° Equipment operational MI.
capabilities, and TECHINT my also be tasked
vulnerabilities. with on-site supervision of the item’s
° New weapons and devices. handling and evacuation. The CMEC
will coordinate with appropriate
staffs to evaluate the need to use
° Modifications. TECHIINT personnel to--
° Possible countermeasures.
° Supervise the evacuation.
° Identification and proper ° Arrange necessary technical
handling of radioactive escorts to the CMEC or to sites
materiel. in CONUS.
° Specific orientation and siting
TECHINT teams are capable of
of equipment. coordinating the handling and shipping
° Recovery and evacuation of with the necessary medical,
intelligence, NEC, and strategic-level
explosive ordnance and NBC elements for captured CB items.
MARKING AND TAGGING
Labeling CEM properly is vital to captured with; since sometimes they
the timely exploitation of the item. become separated in the evacuation
It speeds up the often slow process of process.
producing effective countermeasures for
the soldier in combat. Proper labeling There are two procedures for
provides the analyst team information marking and tagging CEM. The acronym
necessary for the item's timely CEM includes CEE and ATDs. The
exploitation. It also allows procedure used depends on whether the
interrogators and TECHINT teams to captured item is associated with a
match up knowledgable prisoners with captured person or not.
the documents or equipment they were
CEM Captured With Personnel
For CEM captured with personnel, associated CEM with the three-part tag
tag the captured person and any shown in Figure A-6.
Be careful to use this tag 0NLY to particular captured person. (See
label items either captured with or Figure D-11).
known to be associated with a
CEM Captured By Itself
For CEM captured by itself, tag the believed to be of a technical nature
piece of equipment or associated such as operator manuals, with the flag
document with the tag shown in Figure word "TECHDOC." (See Figure D-12.)
A-5. Furthermore, label all documents
These responsibilities must be be affixed to the ATD in a way that
clearly established by command SOP. will not deface the document.
The equipment and document tags
accompany the materiel to its final The capturing unit is responsible
destination. Article 103 of the for tagging items of foreign materiel.
Uniform Code of Military Justice is Weather-resistant equipment tags
printed on the reverse side of the tag facilitate the segregation, collection,
to prevent indiscriminate tampering. analysis, and evacuation of materiel.
These tags are normally produced within
As part of core training, all the theater. They are securely
personnel should be instructed in how attached to the item itself and to the
to tag. They should know the shipping container. If weather-
consequences when personnel and resistant tags are not available, use
equipment are not properly tagged. any materiel (for example, rations
Training should stress protecting and packing) on which pertinent capture
preserving the original markings on data can be recorded.
materiel at the time of capture.
The CMEC is responsible for
The first unit that performs retagging, marking, and arranging the
exploitation for intelligence purposes preparation of captured materiel for
will tag CEE with the serial number and shipment to CONUS. The preservation
any ATD with the serial number. In and packaging platoons in COSCOM supply
addition, the flag word “TECHDOC" will units prepare item for shipment.
SECURITY AND ESCORT
Many items of foreign materiel responsible for safeguarding materiel,
acquired by US forces and determined to based on instructions from the next
be of TECHINT value require higher headquarters. The materiel must
safeguarding in storage as well as be protected from looting, loss,
during evacuation. Such items may be destruction, or recapture. When
sensitive due to their criticality or foreign materiel is sensitive or of
because of a US classification special value, MP elements nomally
assigned. At all stages during the provide physical security during its
intelligence exploitation processs, CEE storage and evacuation.
and ATDs will be placed under guard to
prevent looting, misuse, or Particular attention must be paid
destruction. to the peculiarities of nulcear
weapons’ escort and the technical
Initially, the capturing unit is escort requirement for NBC materiel.
RECOVERY AND EVACUATION OF TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS
Technical publications and chain. The S2/G2 routes all enemy
manuscripts of concern to TECHINT documents to the nearest interrogation
relate to the technical design or element for tactical exploitation.
operation of the materiel. Such Interogators screen the documents for
documents may be acquired separately immediate information and forward them
from the materiel they refer to. to higher command, as required.
Therefore, it is essential that TECHINT
personnel coordinate with interrogation In any case, all known or suspected
elements to exchange information about technical documents are marked
related documents. "TECHDOC" and treated with highest
priority and forwarded by way of the
All enemy documents captured on the intelligence officer up through the
battlefield are sent immediately to the higher command until their value is
first intelligence staff officer in the detemined.
Associated Technical Documents
Under certain circumstances an ATD make a suitable facsimile, and forward
is both exploited and evacuated at the the original. An exception is engraved
same time to allow a thorough document materiel, such as manufacturer's
exploitation of technical data as well plates, permanently attached to the
as a translation. Under these CEE. This not considered a
circumstances, photograph the ATD or document.
Documents Associated with a Captured Person
Documents obtained through liaison ° A special interrogation report.
with interrogation elements should be
accompanied by pertinent interrogation ° An intelligence information
reports. These reports will be in the report.
° A biographic report in accordance
° A SALUTE report. with DIAM 58-13.
° A tactical interrogation report. ° A knowledgeability brief.
Cryptographic and Other Electronic Equipment and Documents
TECHINT units use special target exploitation element as soon as
procedures for handling captured C-E possible after initial tactical
equipment and documents. These items exploitation.
are tagged and evacuated to the nearest
Foreign equipment is frequently a established to ensure that these items
target of souvenir hunters. An are not retained or destroyed
effective war trophy policy must be unnecessarily by the capturing unit.