Water in a bottle Total carbon dioxide emissions from

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					                                       Water in a bottle
                                             - an uneccessary luxury?



      Total carbon dioxide emissions from the
      consumption of bottled water in Sweden
                                    AUGUST 2007
      A study carried out by SIK for Stockholm Consumer Co-operative Society.

For more information:
Louise Ungerth, Head of Consumer Affairs, tel. +46(0)8 714 39 71, +46(0)70 341 55 30
Ulrika Lamberth, Public Relations Officer, tel. +46(0)8 714 39 72, +46(0)70 341 55 31
www.konsumentforeningenstockholm.se
Summary
    •   On behalf of Stockholm Co-operative Consumer Society, SIK has updated the
        society’s previous study which looked at carbon dioxide emissions in connection with
        the consumption of bottled water by Swedes1. SIK, the Swedish Institute for Food and
        Biotechnology, in Gothenburg, carries out strategic and applied research within the
        field of food.

    •   The consumption of bottled water has increased dramatically in recent years, with a
        corresponding increase in carbon dioxide emissions as a result. Between 1992 and
        2006, carbon dioxide emissions more than trebled, while between 2003 and 2006
        carbon dioxide emissions almost doubled. This is partly the result of increased
        consumption and partly the result of an increase in imports which are more carbon
        dioxide-intensive.

    •   Consumption has increased from 92 million litres in 1992 to 247 million litres in
        2006. This represents an increase of 155 million litres, or 168 percent.

    •   Between 1992 and 2006, carbon dioxide emissions caused by our consumption of
        bottled water increased from approx. 9,500 tonnes to 34,000 tonnes. This represents an
        increase of 260 percent.

    •   Between 2003 and 2006 alone, consumption increased from 181 million to 247
        million litres, corresponding to an increase of 66 million litres or 36 percent.

    •   For comparative purposes, bottled water that is consumed in Sweden (2006) gives rise
        to a quantity of carbon dioxide corresponding to that caused by:
             o approx. 8,500 oil-heated detached homes (assuming detached homes with a
               floor area of 140 sq. m., heating 15,000 kWh per year and 75 grams CO2 per
               MJ of oil),
             o approx. 5,500 Swedes (based on the total quantity of CO2 that Sweden
               generates divided by the population of Sweden: approx. 6 tonnes of CO2 per
               capita),
             o approx. 12,500 cars emit (assuming 190 grams CO2 per km and a kilometreage
               of 14,000 km per year), or
             o approx. 4,500 round the world in a car (assuming 190 grams CO2 per km and
               the circumference of the world 40,000 km).

    •   A bottle of bottled water causes more than 1000 times as much CO2 emissions as the
        same quantity of tapwater2. The contribution to climate change can therefore be
        reduced by using tapwater in the first instance.
1
  Jämförelse av dricksvatten – översiktlig livscykelanalys (LCA) (“Comparison of drinking water – summary life-
cycle analysis (LCA)”), Stockholm Consumer Co-operative Society/SIK 2004,
www.konsumentforeningenstockholm.se
2
  This information is taken from Jämförelse av dricksvatten – översiktlig livscykelanalys (LCA) (“Comparison of
drinking water – summary life-cycle analysis (LCA)”), Stockholm Consumer Co-operative Society/SIK 2004,
www.konsumentforeningenstockholm.se and calculations by Anders Finnson, Swedish Water and Wastewater
Association.


                   Stockholm Co-operative Consumer Society/SIK                                              2