Keywords by liuzedongsd


									    Unit 2 Title,
Author/Affiliation and
• Title:
•   If we regard a paper as a
    commodity, then, the title is its
•   The similarity of the relation
    between a title and the paper to
    that of a name and the person is

•   A title can be vividly described as
General Functions
• Generalizing the Text
• Attracting the Reader
• Facilitating the Retrieval
•   Generalizing the Text
•   A title should summarize the central idea
    of the paper concisely and correctly.
•   It must be consistent with the contents
    of the document, and be highly
    representative of the central idea of the
•   By glancing at the title, the reader will
    immediately know, incorporating with the
    abstract, what is mainly dealt with in the
•   Attracting the Reader
•   An interesting title may draw
    particular attention among
•    Ideally, the title should be such
    that, by reading it, any professional
    reader can see whether the paper is
    worth reading at all.
•   Facilitating the Retrieval
•   A good title can help the reader in
    his search for information.
•   So, a title serves as an important
    index of information retrieval to
    meet the needs of extensive paper
    communication and information
    Linguistics Features
•   Using More Nouns, Noun Phrases
    and Gerunds
•   Using an Incomplete Sentences
•   Using More Nouns, Noun Phrases
    and Gerunds
•   The words or phases used in a title
    are very often nouns, noun phrases
    or gerunds, nominalizations, which
    usually are keywords for the paper,
    having the ability to sum up the
    whole text.
•   Using an Incomplete Sentence
•   A title is just a label or appellation
    of the paper, reflecting the main
    idea of the contents, so even when
    there is a need to give a title in the
    form of a sentence, it does not
    need to be a complete sentence.
    Writing Requirements
•   Be brief and Concise
•   Be specific
•   Avoid Question Titles
•   Being Unified
•   Being Standard
•   Be brief and Concise
•   At most how many words could a
    title include?
• The tile of a paper should be concise
  and succinct. Generally, a title is
  composed of no more than twenty
• If a title is too long, it would be too
  difficult for a reader to catch the
  meaning of the content and
  remember it.
• Of course, the title must be long
  enough to describe the content of
  the paper too short a title,
  sometimes, may bring about
• If the writer fails to state his idea
  clearly in a few words, what can he
• If the writer fails to state his idea
  clearly in a few words, he can use a
•   Be specific
•   In preparing the title of a paper, a
    general and abstract title should be
•   Avoid Question Titles

•   Why we have to avoid question
• A question title means a complete
  sentence in the question form. Such
  titles are usually not used in an
  academic paper (especially in natural
  sciences), because they always
  include some redundant question
  words and marks, for example, “Is
  there…?”, what is worse, such a title
  creates inconvenience for
  information retrieval.
•   Being Unified
•   The parallel parts of a title should
    be grammatically symmetrical.
    That is to say, nouns should be
    matched with nouns, gerunds with
    gerunds. In general, nouns and
    gerunds should not be mixed in a
    given title.
•   Being Standard
•   In general, nonstandard
    abbreviations and symbols, and/or
    any terms or phraseology intelligible
    可理解的 only to the specialist
    should be avoided, because the use
    of them could be inimical 在效果上不
    利的to efficient information
Give your comments on the
 following titles or revise
    them if necessary.
•   On Learning Foreign Languages and
    Cultural Background Teaching.
• *** Foreign Language Learning and
  Cultural Background Teaching
•   A Research on the Artificial Neural
    Network (ANN) Applied in the
    Analysis of Structural Mechanics
• *** An Application of the Artificial
  Neural Network in the Analysis of
  Structural Mechanics
•   Developing Computer Internet and
    the Spread of Culture and
• *** Developing Computer Internet
  and Spreading Culture and
•   Inputting Cross-cultural
    Information for More Effective
    English Teaching by Means of
    Inputting Cross-cultural
    Communication in General College
    English Teaching
• *** Inputting Cross-cultural
  Information for More Effective
  English Teaching --- A Means in
  General College English Teaching
•   Is Literature Useless in TOEFL?
• *** How to Use Literature in
  Teaching English as a Foreign
• Innovation and the Materials
• *** a little bit too general
• Focusing on the Communicative Skills
  --- Advanced English Communication
  Course for Non-English Major
  Postgraduates in Tsinghua University
• *** a good title
• A Bridge between Two Worlds
• *** A Bridge Between the Worlds
  of X and Y
•   Author/Affiliation:
General Functions
• Bearing Author's Responsibility
• Facilitating Retrieval and
• Heightening Celebrity
•   Bearing Author's Responsibility
•   Definitely, the author must perform the
    entire work of paper writing in person
    and be responsible for the content of
    the paper. That means if any
    consequence should arise from the
    publication of the paper, the authors
    should take it, without affecting the
    other members of the research team or
    people other than the authors.
•   Facilitating Retrieval and
•   Readers can correspond with the
    author, according to the affiliation.
•   Heightening Celebrity
•   The affiliation has two main
    functions. The first function is to
    facilitate correspondence;
•    the second, to bring the reputation
    gained through the publication of
    the paper to the author’s institution
    and his country.
   Linguistics Features:
• Rules of Spelling
• The name of a Chinese author is
  preferably spelt in accordance with
  the Chinese pinyin.
• Nowadays, a two-character name is quite
  popular among the Chinese authors, for
  example, Zhang Ming, Wang Wei, which
  often leads to difficulty for Westerners
  to pronounce the name, especially the
  family name, because they customarily
  take the last name as the family name.
  Under such circumstances, all the letters
  of the family names are preferably
  capitalized so as to distinguish the
  family name from the given or personal
  name. For example, ZHANG Ming and
  WANG Wei.
• Besides, use no abbreviations in the
  section of affiliation. Give adequate
  postal address, including ZIP or
  other postal codes and the name of
  the country.
    Writing Requirements
•   Printing Format Unified
•   Number of Authors
•   Professional Title Omitted
•   Address
•   Internal Units
•   Printing Format Unified
•   To be exact, the format and the
    printing style, as well as the other
    aspects should be unified and
• At most how many authors would be
• Can you name the reason why so many
  authors are allowed to be listed?
•   Number of Authors
•   In general, it is advised that the
    number of authors should not be
    over four. In case of real needed, it
    is advisable to use “et al.” after
    the principal authors. Too many
    authors listed may lead to
    inconvenience in author indexing.
•   Professional Title Omitted
•   The professional title,
    administrative rank or academic
    degree such as “Professor”,
    “President”, “Chief Manager”,
    “Doctor”, etc. are preferably
    omitted before the name of an
• If there must be a title included, it
  can be put together with the
  affiliation. For example:
•              XIN Qinghua
• Professor, Department of Foreign
  Languages, Tsinghua University
• Beijing 100084, the People’s Republic
  of China
•   Address
•   You are advised to present address
    and your permanent address at
• Internal Units
• The exact internal unit or too small a
  unit of the authors should not be
  written in the section of affiliation,
  especially those units that are
  incomprehensible for foreigners.
  They may be put in the footnotes if
• Keywords
General Functions
• Easiness of Retrieval
• Easiness of highlighting
•   Easiness of Retrieval
•   As the name implies, keywords are
    the most important words and
    phrases representative of the
    theme or subject matter of the
    paper, and frequently used in a
•   Readers can find out the theme of
    the paper by looking at the
•   Easiness of highlighting
•   The function of keywords is to
    facilitate the information retrieval
    and accentuate 着重强调 the gist of
    the paper.
Linguistics Features:
• Nominalization
• Limited Number
• Designated Choice
•   Nominalization
•   Key words are usually used in the
    form of nouns, not verbs.
•   Limited Number
•   The number of keywords for a
    paper should be limited.
•   At least and at most how many
    keywords are appropriate?
• Four to six keywords are the
  average. In general, there should
  be at least 2 and at most 8.
• Designated Choice
• Where are the keywords of a paper
  usually from?
• The keywords of a paper usually come
  from the title and / or the
  abstract, where the key terms of
  words and phrases are usually
    Writing Requirements
•   Using Required terms
•   Placing in Right Location
•   Spacing the Keywords
•   Adopting Standard
•   Using Required terms
•   The terms of keywords should be
    consistent with the requirements of
    the journal to which you submit
    your paper. The section “keywords”,
    is also variously called “keywords
    index”, “keywords and phrases”,
    “indexing terms”, etc.
• (2) Placing in Right Location
• Where should we place the keywords,
  above or below the abstract?
• Though keywords can either above
  or below the abstract of a paper,
  they are yet, in most cases, placed
  below the abstract.
• (3)Spacing the Keywords
• Keywords are not necessarily all
  capitalized, except the first letter
  of keywords as a heading.
• What do we use to space the
• Is there a full stop at end of the
• (3)Spacing the Keywords
• Keywords are not necessarily all
  capitalized, except the first letter
  of keywords as a heading. Use comma
  (,) or semicolon (;) to separate the
  words. Larger partition or space
  can also be used instead of
  punctuation. Do not use full stop(.)
  after the last keyword.
• (4)Adopting Standard Abbreviations,
• Standard abbreviations are
  preferred in the section of keywords.
  All abbreviated words should be in
  conformity with ISO norms.
• ISO norms: International Standard
Give your comments on the
   following keywords or
revise them if necessary.
• English, vocabulary, tendency.
• *** without a period (full stop) at
  the end of the keywords
• CollocationContextConnotation
• *** using a larger space between
• Keywords: Five-year plans; economic
  conditions; industry statistical data;
  foreign investment; chemical industry
• *** good
•   Keywords: mass media
• *** too general
• Keywords: nuclear waste, nuclear fuel
  cycle, remediation, bioremediation,
  citrobacter, heavy metal
  accumulation, uranium transuranic
  elements, tecnetium,
  tributylphosphate, ethylene diamine
  tetraacetic acid (EDTA)
• *** too many words and too
• III Write out the titles and
  keywords on the basis of the
  following abstracts.

• With the development of multimedia
  technology, more and more people get
  information by “reading” computer’s screen
  and it results in a new communication
  problem. When developing a multimedia
  presentation program, it is very important
  to organize the multimedia materials in the
  way that the “reader” could control the
  program conveniently, concentrate on the
  main point quickly and enjoy the
  presentation easily.
• Titles: The New Communication
  Problem in Multimedia Presentation
• Keywords: communication problem,
  multimedia presentation

• This paper examines usage of Chinese
  typography(印刷排版式样)in a
  selection of recent award-winning
  advertisements from the Mainland
  China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. It
  argues that the visual expression of
  “Chinese” identity through
  typography reflects the three
  distinct cultural contexts in which
  the advertisements were produced.
• Title: One Language, Three
  Systems: Chinese Typography in
  Advertising in the Mainland China,
  Hong Kong and Taiwan
• Keywords: One language three
  systems typography advertising

• In the 21st century, the most fierce competitions
  are in the supply of talented people of high
  quality, not in industry and scientific technology.
  If, to say, the 20th century is still an era in which
  “wealth comes from material resource", then the
  21st century is going to be a completely new era in
  which “wealth comes from human resources.” To
  transform the “Examination-oriented Education”
  into the “Quality-oriented Education” is not a
  partial adjustment of teaching methods, rather, it
  is a systematic program that involves various
  concepts such as the change of education thinking,
  the reform of educational structure and the
  renovation of teaching methods.
• Title: China’ Higher Education
  Facing the Challenge of the 21st
• Keywords: higher education,
  challenge, 21st century

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