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participate in the work. The main reason is that under NREGA, the daily wage is only
Rs.125/- whereas in agriculture they receive Rs.175/- per day and in masonry work they
receive Rs.225/-per day. Another reason that the APL/BPL families are not willing to
participate in NREGA that under the scheme after work they would have to wait for two or
three weeks for wages whereas in other works they received the wages on the very same

Process of Implementation of NREGS in Alanallur Panchayat
Communication measures introduced for the awareness of NREGS

       In Alanallur Panchayat Kudumbasree meetings were conducted for NREGS and ADS
are aware of the NREGS. ADS supervisors reach every household and make them aware of
it. Ward meeting of Kudumbasree, ADS meeting, and grama sabhas are some other ways
awareness is generated.     Notice regarding NREGS is also issued in the Panchayat for
awareness.   The panchayat arranges training to the members for awareness creation.
Local news papers, TV and Radio make aware of NREGS.          Special grama sabhas were
conducted for awareness work and ward wise supervisory committees are trained to
create awareness for SC/ST people.
Plan formulation
       Effective planning is necessary for successful implementation of the NREGS,
especially to ensure the timely generation of employment within 15 days. The need to
act within the time limit requires advance planning.

       In Alanallur Panchayat from the year 2006-07, an action plan has been formulated
for each ward. There are 22 wards in the panchayat. Abstract for panchayat showing
types of work taken up is also prepared in addition to detailed ward wise details of work.
Ward wise details of each ward contain name of work, amount proposed for the work,
wage component, other component, man days proposed, number of labours required,
month of executions etc.,

       In each ward Kudumbasree meeting were conducted and details of works, planned
by the people in the area,       discussed with expert technical group.     Grama sabha
meeting discussed the works monitoring committee formulated the projects. Engineer
Agriculture workers, women,     SC category people etc., are included in the committee
special grama sabhas are formed for finding out shelf of projects according to the norm of

Registration and employment details
      Grama Panchayat registers the household after making enquiries and issues a job
card affixing their photographs. Public have the facility to verify their own details. A
primary survey is conducted by the panchayat to enumerate all the families and their
adult members.      Grama sabha arranged a hearing of the complaints on registration if
any. The final list is put up in the board of panchayat office and updated. The process of
registration is opened at the panchayat. After distribution of job card, receipt of work
application is executed. Individuals may give the application to the panchayat and the
panchayat will give dated receipt.

Approved works, execution and agencies involved
       In Alanallur Panchayat a shelf of works is selected in the Panchayat and some are
selected for implementation. Some planned works are changed because of execution
difficulties. In the Panchayat no difficulty is faced for planning work. Enough engineers
and technical people are in the Panchayat. People would like to include some more work
other than permissible works. Material works are rarely included in the executed work.
Lack of co-ordination was reported by some members in the Panchayat. Materials are
arranged by purchase committee. The labour material ratio 60:40 is not acceptable in the
Panchayat, which feels it should be free to choose the ratio.

Payment of wages

       In Alanallur Panchayat, bank accounts are opened simultaneously with the job
card distribution. Mates keep the muster roll and mark the daily attendance. Details of
each worker’s working days are provided to the bank.            Workers draw their wages
themselves through their bank account. Wages are delayed due to lack of officers in the
Panchayat (NREGA Cell). There is a minimum of two weeks delay in the Panchayat for
payment. Insurance scheme has not been opened in the Panchayat. No workers are aware
of the insurance scheme.

Monitoring and Evaluation Method

The State has evolved norms for measurement of works. These are recorded in the
measurement books maintained by qualified technical personal in charge of the work site.
Verification should be done by qualified personnel a week before payment of wages.
Measurement should be done on a daily basis and in a transparent fashion, but the extent
to which this is actually followed was not clear.

       In Alanallur Panchayat, ADS supervisors (mate) monitor the daily work. In addition
to this, the overseer also visits the work place three times: at the start of the work, in the
middle and at completion. The ward member and officer in charge of NREGA also visit the
work place.

Transparency and Accountability

   NREGA Act gives a central role to social audits as a means of continuous public
vigilance. The basic objective of social audit is to ensure public accountability in the
implementations of projects laws and policies. In the social audit all details of project
are scrutinized. The purpose is to ensure complete transparency in the process of
administrative and decision making process for all affected persons.          There is great
accountability of elected representatives and government functionaries to answer
questions and provide explanations. Social audit is a continuous process, and includes
public vigilance and verification in different stages of implementation i.e. upto the
evaluation of completed work.

       This Panchayat was selected for the study based on their low performance. It is
observed from the table on employment that less than half of the households with job
cards were provided employment, and only 28 households received 100 days of
employment in four years of NREGS implementation. It is understood from the Panchayat
authorities that the Panchayat is a Muslim belt area and the majority of the families
include migrants with foreign employers. Although they have registered for and obtained
job cards, they do not intend to work as NREGA workers. At the time of registration they
thought that the work would be in the form of white collar jobs, and this misconception
led to the higher level of registration for job cards.

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