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					Why was the Judiciary Act of 1789
                    The Constitution had
                     authorized Congress to
                     establish a federal court
                     system, but didn’t provide
                    The Judiciary Act set up a
                     Supreme Court, three federal
                     circuit courts, and thirteen
                     federal district courts.
                     Although these numbers have
                     expanded, the essential
                     structure has remained the
                     same through today.
                    Section 25 of the Act also
                     allowed state decisions to be
                     appealed to federal courts,
                     thus confirming that federal
                     laws trump state laws.
Why is Article 6 of the Constitution
                     This section of the
                      Constitution guarantees
                      that federal laws
                      remained the “supreme
                      Law of the Land.” In
                      other words, the federal
                      government ‘trumps’ the
                      state governments.
                     This clause is usually
                      cited by those who
                      favored a strong central
                      government over state
Who made up GW’s Cabinet?
                 GW’s closest advisers
                 Henry Knox as
                  Secretary of War;
                 AH as Secretary of the
                 TJ as Secretary of
                  State; and
                 Edmund Randolph as
                  Attorney General.
What were some of TJ’s main
                 Because he distrusted the
                  wealthy and monarchy,
                  he believed in states’
                 He believed in a nation
                  based on farmer-citizens.
                 He believed in a ‘strict’
                  interpretation of the
                  Constitution, meaning
                  that the government had
                  rights only explicitly
                  outlined in the document
What were some of AH’s main
                 AH believed in a strong central
                  government, run by the elite.
                 AH believed that industry and
                  commerce would make the
                  nation prosperous.
                 He also had a ‘loose’
                  interpretation of the
                  Constitution, meaning that the
                  government can do whatever
                  is ‘necessary and proper’ to
                  carry out its enumerated
                      This was based on the Elastic
                       Clause, or Article 1, Section 8,
                       Number 18 of the Constitution
Describe some the key components of
        AH’s economic plans:
                      As an incentive for creditors to
                       support the new federal
                       government, AH proposed that
                       the federal government assume
                       the state’s debts. This greatly
                       favored the North because it all
                       but guaranteed the creditors
                       would be repaid. He hoped that
                       the rich would have an incentive
                       to see the new government
                      AH also helped establish the Bank
                       of the United States. This would
                       be funded by wealthy investors
                       and the government.
                           Opponents claimed that this
                            would forge an ‘unhealthy
                            alliance’ between the government
                            and the rich.
                           To appease them, AH proposed
                            that the capital be moved from
                            NYC to the District of Columbia,
                            between Maryland and Virginia.
What did TJ do in response to the
direction the new government was
                    TJ started his own
                     political party: the
                    Later, they became
                     known as the
                     and found support in the
                     South and West.
                    They were the ancestors
                     of today’s Democratic
What kind of taxes did Congress
 institute to help pay down the
          national debt?
                   Protective tariffs are those
                    placed on foreign imports.
                    Although they raise prices,
                    they help domestic industries.
                   Excise taxes are levied on a
                    product’s manufacture, sale, or
                   An excise tax was placed on
                    whiskey. When farmers
                    rebelled in the Whiskey
                    Rebellion, GW and AH led
                    federal troops to quell the
                    uprising. It was the first time
                    the new government passed a
                    tax and forced payment. It
                    was also a show of strength by
                    the new government.
  Who tried to garner American
support for the French Revolution?
                    Edmond Genet hoped to
                     persuade the US to honor
                     the Treaty of 1778 and
                     aid France to overthrow
                     the monarchy.
                    However, when GW
                     issued his declaration of
                     neutrality, Genet
                     continued to recruit
                     American aid.
                    TJ supported the French
                     Revolution and was
                     widely criticized. Thus,
                     he resigned from the
What did the Treaty of San Lorenzo
                      Fearing a British-American
                       alliance in retaliation for
                       their treaty with France,
                       Spain agreed to negotiate
                       with the US.
                      Spain gave up claims to
                       land east of the Mississippi,
                       except Florida. The
                       northern boundary for FL
                       was set at the 31st parallel.
                      Spain also agreed to open
                       the Mississippi River and
                       New Orleans to American
                       shippers and traders.
                      This was also known as
                       Pinckney’s Treaty.
What battle ended Native
  resistance in Ohio?
               Natives in the Ohio region
                never accepted the terms of
                the Treaty of Paris and
                continued to fight for their
               After two successful battles
                against the whites, Miami
                chieftain Little Turtle urged
               However, General ‘Mad
                Anthony’ Wayne defeated the
                Miami at the Battle of Fallen
                Timbers in 1794. This ended
                Native resistance in Ohio.
               The Treaty of Greenville was
                signed and began a pattern in
                which the government paid the
                Natives much less than what
    What did Jay’s Treaty determine?

   The British agreed to evacuate the forts in the Northwest
    Territory after the news of the Battle of Fallen Timbers
   The fur trade continued along the Canadian border, but
    a British military presence was gone.
What election highlighted the
 danger of sectionalism?
                     The election of 1796
                      displayed sectionalism,
                      or placing the interests
                      of one region over that
                      of the nation as a whole.
                     Almost all the electors
                      from the South voted for
                      TJ (Republican) because
                      he favored state
                      government and
                      agriculture, while all the
                      electors from the North
                      voted for Adams
                      (Federalist) because he
                      supported industry and
What were the Alien and Sedition
                   In response to anti-French
                    sentiment, Congress passed a
                    series of measures:
                       They raised the residency
                        requirement for American
                        citizenship from 5 to 14 years;
                       They allowed the president to
                        jail or deport anyone
                        considered to be undesirable;
                       They also set fines and jail
                        terms for anyone expressing
                        ‘false, scandalous, and
                        malicious statements’ about
                        the government.
                       Under these acts, the
                        government prosecuted many
                        Democratic-Republicans for
                        opposing the government.
How did the D-Rs respond to the
   Alien and Sedition Acts?
                   The D-Rs claimed the
                    A&S Acts were violations
                    of freedom of speech.
                   James Madison crafted
                    the Virginia Resolution,
                    while TJ drafted the
                    Kentucky Resolutions.
                   These stated the policy of
                    nullification, or the right
                    of the states to void any
                    act of the federal
                    government they deemed
Why was the election of 1800
                    This election pitted DR TJ
                     against Federalist John
                    TJ got the same electoral
                     college votes as Aaron
                     Burr, his VP. The HoR
                     was called upon to decide
                     who should become
                         Because AH supported
                          TJ, Burr shot and killed
                          AH in a duel.
                    The 12th Amendment was
                     added to the Constitution
                     to require that separate
                     ballots be cast for the
                     Pres & VP candidates.
What did John Adams do on the
    last day as President?
                  Because the Judiciary Act
                   of 1801 increased the
                   amount of federal judges,
                   Adams appointed
                   Federalist judges on his
                   last day before TJ would
                   take over.
                  The judges were called
                   ‘midnight judges’ and
                   angered TJ because of
                   the late timing.
Why was Marbury v. Madison
                   Chief Justice John
                    Marshall affirmed
                    the principle of
                    judicial review.
                   Judicial review is
                    the ability of the
                    Supreme Court to
                    declare an act of
                    Congress as
What major land purchase did TJ
     make as president?
                     Napoleon sold his claim to
                      the Louisiana Territory to
                      TJ in 1803.
                     TJ was conflicted because
                      as a strict constructionist,
                      there was nothing in the
                      Constitution about
                      acquiring land.
                     However, after the
                      purchase, TJ authorized the
                      Corps of Discovery to
                      chronicle the land.
                      Lewis&Clark were greatly
                      assisted by Sacajawea, who
                      served as an interpreter
                      and guide.
What were some of the main
reasons for the War of 1812?
                 The British blockade of
                  American ships bound for
                 British impressment and
                  harassment of US sailors,
                  such as in the
                  Chesapeake incident; and
                 British assistance of the
                  Native Americans whom
                  were still fighting with
                  white settlers over the
Why was Tecumseh’s role leading
up to the War of 1812 important?
                   Shawnee chief Tecumseh and
                    his brother, Prophet, traveled
                    through the US and the
                    territories building a
                    confederation of Natives to
                    fight against the US
                   In response, General William
                    Henry Harrison defeated the
                    Shawnee at the Battle of
                    Tippecanoe in the Indiana
                   When it was discovered that
                    the Natives had been using
                    weapons supplied by the
                    British, southern and western
                    Congressional ‘war hawks,’ led
                    by Henry Clay, demanded war
                    with Britain.
What were some of the major
 effects of the War of 1812?
            Leading up to the war, TJ’s Embargo Act
             in response to the blockades had
             stimulated industrialization in the US.
            WHH, because of Tippecanoe, and AJ,
             because of New Orleans, became war
             heroes. AJ’s victory over the Natives at
             the Battle of Horseshoe Bend destroyed
             Native power in the South.
            The Capitol and the White House were
             burned. Dolly Madison saved this portrait
             of GW from the flames.
            The Treaty of Ghent and subsequent
             treaties established peace, land rights,
             and demilitarized the Great Lakes
             between the US and Britain.
  Now that you know a bunch of
these ‘founding fathers,’ who is on
     each of the dollar bills?
                     One dollar: GW
                     Two dollar: TJ
                     Five dollar: Lincoln
                     Ten dollar: AH
                     Twenty dollar: AJ
                     Fifty dollar: US Grant
                     Hundred dollar:
                                 Ben Franklin

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