Syntax by chchxinxin

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									Intro to Syntax
Review of Style Analysis
The Style of a text refers to its use of Language
Conventions such as:
•Diction (word choice)
•Detail
•Imagery
•Tone
•Punctuation
•Syntax: Structure (sentence type and form)

If we look carefully at these Language Conventions, we
can determine the overall purpose, aesthetic beauty, and
the rhetorical arguments present in the piece.
Syntax (Not a tax on sinful purchases)
   Refers to the Structure of the language.
   Length of sentences
   Order of parts of speech
   Inclusion of subordinate clauses
   Type of sentence
Terms That Contribute to Syntax
   Simple sentences
   Complex sentences
   Repetition
   Inverted syntax
   Punctuation
   Dependent clause
   Independent clause
Types of Sentences
   Standard/Simple: Subject + verb + modifier
       The dog crossed the street.
   Inverted: modifier + verb + subject or verb +
    subject + modifier
       The street was crossed by the dog.
   Complex: (Subject + verb + modifier) + (subject +
    verb + modifier).
       The dog crossed the street in order to pursue the
        annoying cat (the cat is the direct object).
Clauses (Other than Santa)
   Independent clause: stand alone idea with
    a subject & verb, a complete idea.

   Dependent/Subordinate clause: fragment
    used to clarify, add to, or qualify the main
    idea.
Types of Sentences
Parallel  Structure—where a set of information is
listed with similar structure.


   Wrong Usage: I like to run       Correct Usage: I like
    in the park, sleeping late,       running in the park,
    and it's also fun to make         sleeping late, and
    home videos.
                                      making home videos.
Types of Complex Sentences
   Periodic Sentence
   Loose Sentence
   Interrupted Sentence
Types of Complex Sentences
   Periodic Sentence—Where the sentence is not
    complete until the final clause.
   Effect: Saves punch for the end, reader kept in suspense.
   "Democracy is that system of government under which
    people, having 60,000,000 native-born adults to choose from,
    including thousands who are handsome and many who are
    wise, pick out a Coolidge to be head of state. It is as if a
    hungry man, set before a banquet prepared by master cooks
    and covering a table an acre in area, should turn his back
    upon the feast and stay his stomach by catching and eating
    flies."
    (H. L. Mencken, "The Comedian")
Types of Complex Sentences
   Loose Sentence—contains a complete sentence
    followed by subordinate clauses.
I let my mind wander. After a moment I may notice that I’m trying to
    decide whether or not I am too old for orthodontia and whether right
    now would be a good time to make a few calls, and then I start to
    think about learning to use makeup and how maybe I could find
    some boyfriend who is not a total and complete fixer-upper and
    then my life would be totally great and I’d be happy all the time, and
    then I think about all the people I should have called back before I
    sat down to work, and how I should probably at least check in with
    my agent and tell him this great idea I have and see if he thinks it’s
    a good idea and see if he thinks I need orthodontia—if that is what
    he is actually thinking whenever we have lunch together.
Anne Lamott, Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life
Types of Complex Sentences
 Interrupted Sentence—where the complete
  thought is broken up by dependent clauses.
The heron, egret, and stork colonies in Everglades
  National Park that once each contained tens of
  thousands of birds whose bustling extravagance
  helped inspire the founding in 1905 of the
  National Association of Audubon Societies (later
  the National Audubon Society) have shrunk by 95
  percent since the1930s.
Norman Boucher, "Back to the Everglades,"
  Technology Review
Types of Sentences
   Declarative: states a fact or opinion
   Interrogative: asks a question
   Exclamatory: emphatic statement
   Imperative: indirect or direct command
Sample 1
       “But George sat stiffly on the bank and looked at his
             right hand that had thrown the gun away.”
                 -John Steinbeck, Of Mice and Men
1.   The subordinate/dependent clause, “that had thrown the
     gun away”, is used as an adjective to modify* the word
     “hand.” What effect does this have on the meaning of the
     sentence?

•    *Modify: a word, phrase or entire clause that describe and provide
     more accurate definitional meaning for another element.
Sample 1
“But George sat stiffly on the bank and looked at his
       right hand that had thrown the gun away.”
         -John Steinbeck, Of Mice and Men
1. The subordinate/dependent clause, “that had
   thrown the gun away”, is used as an adjective to
   modify the word “hand.” What effect does this
   have on the meaning of the sentence?
The focus of the action, “throwing” is as if the hand
   acted independently, not under George’s control.
   This suggests that George is not at fault for the
   shooting.
Sample 1
“But George sat stiffly on the bank and looked at his
       right hand that had thrown the gun away.”
          -John Steinbeck, Of Mice and Men
2. Compare Steinbeck’s sentence with the following:
“George, who had thrown the gun away, sat stiffly
   on the bank and looked at his right hand.”
How does this change in modifier change the
   meaning?
(Use the table on the following slide.)
Sample 1
               Subordinate Clause   Noun   Effect on Meaning


Steinbeck’s
Sentence




New Sentence
Sample 1
               Subordinate Clause   Noun     Effect on Meaning


Steinbeck’s    That had             Hand     The hand is
Sentence       thrown the                    responsible
               gun away.                     for the action.


New Sentence   Who had              George   George is at
               thrown the                    fault for the
               gun away.                     shooting.
Sample 2
I hear an army charging upon the land, and the thunder of
   horses plunging, foam about their knees: arrogant, in black
   armor, behind them stand, disdaining the reins, with
   fluttering whips, the charioteers.
James Joyce, “I hear an Army Charging Upon the Land.”


1. The subject of the verb “stand” in line 3 is “charioteers” at
   the end of line 4. How does this inversion of the normal
   word order (subject-verb) affect the impact of those lines?
Sample 2
I hear an army charging upon the land, and the thunder of
   horses plunging, foam about their knees: arrogant, in black
   armor, behind them stand, disdaining the reins, with
   fluttering whips, the charioteers.
James Joyce, “I hear an Army Charging Upon the Land.”
1. The subject of the verb “stand” in line 3 is “charioteers” at
   the end of line 4. How does this inversion of the normal
   word order (subject-verb) affect the impact of those lines?
The delayed detail of the subject, the charioteers,
   makes the reader anticipate what the noun is. Also,
   the reader gets the details that describe what the
   action and imagery are first.
Sample 2
I hear an army charging upon the land, and the thunder of
   horses plunging, foam about their knees: arrogant, in black
   armor, behind them stand, disdaining the reins, with
   fluttering whips, the charioteers.
James Joyce, “I hear an Army Charging Upon the Land.”
2. Examine the adjectives and adjective phrases in lines 3
   and 4: “arrogant, in black armor.” What word do these
   adjectives modify? How does this unusual word order
   affect the impact of the lines?
Sample 2
I hear an army charging upon the land, and the thunder of
   horses plunging, foam about their knees: arrogant, in black
   armor, behind them stand, disdaining the reins, with
   fluttering whips, the charioteers. James Joyce, “I hear an
   Army Charging Upon the Land.”
2. Examine the adjectives and adjective phrases in lines 3
   and 4: “arrogant, in black armor.” What word do these
   adjectives modify? How does this unusual word order
   affect the impact of the lines?
The phrases characterizes the charioteers as being dark
   (black) and proud (arrogant) which suggests that they
   are evil and have the intention to commit dastardly
   deeds.
Where do I go from here?
   As you read, question why the author structured
    the words in the way she did.
   Ask yourself how the meaning would change if it
    was worded differently.
   Judge the effect of the syntax and the emotion
    and/or response from the reader.
   Try to be conscious of how syntax affects your
    own writing.
Syntax Templates
   The author uses _________ syntax in this
    sentence to place emphasis on…
   The text contains ________ syntax that
    places attention on …
   This piece has ________ syntax in order to
    create a ______ response in the reader.
Assignment
Look over “Cruelty and Clemency,” the selection of text
from The Prince by Machiavelli, and find 5 sentences
that reveal his usage of Language Conventions with
regard to Syntax, Diction, Detail, and Sentence Type
and the effect.

•Keeps the reader in suspense
•Creates conversational tone
•Adds to the flow of the language
•And so on.
Assignment
Format your Sentence Analysis like this:

Sentence                      Analysis
Here you will write the       Here you will explain
  sentence you found            what the effect of the
  some an effect of the         syntactical structure
  syntax.                       contributes to the
                                “sound” of the
                                language.

								
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