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					Table 1002. Computers and Office and Accounting Machines--Shipments: 2002 to 2004

[Quantity in thousands of units (21,252 represents 21,252,000,
value in millions of dollars (40,448 represents $40,448,000,000)]

                                                               Number of                     Quantity                        Value
                                                               Companies                     (1,000)                   (million dollars)

                                                               2003        2004       2002       2003     2004       2002       2003           2004
Electronic computers (automatic data
 processors)                                                    111        109      21,252     23,029   24,492   40,448.3   38,270.6       39,540.3

 Host computers (multi-users):
   Large scale systems and unix servers                             12      13        127         175      94     3,196.7    3,184.4       2,463.3
   Medium-scale systems and unix servers                            17      17        285         (D)     (D)     6,703.8        (D)           (D)
   PC servers                                                       21      21        (D)         (D)     (D)         (D)        (D)           (D)
   Other host computers                                              8       7        (D)         (D)     (D)         (D)        (D)           (D)
 Single user computers:
   Personal computers                                               29      29      14,138     14,950   15,790   16,030.2   14,709.0       15,272.3
   Workstations                                                     35      33       1,186      1,168    1,027    2,407.4    1,990.9        1,911.8
   Laptops (AC/DC)                                                   8       8           8          9       42       23.4       25.0           71.7
   Notebooks, subnotebooks (battery operated)                       13      12       4,491      5,107    5,641    7,850.2    8,161.2        8,603.7
   Personal digital assistants                                       5       5         (D)        (D)      (D)        (D)        (D)            (D)
   Other portable computers                                          4       4         (D)        (D)      (D)        (D)        (D)            (D)
   Other single user computers                                       5       4         317        315      416      274.8      277.8          304.4
 Other computers                                                    28      26         112        164      184      809.1      870.2          590.0

Computer storage devices and equipment                              51      51        (X)         (X)     (X)     5,026.9    5,101.0       5,065.4
Parts for computer storage devices and
 subassemblies                                                   16         16        (X)         (X)     (X)     1,578.0    1,129.5         990.7
Computer terminals                                               24         25        (X)         (X)     (X)       266.1      258.0         298.6
Parts for computer terminals                                      6          6        (X)         (X)     (X)         (D)        1.3           1.7
Computer peripheral equipment, n.e.c. \1                        185        185        (X)         (X)     (X)    10,460.4    9,482.6       9,373.4
  Keyboards                                                      21         19        (D)       1,100     195         (D)       46.5          34.0
  Computer printers:
      Laser                                                      22         20      2,327       2,040   2,694     1,853.7    1,998.4        1,293.1
      Inkjet                                                      8          8        (D)         (D)     (D)         (D)        (D)            (D)
Calculating and accounting machines                              34         34        (X)         (X)     (X)       844.6      923.4          734.7
Printed circuit assemblies                                      618        615        (X)         (X)     (X)    23,170.8   19,714.7       19,838.3
Magnetic and optical recording media                             34         34        (X)         (X)     (X)     2,207.3    2,270.8        1,882.4

X Not applicable.
D Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual companies.

\1 n.e.c. = not elsewhere classsified.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Industrial Reports, Series MA334R. See also
<http://www.census.gov/industry/1/ma334r04.pdf> (released August 2005).


To provide detailed data on quantity and total value of shipments of computers
United States Code, Title 13, authorizes this survey and provides for mandator


Companies that manufacture computers, magnetic media, and office and accountin
in SIC 357 and 3695), except small firms (generally less than 10 employees) fo
administrative records. In 1993, shipments of covered equipment totaled over $


Product data are collected for over 100 types of computers, and office and acc
include quantity and value of shipments.


Annually; reported data are for activities taking place during the previous ca
accounting machines have been collected since 1953.


A mail-out/mail-back survey of 1,750 known manufacturers. Companies are identi
Standard Statistical Establishment List, and private sources. Firms are contac
firms later provide corrected data. Annual data are compared with data collect
to reconcile any differences between the two series. No estimates are derived


Computers. These automatic data processing units are
capable of:(1)performing arithmetic computations,(2)
processing data in accordance with a processing program,
(3)immediately storing the processing program and the
data necessary for execution of the processing program,
and (4)executing a processing program without human
intervention,on the basis of instructions contained in the
program,to automatically modify execution by logical
decision during the performance of processing tasks.
General-purpose computers. A computer designed to
solve a large variety of problems;e. g. ,a stored program
computer that may be adapted to any of a very large class
of applications.

Digital computers. A computer that processes informa-
tion represented by combinations of discrete or discon-
tinuous data,compared with an analog computer for con-
tinuous data. More specifically,it is a device for
performing sequences or arithmetic and logical opera-
tions. Still more specifically,it is a stored program digital
computer capable of performing sequences of internally
stored instructions,as opposed to calculators,on which a
sequence is impressed manually.

Analog computers. A computer that represents variables
by physical analogies. Thus,any computer that solves
problems by translating physical conditions such as flow,
temperature,pressure,angular position,or voltage into
related mechanical or electrical equivalent circuits as an
analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. In
general,it is a computer that uses an analog for each vari-
able and produces analogs as output. Thus,an analog
computer measures continuously;whereas,a digital com-
puter counts discretely.

Hybrid computers. A computer designed with both digi-
tal and analog characteristics,combining the advantages
of analog as well as digital computers,when working as a
system. Hybrid computers are used extensively in simula-
tion process control systems where it is necessary to have
a close representation with the physical world. The hybrid
system provides better precision than can be attained with
analog computers and greater speed than is possible with
digital computers,plus the ability to accept input data in
either form.

Special-purpose computers. A special-purpose com-
puter is a general-purpose computer programmed and/or
configured to operate upon a restricted class of problems.
Peripheral equipment for computers. In a data pro-
cessing system,any equipment,distinct from the process-
ing unit,that may provide the system with outside com-
munication or additional facilities. Includes input/output
typewriters and displays sold as part of a large office
system. Included are:

Input/output equipment. Terminals include those units
that,in addition to their capabilities of displaying data or
accepting data input,are capable of performing other
functions such as stamping approvals for bank account
withdrawals,time stamping,and issuing receipts. A unit is
included if it meets all of the following conditions:

1. It is connectable to the processing unit either directly
or through one or more other units;

2. It is specifically designed as part of such a system. (It
must in particular,unless it is a power supply unit,be
able to accept or deliver data in a form (code or sig-
nals)that can be used by the system. )

Computer storage devices. Storage in addition to the main
storage of a computer;e. g. ,magnetic tapes,disks,or
magnetic drums. Auxiliary storage usually holds much
larger amounts of information than the main storage,and
the information is accessible less rapidly. Computer termi-
nals. A point at which information can enter or leave a
computer communication network. An input/output
device to send or receive data in an environment associ-
ated with the job to be performed,capable of transmitting
entries to and obtaining output from the computer system
of which it is a part.

Cash registers. Stand-alone electronic devices,including
adding device with cash drawer and excluding terminals
that have interactive communication capablities. Firmware
based,fixed or parameterized function devices developed
primarily for cash control,with limited transaction or mer-
chandise information as a byproduct.

Fund transfer devices. Devices facilitating the handling of
various financial transactions involving the consumer and
financial institutions. Typically,these devices provide ser-
vices such as account status inquiries,transfers of funds
to and from various accounts,withdrawals,deposits,and

Point-of-sale devices. Devices facilitating the handling of
various retail transactions involving the sale,exchange,or
return of merchandise or service.

Accounting machines. A keyboard actuated machine
that prepares accounting records. A machine that may
read data from external storage media such as cards or
tapes,and automatically produces accounting records or
tabulations,usually on continuous forms.
Calculating machines. Devices requiring manual means
for entering numerical data for performance of arithmetic
operations. These machines,by nature,require frequent
operator intervention. A calculator uses separate,fixed
storage areas for its programs and for the storage of data.
These machines cannot execute programs that modify
themselves during their execution. There are two major
classifications of these machines:printing calculating
machines print one or more of the significant elements of
computation;nonprinting calculating machines display
one or more of the significant elements of computations.
Includes both three-and four-operation printing calcula-
tors. Three-operation printing calculators are those incor-
porating short-cut multiplication and/or fully automatic
multiplication and division.

Duplicating machines. A machine in which an ink image
on a master is transferred onto a copy paper.

Postage franking machines. Machines that print a
design in place of the postage stamp. The machine has a
non-reversible totalling device that adds up the total value
of the postage printed. In addition,the machine can often
be used for other printing on the envelope;e. g. ,advertis-
ing slogans.

Dictating,transcribing,and recording machines and
systems. Machines that are designed as office machines
for conference recording,combination dictating,and tele-
phone recording used to produce a written record,but
excluding home-type wire and tape recorders. A single
recording unit with a number of dictating stations should
be counted as one unit or system. A system consists of a
recorder and a transcribing unit with more than one dictat-
ing station.

Standard typewriters. Machines,electric or nonelectric,
designed solely for preparation of documents with letter
printlike characters and symbols that are operated manu-
ally by consecutive depressing of keyboard keys. A type-
writer contains a four-row keyboard,including alpha and
numeric as well as special symbols. It may or may not
include special attachments to be used in the preparation
of addresses or other stencils,braille typing for the blind,
and similar materials. In addition,it may or may not
include special carriages,pin-feed platens,and other
devices used to increase the speed of the typing on con-
tinuous forms. Machines that include accounting registers
are excluded.

Bar code. An array of rectangular bars and spaces
arranged in a predetermined pattern,following unambigu-
ous rules in a specific way,to represent elements of data
that are referred to as characters.

Code reader or scanner. A device that examines a spa-
tial pattern,one part after another,and generates analog
or digital signals corresponding to the pattern. The major
components of a bar code scanner are a illumination
source,a photodetector device,and a microcomputer. A
focused light beam is moved across the symbol (bar
code),the reflected light is received by the photodetector,
which in turn generates a voltage (analog signal)that is
proportional to the amount of light reflected by the signal.
The signal from the photodetector is conditioned by pre-
processor circuitry before being presented to the micro-
computer for analysis.

Decoder. An electronic package that receives the signals
from the scanner,and then performs the algorithm to
interpret the signals into meaningful data and provides
the interface to other devices.

Optical character recognition (OCR). Relies on a sen-
sor to differentiate between light-reflecting background
and printed data that do not reflect light. Output from the
sensor is fed to a set of recognition logics,and then for-
warded to the computer.

Magnetic strip. Records,or encodes,information onto a
material,using low or high energy electromagnetic
charges. These charges or signals can then be read by a
decorder that translates them into numbers and characters
for identification by a computer.

Radio frequency. A system based on the ability of an
identification tag (transponder)to receive radio frequency
signals and output a code to a reader.

Voice recognition. A computer recognizes words i a
preprogrammed vocabulary. The operator speaks the
words into a microphone,and the word or phrase is recog-
nized by the machine and converted into electronic
impulses for the micro or host computer.
Machine vision. Devices used for optical noncontact
sensing to receive and interpret automatically an image of
a real scene,to obtain information,and/or to control
machines or processes.

Image processor. Selects and interprets data to deter-
mine an object s position,location,shape,and size.
nts of computers, and office and accounting machines. The
des for mandatory responses.

ce and accounting machines in the U.S. (most but not all are
10 employees) for which census of manufactures data were from
t totaled over $58 billion.

d office and accounting machines. Data at the 7-digit SIC level

 the previous calendar year. Data on computers and office and

anies are identified from the latest census of manufactures,
Firms are contacted using form MA35R. Data may be revised if
ith data collected from the latest annual survey of manufactures
tes are derived for small firms excluded from the survey.