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					PRACTICALS
UPPER LIMBS


  OE EKPO
  Muscles which bind shoulder girdle
          to axial skeleton
 Trapezius; Levator scapulae; Rhomboid (major & minor)
 Serratus anterior; Pectoralis minor




Winging of scapula: Weakness or paralysis of the serratus anterior,
secondary to palsy of the long thoracic nerve, is the commonest cause of
winging.
   Muscles which attach humerus to
            axial skeleton
Pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi.
Muscles which bind humerus to
       shoulder girdle
            Rotator cuff muscles
Posterior                          Anterior
                 MUSCLES OF THE ARM
                            Arm-anterior

Biceps brachii
Arm-posterior
       MUSCLES OF THE FOREARM




Flexors: superficial layer   Flexors: intermediate layer   Flexors: deep layer
Long extensors              Short extensors




                 Anconeus
            Intrinsic muscles
Divided into:
• muscles of the thenar eminence acting on the thumb
    – Opponens pollicis
    – Abductor pollicis brevis
    – Flexor pollicis brevis
• muscles of the hypothenar eminence acting on the little finger
    – Opponens digiti minimi
    – Abductor digiti minimi
    – Flexor digiti minimi brevis
• Palmaris brevis
• Adductor pollicis
• Interossei
    – 4 dorsal interossei
    – 3 palmar interossei
• 4 lumbricals
Dorsal interossei   Adductor and palmar interossei




  Axial line               Axial line
Superficial thenar and hypothenar               Deep thenar and hypothenar muscles
muscles




Palmaris brevis
Origin: Flexor retinaculum and palmar
aponeurosis
Insertion: Skin of palm into dermis
Action: Steadies and corrugates skin of
palm to help with grip
Nerve: Superficial branch of ulnar N (C8, T1)
Carpal tunnel
Right side
                  Palmar aponeurosis
• thickened, central portion
  of the deep palmar fascia
• Proximal attachments:
  distal edge of flexor
  retinaculum (transverse
  carpal ligament) and to
  tendon of palmaris longus
• radiates toward the bases
  of the fingers usually as a
  continuation of the tendon
  of the palmaris longus
  muscle
• Distal attachments: via 4
  slips which become
  continuous with fibrous
  sheaths of fingers;
  anchors to skin of palm in
  distal portions
• helps with gripping
Carpal tunnel   Palmar aponeurosis

				
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posted:3/18/2013
language:Latin
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