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					ISSUES IN SPORTS
THREATS TO THE INTEGRITY
OF SPORT
Academic issues
Breaking the rules to gain competitive
 advantages
Pressures to win
Violence
Gambling
Arms race
Excessive commercialization
Drug abuse
  PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING DRUGS IN SPORTS
  Nutritional       Positive Effects on the Body        Negative Effects on the Body
 Supplement or
     Drug

Protein           Increased muscle mass                Excessive amounts converted
supplements                                             to fat
Creatine          Increased energy in short            Dehydrates the blood stream
                  duration, high intensity activities   Potential for renal disease
                  Enhanced gains in muscle fiber       with consumption of excessive
                  volume                                amounts
                  Improved anaerobic                   Long-term side-effects and
                  performance                           dangers unknown
                  Delayed muscle fatigue

Androstenedione   Increased testosterone levels        Too much impairs or shuts off
(banned by the                                          the body's production of
NCAA)                                                   testosterone
                                                        Stunts growth in adolescents
Nutritional      Positive                 Negative Effects on the Body
Supplement    Effects on the
  or Drug         Body
Anabolic      Increased       Mood swings
Steroids      muscle mass      Elevates cholesterol
(banned by    Enhanced        Acne
the NCAA)     athletic         Rapid weight gain
              performance      Depression
              Improved        Out-of-control aggression
              physical         Liver damage
              appearance       Heart attacks and strokes
                               Men
                               Impotence
                               Development of breasts
                               Testicles shrinkage and reduced sperm count
                               Difficulty or pain in urination
                               Baldness
                               Women
                               Facial hair growth
                               Breast reduction
                               Menstrual cycle changes
                               Deepened voice
  Nutritional       Positive Effects on the Body     Negative Effects on the Body
 Supplement or
     Drug
Human Growth       Maintenance of normal growth     Side effects may lead to life
Hormone (banned    Regulation of energy             threatening health conditions
by the NCAA)       production and storage

Erythropoietin     Increased oxygen absorption      Increased thickening of the
(EPO) (banned by   Reduced fatigue                  blood (blood viscosity)
the NCAA)          Improved endurance by            Risk for coronary and cerebral
                   increasing the rate of red cell   artery blockages
                   production
Amphetamines       Increased alertness and          Blood flows away from the
(banned by the     concentration                     skin and increases the risk of
NCAA)              Increased endurance              heat stroke
                   Decreased appetite               Increase in heart rate, blood
                   Increased weight loss            pressure, and risk for cerebral
                                                     hemorrhage and seizures
                                                     Increase in damage to kidneys
                                                     Headache and dizziness
    Nutritional        Positive Effects    Negative Effects on
Supplement or Drug      on the Body            the Body

Ephedra (banned by     Short-term        Complications include
the NCAA)              weight loss        irritability, anxiety,
                                          insomnia, and
                                          headaches
                                          Has been linked to
                                          significant adverse
                                          health effects,
                                          including heart attack
                                          and stroke

Tetrahydrogestrinone   Increased         May pose
                       muscle mass        considerable risk to
                                          health
  PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING
  DRUGS IN SPORTS
 Sources — trainers, doctors, coaches, and
  teammates
 Drug testing
  http://www.ncaa.org/library/sports_sciences/d
  rug_testing_program/2003-04/2003-
  04_drug_testing_program.pdf
   National Center for Drug Free Sport, Inc.
    administers the NCAA testing program
   4th Amendment — guarantee of rights
    against unreasonable searches (urinalysis)
   14th Amendment adds state protection
  GIRLS AND WOMEN IN SPORTS

 Historically excluded from competitive
  sports because they were considered to be
   Harmful physically
   Harmful emotionally
   Too aggressive (non-feminine)
 Gradual changing societal opinion
 Persistence of sexual stereotypes
   Commercials
   Cheerleaders
 TITLE IX — COMPLIANCE AREAS
 Financial assistance (scholarships) must be
  available on a substantially proportional
  basis
 Program areas so that males and females
  receive equivalent treatment, benefits, and
  opportunities, such as equipment and
  supplies and practice and competitive
  facilities
 Interests and abilities of male and female
  students are equally effectively
  accommodated
 TITLE IX — THREE-PRONG TEST
 Participation opportunities are
  substantially proportionate to the
  undergraduate enrollment.
 There must have been a continuing
  practice of program expansion in response
  to developing interests and abilities of the
  under represented sex.
 An institution must show that the interest
  and abilities of the members of the under
  represented sex have been fully and
  effectively accommodated.
TITLE IX — How Informed Are You?
______ 1. All educational institutions today
          are in full compliance with Title
          IX of the 1972 Education
          Amendments because it is federal
          law.
______ 2. Title IX applies only to those
          programs in an educational
          institution that directly receive
          federal financial assistance.
______ 3. No federal money has ever been
          lost because of a violation of Title
          IX.
TITLE IX — How Informed Are You?
______ 4. Title IX permits those men’s teams
          that generate revenue to receive
          additional financial aid and
          program benefits as long as these
          benefits are paid for out of the
          revenues that are produced by these
          sports.
______ 5. The three-part test used for
          determining participation
          opportunities requires the
          elimination of men’s sports teams in
          order to achieve proportionality.
TITLE IX — How Informed Are You?
______ 6. The ratio of males and females
          within the undergraduate student
          body is used as the basis for
          determining whether participation
          opportunities for males and
          females are substantially
          proportional.
______ 7. One way to comply with the
          participation opportunities
          required by Title IX is to provide
          the same number of men’s teams
          as women’s teams.
TITLE IX — How Informed Are You?
______ 8. Title IX requires the expenditure of
          the equal amount of funds for men’s
          intercollegiate athletics as for
          women’s intercollegiate athletics.
______ 9. Title IX requires that coaches of
          women’s teams receive the same
          salaries as the coaches of men’s
          teams.
______ 10. An institution found guilty of
          violating Title IX risks having to pay
          compensatory and/or punitive
          damages.
 EQUALITY FOR MINORITIES

 Excluded from professional leagues and
  most colleges and schools (prior to 1940s)
 Quota system (historically through 1990s)
 Stacking (historically through 1990s)
 Academic exploitation (is this continuing?)
 Economic exploitation (is this continuing?)
 Limited opportunities for coaching and
  management positions (changing gradually)
ISSUES FOR MINORITIES IN
INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
 Tracking in high school
 Sliding scale for high school grades and
  college entrance tests
 Non-qualifiers and grants-in-aid
 Tutorial support
 Grants-in-aid to only the highly skilled
 Skills in certain sports vs. opportunities
EQUALITY FOR SENIOR CITIZENS

 Biases limiting prior
  opportunities
 Living longer and quality
  of life issues
 Increased political and
  economic influence
 Masters competitions
 1987 — Senior Games
EQUALITY FOR INDIVIDUALS
WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
         1975 — Education for All
          Handicapped Children Act
          (IDEA — Individuals with
          Disabilities Education Act)
         1978 — Amateur Sports Act
         1990 — Americans with
          Disabilities Act
         1952 — Paralympic Games
         1968 — Special Olympics
GOALS FOR YOUTH SPORTS —
ATHLETES’ PERSPECTIVES
           Have fun
           Learn sport skills
           Spend time with
            friends
           Feel successful
           Have something to do
FOR PARENTS…YOUTH SPORTS
SHOULD HELP THEIR CHILDREN
 Win (“Did you win” is always the first
  question parents ask their children.)
 Learn sport skills so they can earn a grant-in-
  aid or become a professional athlete
 Share their interest in sports
 Keep active (give them something to do)
 Play games in an organized, supervised, and
  safe environment
 Develop teamwork, cooperation, self-
  discipline, and sportsmanship
 Learn how to work with others (social skills)
  PROBLEMS IN YOUTH SPORTS
 Pressure to win (at  Sport specialization
  all costs)           Only the skilled play — the
 Poorly trained        others sit on the bench
  coaches
                       Restricted to one position
 Parental
  interference and  Financial burden on
  pressure              parents and disruptive to
                        families
 Loss of values or
  ideals (cheating)  Not fun any more
 Injury risks ignored
 Violence and
  gamesmanship
 PROPOSED CHANGES IN
 YOUTH SPORTS
 Making sure that having fun is most important
 Developing sports skills
 Emphasizing playing several sports, not
  specializing in one sport
 Playing every child in each game and in
  different positions
 Educating coaches so they will teach skills,
  strategies, and rules in developmentally-
  appropriate ways
 Matching youths’ abilities and maturity levels
 Keeping the games and participants safe
  PROPOSED CHANGES IN
  YOUTH SPORTS
 Educating parents so they model proper behaviors
 Giving each child an equal opportunity to strive
  for success
 Deemphasizing winning
 Giving certificates of participation, not trophies
 Eliminating individual awards and tournaments
  that reduce playing opportunities
 Avoiding all-star and traveling teams
 Teaching and modeling values like cooperation,
  discipline, fair play, respect, responsibility,
  sportsmanship, and teamwork
  INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORTS
 Viewed as an important part of the educational
  and extracurricular activities of students
 So students can
   Develop their sport skills
   Learn teamwork, cooperation, self-discipline,
    and sportsmanship
   Keep active and physically fit
   Play fun-filled games in an organized,
    supervised, and safe environment
 Provide a shared activity for students, schools,
  and communities
VALUES OF
INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORTS
      Using leisure time more
       productively
      Developing physical fitness
       and sport skills
      Learning and displaying
       sportsmanship and ethical
       behaviors
      Gaining greater self-discipline
      Learning how to work as a
       member of a team
 PROBLEMS FACING
 INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORTS
Lack of adequate funding
Lack of adequate facilities and equipment
Lack of qualified coaches for all sports
Lack of parental and school support
Lack of emphasis on teaching educational
 values
 ISSUES IN INTERSCHOLASTIC
 SPORTS
Too much emphasis on winning
Year-round conditioning programs
Specialization in one sport
Athletes playing while hurt
Coaches’ jobs depending on winning
Drug use and abuse
Unsportsmanlike conduct (violence)
“No pass, no play”
Hazing
 ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE
 ATHLETICS
Academics
 Preferential admissions
 Missed classes
 Freshman eligibility
 Unearned grades
 Failure to graduate
Addressing academic issues
 Satisfactory progress
 Degree designation
 Academic Progress Rate
ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE
ATHLETICS
 Recruiting violations
  Contacts
  Transcript tampering
  Inducements
 Pressures to win
 Sports as businesses
 (commercialization)
ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE
ATHLETICS
          Loss of educational and
           ethical values
          Loss of institutional
           control
          Media exposure and
           influence
          Point shaving and
           gambling
          Drug use and abuse
  PROPOSED CHANGES IN
  INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
When coaches and athletes violate athletic
 regulations, such as drug abuse or
 gambling
   Sanction them for the first offense
   Give a two-year probation for the second
    offense
   Ban violators for life for the third
    offense
Withhold from an institution for five years
 one grant-in-aid for every athlete who does
 not graduate within six years
PROPOSED CHANGES IN
INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
 Base coaches’ job security and
  salaries not on their won-lost records
  but on the fulfillment of their other
  job responsibilities and the
  provision of positive experiences for
  their athletes
 Restrict schedules of all sports to no
  more than one day of competition
  per week while classes are in session
  PROPOSED CHANGES IN
  INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
 Excuse athletes from classes no more
  than five days per academic year for
  travel and competition
 Admit only those athletes who meet the
  academic standards of admission to the
  colleges they attend
 Limit grants-in-aid to tuition, fees, and
  books, and award them only on the basis
  of need
 PROPOSED CHANGES IN
 INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
 Guarantee grants-in-aid
 Make freshmen ineligible
 Eliminate trivial recruiting
  rules
 Make it illegal for a booster
  to offer money to a college
  athlete
 Pay student-athletes
MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES

    Founder — Pierre deCoubertin
    Purposes
      Spread physical education
       and sports around the world
      Raise the standard of
       physical achievement,
       especially in France
      Link all people of the world
       in friendship
ISSUES WITH THE OLYMPIC
GAMES
Drug abuse
Politics
Commercialization
Cheating
  POSSIBILIITES FOR THE REFORM
  OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES
 Build a permanent Olympic Center that would
  be open year-round for championships
 Enlarge the Olympic Games to include more
  sports during more days
 Reduce excessive displays of nationalism during
  award ceremonies, such as anthems
 Enlarge and revamp the membership of the
  International Olympic Committee
 Remove team sports competition
 Make the Olympic Games annual events

				
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posted:3/18/2013
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