An Overview of the Beef Industry in Georgia
Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office Dr. Frank Flanders and Scott Register April 2006
Students will be able to: • Explain the importance of the beef industry in Georgia. • Name 4 beef meat cuts. • Name 3 of the 4 common Georgia beef breeds. • State key facts about each breed. • Name the three of the top 10 beef producing counties. • Rank the Beef Industry compared to other Georgia agricultural commodities. • Rank Georgia with other states in beef production.
Why is the beef industry important?
Every day, 76 million Americans eat beef. 99% of a beef carcass is either used as meat or recovered as byproducts Consumers spend more than half of their meat budget on beef Beef is one of the best sources of iron, the single nutrient most often lacking in the diets of adult women, young children and athletes.
There are 8 sections of the beef carcass that are designated into retail cuts.
There are 44 of these retail cuts
The chart to the left show these most common cuts of beef.
Beef Cattle Breeds
Breed Types British • Angus • Hereford • Shorthorn Advantages Disadvantages Low birth weight High fertility Moderate milk production Moderate frame size Lower growth rate
European • Charolais • Gelbvieh • Maine-Anjou • Pinzgauer • Simmental • South Devon • Tarentaise
High growth rate Larger frame size High milk production
Increased dystocia Increased maintenance
Zebu • American Brahman • British Derivatives • European Derivatives
Adaptability to adverse environments Moderate to high milk production Maximum heterosis in crossbreeding
Lower growth rate Poor carcass quality
Common Breeds of Georgia
• There are many beef breeds that are raised in Georgia • The following are the 4 most common:
– Angus – Hereford – Charolais – Simmental
• Angus cattle can be either black or red in color • They originated in the United Kingdom • They have low, compact bodies and are noted for the fine quality of their meat.
• Originated in England • Came to the United States in 1817 • They are a very hearty breed • A very productive breed
• Originated in France • Valued because they grow at a fast rate and reach large size • They are white or creamy white in color
• Originated in Switzerland • Their color varies from pale gold to dark reddish brown. The head is usually white in front of the eyes with the lower parts of the legs also largely white • Valued for good weight gain (2 to 3 pounds per day) and very docile
• About 71% of Georgia cattle operations are commercial cow-calf producers, 21% are purebred cow-calf producers, and 8% are stockers • Cattle is raised in all 159 counties of Georgia
Therefore, the beef industry has a large impact on the state's economy (estimated at more than $2 billion).
• In Georgia, 87% of our 23,000 producers own less than 100 head of cattle. Yet this group owns only 46% of cattle. The other 13% of Georgia cattlemen (3,300 producers) own 54% of the cattle.
Beef in Georgia’s Counties
Ranking County Total Head
2 3 4 5
Wilkes Morgan Jackson Madison
20,000 18,000 16,000 15,600
Ranking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
County Carroll Wilkes Morgan Jackson Madison Early Franklin Habersham Bartow
Farm Gate Value $9,098,460 $8,665,200 $7,798,680 $6,932,160 $6,758,856 $6,498,900 $6,498,900 $6,498,900 $6,065,640
7 8 9 10
Franklin Habersham Bartow Berrien
15,000 15,000 14,000 13,850
Georgia's Top 10 Farm Commodities 1 2 3 4 5 6 Broilers Timber Cotton Eggs Horses Dairy $3.2 billion $561 million $501 million $400 million $247 million $245 million
1. What percentage of a beef carcass is used as either meat or as a byproduct?
A. 10% A. 1/3
B. 28% B.1/2
D. 99% D. their monthly income C. choice cuts D. USDA select
2. Consumers as a whole spend more than ____ of their meat budget on beef. C. they make 3. There are 8 sections of the beef carcass that are designated into ____. A. retail cuts B. production cuts 4. Name four of the eight cuts. 5. There are three categories that most beef cattle fall under; Zebu, European and ___. 6. What are the four most abundant breeds of beef cattle in Georgia? 7. What color can angus cattle be? A. Black B. White C. Red D. Black or Red 8. Beef cattle are grown in _______ counties in Georgia. A. 125 B. 159 C. 200 D. 36 9. Name two of the top five beef cattle producing counties in Georgia. 10. How does the beef industry rank in comparison to other Georgia agricultural commodities? A. 1 B. 7 C. 10 D. 25
1. D 99% 2. B ½
3. A retail cuts
4. Round, Sirloin, Fore shank and Brisket, Chuck, Short loin, Rib, Flank and Short plate, and Other cuts 5. British 6. Angus, Hereford, Charolais, and Simmental 7. D Black or Red 8. B 159 9. Carroll, Morgan, Madison, Wilkes, and Jackson\
10. B 7
• http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/cattle/ • http://www.georgiastats.uga.edu/ • http://resources.caes.uga.edu/media/GAR/reportgaag.htm