IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Qn.1. Define sustainable practice. What is the need for sustainable practice? Ans.: Successful management of resources for agriculture and livestock to satisfy the changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of environment and conserving natural resources is called sustainable practice. Sustainable practice aims to increase food production without degrading our environment and disturbing the balances maintaining it. Qn.2. How can we meet the future needs? Ans.: India is already intensively cultivated. As a result, we do not have any major scope for increasing the area of land under cultivation. The only way to meet the future needs is to increase productivity. Qn.3. What Scientific management practices should be undertaken to obtain high yields from farms? Ans.: For sustained livelihood, one should undertake mixed farming, intercropping, and integrated farming practices, for example, combine agriculture with livestock/poultry/fisheries/bee-keeping. Increasing the incomes of people working in agriculture is therefore necessary to combat the problem of hunger. Qn.4. What is photoperiod? Ans.: The duration of sunlight required to bring about the growth of plants and its flowering is called as photoperiod. Qn.5. Discuss the common objectives of variety improvement? Ans.: The common objectives for variety improvement are 1) Higher yield. 2) Improved quality. 3) Biotic and abiotic resistance. 4) Change in maturity duration. 5) Desirable agronomic traits. 6) Wider adaptability. Qn.6. What are the various aspects of crop production improvement? Ans.: (i) Nutrient Management: Plants require nutrients for growth from air, water and soil. The necessary components are as follows: Source Nutrients Air carbon, oxygen Water hydrogen, oxygen Soil (i) 6 Macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur (ii) 7 Micronutrients: iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, chlorine (ii) Irrigation: Ensuring that the crops get water at the right stages during their growing season can increase the expected yields of any crop. Several different kinds of irrigation systems are adopted to supply water to agricultural lands such as wells, canals, rivers and tanks. Wells: are two types - dug wells and tube wells. In a dug well, water is collected from water bearing strata. Tube wells can tap water from the deeper strata and water is lifted by pumps for irrigation. Canals: receive water from one or more reservoirs or from rivers. The main canal is divided into branch canals having further distributaries to irrigate fields. River Lift Systems: When canal flow is insufficient or irregular, water is directly drawn from the rivers for supplementing irrigation in areas close to rivers. Tanks: These are small storage reservoirs that store the run-off of smaller catchment areas. Fresh initiatives such as rainwater harvesting and watershed management by building small check-dams stop the rainwater and lead to an increase in ground water levels. (iii) Cropping Patterns: Different ways of growing crops can be used to give maximum benefit. Mixed cropping is growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land. The advantage of this is that it reduces risk of total crop failure and gives some insurance of one of the crops. Eg: wheat + gram, or wheat + mustard, or groundnut + sunflower. Intercropping is growing two or more crops simultaneously in the same field in definite row patterns. One crop alternate with a few rows of a second crop. This ensures maximum utilisation of the nutrients supplied, and also prevents pests and diseases from spreading to all the plants belonging to one crop in a field. Eg: soyabean + maize, or finger millet (bajra) + cowpea (lobia). The growing of different crops on a piece of land in a preplanned succession is known as crop rotation. Growing of a crop continuously in same for years (monoculture) results in several problems like depletion of same diseases, insect pests, weeds etc. Qn.7. Write 5 differences between manures and fertilizers. Ans.: Manures Fertilizers 1. Prepared by decomposition of animal excreta and Prepared from chemicals in factories. Could be plant waste. organic or inorganic. 2. They contain large quantities of organic matter but Must be added carefully in small quantities small quantities of nutrients to the soil so must be according to the need of the soil. added in large quantities. 3. Not nutrient specific. Helps to enrich the soil. Nutrient specific. 4. Binds the soil and so do not get washed away but Fertilizers get washed away due to excessive improves the soil structure. irrigation. 5. They are easily available and cheap. They are expensive and have to be bought. Egs.Cattle dung, vegetable waste, sewage waste etc. Egs.Urea, NPK, CAN etc. Qn.8. Why is crop protection management a necessary activity in agriculture? Ans.: Field crops are infested by a large number of weeds, insect pests and diseases. If they are not controlled at the appropriate time then they can damage the crops. Weeds take up nutrients and reduce the growth of the crop. Insect pests attack the plants by cutting the root, stem and leaf, sucking the cell sap from various parts of the plant, or bore into stem and fruits. They thus affect the health of the crop and reduce yields. Diseases in plants are caused by pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses which are transmitted through the soil, water and air. Qn.9. What factors may be responsible for losses of grains during storage? Ans.: Factors responsible for losses of grains are biotic— insects, rodents, fungi, mites and bacteria, and abiotic— inappropriate moisture and temperatures in the place of storage. These factors cause degradation in quality, loss in weight, poor germinability, discolouration of produce, all leading to poor marketability. Qn.10. What is animal husbandry? Ans.: Animal husbandry is the scientific management of animal livestock that includes various aspects such as feeding, breeding and disease control. Qn.11. Why is cattle husbandry necessary? Ans.: Cattle husbandry is done for two purposes— milk and draught labour for agricultural work such as tilling, irrigation and carting. Qn.12. How are the different breeds of cattle classified? Ans.: Milk-producing females are called milch animals (dairy animals), while the ones used for farm labour are called draught animals. Qn.13. State the conditions for the shelter and care of cattle. Ans.: Animals require regular brushing to remove dirt and loose hair. They should be sheltered under well-ventilated roofed sheds that protect them from rain, heat and cold. The floor of the cattle shed needs to be sloping so as to stay dry and to facilitate cleaning. Cattle need balanced rations containing all nutrients along with certain feed additives containing micronutrients to promote the health and milk output of dairy animals. Vaccinations are given to farm animals against many major viral and bacterial diseases. Qn.14. Classify the types of diseases in the cattle. Ans.: The types of diseases in the cattle can be classified into: 1) Parasitic diseases – caused by external parasites and internal parasites. The external parasites live on the skin and mainly cause skin diseases. The internal parasites like worms, affect stomach and intestine while flukes damage the liver. 2) Infectious diseases - caused by bacteria and viruses. Eg. Foot and mouth disease, anthrax (bacterial) and Rinderpest, cow pox (viral). 3) Non-infectious diseases – due to malfunctioning of any body organ. Qn.12. What are the advantages of cross breeding programmes of poultry? Ans.: The cross-breeding programmes between Indian and foreign breeds are focused to develop new varieties for— (i) number and quality of chicks; (ii) dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production; (iii) summer adaptation capacity/tolerance to high temperature; (iv) low maintenance requirements; (v) reduction in the size of the egg-laying bird with ability to utilise more fibrous cheaper diets formulated using agricultural by-products. Qn.15. What kind of care is required for better poultry yield? Ans.: The management practices important for better poultry yield include Maintenance of temperature and hygienic conditions in housing and poultry feed Prevention and control of diseases and pests. The housing, nutritional and environmental requirements have to be maintained differently for broilers and egg layers. Proper cleaning, sanitation, and spraying of disinfectants at regular intervals prevent the poultry from infections. Appropriate vaccination can prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases and reduce loss of poultry during an outbreak of disease. Qn.15. What are the different stages of development in egg layers? Ans.: The period of a bird from chick upto the sexual maturity is called growing period and they are called growers while the period from sexual maturity till the end of egg laying is called laying period and they are called layers. Qn.16. Differentiate between layers and broilers. Ans.: LAYERS BROILERS The growers and layers require enough space as over They need to be provided with conditions for faster crowding suppresses their growth. Layers also growth and low mortality. require proper lighting and optimum temperature for laying eggs. Layers need to be given the feed in a restricted and Their food or ration is rich in proteins and has calculated manner. adequate fat. It has high amount of vitamin A and K. Qn.17. How is composite fish culture system useful? Ans.: A combination of five or six fish species is used in a single fishpond. These species are selected so that they do not compete for food among them having different types of food habits. As a result, the food available in all the parts of the pond is used. As Catlas are surface feeders, Rohus feed in the middle-zone of the pond, Mrigals and Common Carps are bottom feeders and Grass Carps feed on the weeds. Together these species can use all the food in the pond without competing with each other. This increases the fish yield from the pond. Qn.18. What are the important considerations to obtain good quality and higher yield of honey? Ans.: The value or quality of honey depends upon the pasturage or the flowers available to the bees for nectar and pollen collection. the kind of flowers available will determine the taste of the honey. the duration of availability of flowers and its abundance.
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