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                 S p e c i a l t y   B a l l   C o v e r s

                Performance Technologies

                                     Catalogue 2012

g r e e n 4 u
A dry spell for Elysian Park's reservoir
Friday, March 26, 2010

While Echo Park Lake awaits a major clean up and Silver Lake’s Ivanhoe
Reservoir is getting a new boardwalk, there’s news at another large but lesser
known local body of water, the Elysian Reservoir. As the photo above shows,
most of the water at in the 55 million gallon reservoir hidden in Elysian Park
north of Dodger Stadium has been drained, exposing the concrete basin and
giant sacks of “shade balls” that once floated on the surface.

The water is being drained so that drilling and soils tests can be conducted
along the bottom and slopes of the reservoir in preparation for a major and
controversial water quality improvement project proposed by the Department
of Water & Power, according to a DWP spokesperson.

The testing should be completed in about two months, with the reservoir
being washed and refilled with drinking water – and those shade balls. While
the soils testing will be relatively brief, the preparation and debate over the
water quality could be lengthy as the agency and park advocates weigh
proposals to cover the Elysian Reservoir, built in 1903, or build giant
underground tanks topped with parkland.
                                                                                    Ivanhoe reservoir

                                                                                    Catalogue 2012

                                       g r e e n 4 u
                                                                                 The solution is amazing, ingenious and alarming. The Department of Water
                                                                                 Protection calls for 3 million black 'bird balls' to be dumped in to the
                                                                                 reservoir to shade the water! The black balls are non-toxic and UVA-stable
August 4 2008
                                                                                 meaning that they will not degrade in sunlight or release additional
Ivanhoe Reservoir: Solving a problem / Illustrating another
                                                                                 chemicals into the water supply. At a cost of around $2 million each ball
                                                                                 works out to 34 cents each and is shipped all the way from Allentown,
                                                                                 Pennsylvania. The order is so large in fact that the manufacturer, has
Ivanhoe Reservoir (Los Angeles, California) has a problem.
                                                                                 dedicated itself to solely producing the required balls for Ivanhoe Reservoir.
Bright sunlight, chlorine and natural bromides combined together to form
                                                                                 Bird Balls
the carcinogen bromate and now Ivanhoe Reservoir is contaminated. The
                                                                                 'Bird balls' are in fact common in industrial settings. Leach ponds at
only way to effectively remove the chemical is to drain the entire body of
                                                                                 manufacturing facilities, farms or refineries are required to prevent
water and clean the bottom surface to remove all the bromate. In the
                                                                                 waterfowl fatalities. The most common solution is to use netting to keep the
meantime, the Department of Water Protection has mandated that all
                                                                                 birds out, but that still allows them to be fooled into trying to land. Bird balls
reservoirs be covered and have planned for the entire reservoir to be
                                                                                 on the other hand cover the entire surface of the (fill in the blank - acid,
relocated underground near Forest Lawn Cemetery. That will solve the issue
                                                                                 pollution, industrial waste) so birds are not attracted and cannot land
of sunlight aiding the generation of bromate, but what happens in the four to
                                                                                 anyway. An added benefit is that the bird balls also prevent 'liquid loss
six years while the new reservoir is being built? There will always be natural
                                                                                 through evaporation.' Bird balls do not blow away in mild winds and 'water
bromides present in groundwater, chlorine is added and sunlight, well this is
                                                                                 filled' is an option in case of high wind situations
southern California, sunshine is a given. How can a reservoir be shaded?
                                                                                 No sunlight. No bromate. No problem, right? The only ones not pleased
                                                                                 appear to be nearby neighbors and of course any waterfowl looking for a
                                                                                 nice place to rest.

                                                                                                              Ivanhoe reservoir

                                                                                                                      Catalogue 2012

                                   g r e e n 4 u

                      They're not only environmentally sound, they pay for
                     themselves up to 6 times over per year. They just pour
                     onto the surface, covering 91% in a single layer. Balls
                     move out of the way for dipping and float back into
                     position automatically.

                     One layer reduces heat loss by 75% and evaporation by
                     87% with two layers, reduction is 81% and 90%

                     Hollow ball blankets are successfully used in many
                     applications: anodizing, food processing, metal
                     processing and finishing, sewage treatment, gas
                     scrubbing, temperature retardation and more.

                     Selection: Heavy balls are best for use where wind, etc.
                     is a factor. Choose an appropriate size so balls won't fall
                     through screens or mesh.
   PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                          e-choice

A ball cover is a simple and effective way to cover a pond. A     What's Unique
ball cover is made up a large number of small black, UV-          Ball covers consist of a large quantity of UV-stable individual
stable plastic balls. These balls are typically 4" (100mm) in     plastic balls that float on the surface of a water containment to
diameter and completely sealed. This gives us a light weight      create a cover. The balls are self-leveling and arrange themselves
ball that floats on top of a water containment typically          to adapt to changes in water level. Ball covers also adapt to any
covering 91% of the surface. As water levels rise and fall the    shape of pond including ponds with irregular shapes and ponds
balls organize themselves into a cover that completely            that have rough or damaged shore lines. The balls also surround
covers the surface. This masks the surface of the water           but do not interfere with pond equipment such as structures,
from waterfowl preventing birds from landing in or near the       floats, aerators and other intrusions into the pond.
water. This is one of the main uses for ball covers making
them very popular for ponds near airports and for ponds           Ball covers offer a number of operational advantages. Rain and
that            contain           hazardous            liquids.   precipitation do not collect on a ball cover but fall through into
                                                                  the water below. This means that rainwater pumps and drains
Ball covers also can help reduce evaporation, odors, and          are not required which can reduce costs. A ball cover also allows
algae buildup in ponds. Adding a layer of balls provides          gasses to escape so ponds that might otherwise be unsuitable
immediate coverage that will operate for many years               for a floating cover due to gas production can use a ball cover
without maintenance. A ball cover can also help retain heat       instead. Since the balls of a ball cover include a sealed hollow
and is sometimes used in multiple layers to provide greater       space they can help retain heat to maintain water temperatures.
heat                                             retention.       In some applications a multiple layer of balls will be used to add
                                                                  insulation and maintain heat in the water containment.
Ball covers are easy to install and do not require skilled
technicians for installation. The balls are poured into the
pond and will float on the water to take the shape of the
pond (or tank). Ball covers will adapt to any shape of pond
or tank and will flow around structures, aerators, or any
other shape in the pond. The ball cover will also move out
of the way when items are moved inside the pond. This
makes it especially easy to bring floating aerators to the
shore                     for                  maintenance.

Ball covers are a compliment to CoverBalls's extensive
floating cover product line. Ball covers are suitable in many
situations and are easy to install and maintain. They can
also be combined with other CoverBalls cover types;
hatches, openings, or other areas can be covered with balls
to provide flexibility in operations or maintenance.
   PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                          e-choice

Typical Uses                                                     Design Practice
The most common use for ball covers is to prevent                The basic design of a ball cover is to calculate the amount of
waterfowl from landing on a pond. There are two main             surface area at the high water mark and then calculate the
areas where exclusion of waterfowl is important. The first is    number of balls required to fill that area. The basic style of ball is
at ponds around airports where it is important to keep birds     4” (100 mm) in diameter and 10 balls will cover one foot of
away from the water for safety reasons. In this case the ball    surface area (116 balls per square meter). Surface coverage with
cover makes the surface unrecognizable to the birds and          a            ball            cover               is             91%.
they do not recognize the pond. This allows standard water
and run-off water ponds to be built on airport lands             Strong winds can sometimes affect ball covers on a pond. In a
without increasing the risk of attracting birds. Ball covers     situation where there are strong winds there are a couple of
can also prevent other wildlife (such as deer) from coming       techniques to keep a ball cover in place. The first point is to
near a pond. Since the wildlife does not see the ball-           include a fence around the perimeter of the pond. This will catch
covered pond as containing water they will stay away from        any balls that are blown out of the pond and up the slope. A
the                                                    pond.     steeper slope angle in the pond can also help keep the balls in
                                                                 place. Another technique is to use a water filled ball. These balls
The second major use for ball covers is to prevent               have water added at the time of manufacture so that they float
waterfowl from landing on a pond that may have contents          at the half-way mark. These balls are 6 times heavier than the
that are harmful to the birds. This is typical of mining         unfilled balls and are much more resistant to winds. Contact
applications where a pond may contain chemicals or other         your representative for additional information on water filled
harmful substances. In gold mining for example a heap                                          balls.
leach solution pond may contain a cyanide solution that
would immediately harm any birds that landed on it.
Examples of ponds containing harmful substances that use
ball covers include heap leach ponds, oil field ponds,
ethylene glycol recovery ponds, and many other chemical
process ponds. Ball covers reduce evaporation, control
odors, and help prevent the growth of algae. A ball cover
will cover about 91% of the surface area of the liquid. By
covering the surface the evaporation rate is reduced
dramatically. Covering the surface also reduces odors as the
wind does not sweep across the surface lifting the odors
into the air. The ball-covered surface also screens the
surface from the sun which limits the growth of weeds or
algae that can clog equipment or reduce water quality.

Finally a common use for ball covers is to help prevent the
loss of heat from water in ponds or tanks. Since the balls
are hollow they provide some insulation to keep heat in the
water. It is possible to add multiple layers of balls in order
to improve the heat retention properties of the cover.
   PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                       e-choice

Chemical Notes                                                  Material Properties
Ball covers are made with balls manufactured from various
grades of polyethylene. The most common type of ball uses       Ball Cover Material Properties
an HDPE grade that is highly resistant to acids and bases       Style                 Standard Ball Water Filled Ball
and has good oil resistance. The balls are stabilized against   Average Weight        44 g (0.1 lb) 275 g (0.61 lbs)
UV breakdown and are a uniform black color. A guide to the      Number per Square Foot 10                  10
chemical resistance of these balls can be found on our          Number per Square Meter 116                116
Chemical Resistance tech note; use the HDPE column as
your guide.
   PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                          e-choice

Installation Discussion                                           Disclaimer
The most significant aspect of ball cover installation is         Please Note
freight. A 40’ (12m) “high cube” shipping container will hold     If you have any further questions please call your CoverBalls
84,600 balls which is 8,460 ft2 or 786 m2 of surface area. A      representative. CoverBalls product information is provided free
pond with a 100,000 m2 (10,000 m2) surface area will need         of charge for your consideration. The comments offered are for
12 containers of balls. Paying close attention to the freight     discussion purposes only. While this information is based on
will almost always lead to a smooth, trouble-free                 CoverBalls's experience, this information may not be relied upon
                         installation.                            for any specific application as the nature of applications and site
                                                                  conditions are beyond CoverBalls's control. It is the user's
The balls arrive in trucks or containers packaged in mesh         responsibility to statisfy themselves as to the suitability of this
bags. To install the balls the bags are taken to the side of      information and to determine the suitability of this information
the pond and the balls are poured into the pond. It does          for their specific application. CoverBalls shall not be liable for
not matter if the pond is empty or full during installation.      any loss or damages whatsoever that may occur from the use of
Once the pond has water in it the balls will organize             this information. No warranty against patent infringement is
themselves into a cover and self-align themselves in the          offered                          or                        implied.
pond. In some cases the mesh bags can be returned for
reuse so they should be handled carefully and collected at
the          end            of         the          project.

To install multiple layers of balls simply add additional balls
to make up the additional layers. The balls will organize
themselves into layers. If there are obstructions in the pond
such as structures or pilings the balls will flow around them
without difficulty. If the pond is divided by baffle curtains
then calculating the amount of balls needed and placing
them in each section can help fill each area set off by the
baffle                                                curtains.

Care should be taken not to attempt to walk in the areas
where balls are present as they present a slipping hazard. If
an access is needed on the pond surface after the balls are
installed a boat can be placed in the pond and will operate
normally without interference from the balls.
   PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                           e-choice

UV Light Resistance                                               In a clear plastic film, the UVB light acts on the entire thickness at
The UV Light Resistance of plastics involves a number of          once, and failure occurs at the same time throughout the
factors that can affect your material choice.                     thickness of the plastic (clear films degrade rapidly). So our first
Of all the factors involved in UV resistance, there are three     step is to make plastics that will be exposed as opaque as
that figure most prominently; thickness, opacity, and the         possible. Most lining materials used for exposed linings are
use of stabilizers. These three factors are combined to           heavily loaded with carbon black or other pigments to make
defend plastics against Ultraviolet (UV) light.                   them opaque.
Ultraviolet (UV) light is the light at shorter wavelengths than   The thickness of the lining material is also a factor in UV
visible light, past the violet end of the spectrum (ultra, or     resistance. Thicker materials allow the surface to suffer some UV
beyond violet). There are three categories of UV light, UVA,      degradation while still retaining the strength in the inner core
UVB, and UVC. UVA light is not normally strong enough to          material. In exposed lining materials a thickness over 30 mil (0.75
harm plastics. UVB usually does the most damage to                mm) is usually recommended for long term UV resistance. In
plastics and is the type of light we need to test when            materials where the strength is provided by a fabric (supported
checking plastic’s UV resistance. UVC light contains even         materials) an opaque coating of typically 0.4 mm (15 mils) on
more damaging energy but it is fortunately filtered out by        each side is required to prevent UV degradation of the fabric’s
the earth’s ozone layer.                                          strength.
Light degrades plastics by transferring its energy into the       The UVB light that attacks plastics creates reactive degradation
plastic. This energy can cause damage by creating heat            byproducts that can cause a chain reaction of molecular damage
or by actually breaking molecular bonds in a plastic’s            that can accelerate the breakdown of the material. UV stabilizers
structure. Both the heat and the breaking of bonds can            are added to plastics to prevent these degradation byproducts
create a loss of physical properties in the plastic. The higher   from causing additional damage. UV stabilizers act as “sponges”
energy of the UVB rays causes almost all UV damage in             to soak up these reactive byproducts and to stop the chain
plastics. Regular visible light causes almost no degradation      reaction before significant damage occurs.
even over many years of exposure.                                 One of the most common questions about geomembranes is,
Opaque plastics are plastics that light does not pass             “how long will it last in exposed service?” Each liner material is
through. In an opaque plastic the light has to break down         tested for UV resistance; however, each location where a liner is
the outer layer before it can break down the inner section        installed has a different UV exposure level. No two locations will
of the plastic. The inner layer of plastic can retain its         get exactly the same amount of sunshine, and most locations do
strength much longer the more opaque the plastic. If a            not get the same amount of sunshine from year-to-year. A test
plastic is completely black (or some other opaque colour)         performed in Arizona or Florida may not be typical of the service
then the light only acts on the surface and much less             life in your area. This makes it difficult to make general
damage will occur over time.                                      statements about UV resistance of lining materials.
   PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                        e-choice

Typical UV tests quote ASTM G53, and state 500 hours or          Approximate UV Lifetimes
2000 hours with 70% or 90% strength retained. Some tests         Material                                 Life (approx.)
will also state that a Xenon arc was used. Unfortunately this    Geotextiles                              3-5 months
is not enough information to make a reasonable correlation       RPE® 15                                  3 years
to exposed life. There are a number of variations on the UV      RPE® 25                                  5 years
test methods, and there are many sources of UV light used        PVC 30                                   5 years
in the test (Xenon light uses a number of different filters      Enviro Liner® (EL6000HD) 30 and 40 mil   25 years
that can change the results). The best source of information     Geoflex® 30                              20 years
is to look at actual exposure data collected from outdoor        HAZGARD® 5000                            10 years
exposure tests.                                                  Arctic Liner®, White 30 mil              10 years
There are two main outdoor exposure facilities in North          HDPE 60                                  20 years
America, one in Florida, and one in Arizona. At each of          PP 36, 45 mil                            20 years
these facilities they expose plastic materials to the sun for
extended periods of time, often with a series of mirrors of
magnifying glasses to concentrate the sun onto the sample.
The sun’s intensity is measured (in Langley’s) and a rating is
given to the plastic material based on the number of
Langleys it receives. Laboratory UV tests, such as ASTM G53
allow us to perform quality control checks on materials
without having to perform 5 and 10 years tests outdoors.
CoverBalls has done quite a bit of work on the UV
resistance of geomembranes especially with our Enviro
Liner 6000HD series of materials. In our testing we first
established a correlation between field exposure (over a 6-
year period) and lab testing (using a UV tester). From that
correlation we have developed long term estimates of our
liner material's life expectancy using conservative
On the attached chart is an approximation of what kind of
exposed lifetimes can be expected from a number of
different lining materials. Each material contains UV
stabilizers and has been carefully formulated for the
maximum exposed lifetime. Please note that the values
given are only approximate. The actual UV resistance of the
material you receive may vary considerably and is heavily
dependant on the amount of sunshine received at the
installation location.
One final note. The lifetime of any material can be
increased dramatically by backfilling the liner. See the
CoverBalls Tech Note on Backfill. Values shown in the chart
   Floating Ball Covers for Municipal Drinking Water applications
   NSF 61
   Not just a ball but a solution to a problem for many Municipal
   Drinking Water applications, ECC provides not just a ball, but a
   solution to a problem. Most of our successful installations have
   resulted from working closely with customers, sharing our ideas
   and experience and tailoring a solution to meet their specific

   ECC floating ball blankets provide highly effective solutions to
   difficult water storage problems for Municipal Utilities. By
   placing a sufficient quantity of hollow plastic balls onto the       No Maintenance
   surface of a liquid, the balls automatically arrange themselves
                                                                        No vegetation growth on cover
   into a close packed formation over 91% of the surface area. This
   high surface coverage provides an extremely effective barrier        Easy to move through for pump repair
   and significantly reduces the mass and heat transfer mechanisms      10 year warranty
   operating between the liquid and surrounding environment. The        Less expensive
   hollow plastic balls will form a floating cover for ponds, tanks,
   lagoons, and other basins.

   The hollow balls offer a very low conductivity which results in an
   extremely effective thermal insulation barrier.

   With levels always moving the ECC floating ball covers will rise
   and fall with fluctuating water levels in tanks and reservoirs.
   When water levels fall the balls will double stack until the level
   rises again and the cover will automatically spread into a single
   layer of coverage.

   Innovative Applications for ECC Hollow Plastic Balls Include...
   Evaporation reduction. Covering the water surface minimizes          1.High Maintenance
   evaporation and water loss.                                          2.Vegetation Growth on cover
   Algae control. The balls block the UV from penetrating the           3.Must be removed to repair pumps
   water.                                                               4.1-2 year warranty
   Camouflage pond basins from waterfowl / bird deterrent               5.Considerably higher cost
   Ammonia reduction
   The ECC Floating ball cover complies with Federal mandate of
   reducing the use of chemicals in the public drinking water.
   Comparison of the Floating ECC Ball Cover against the Normal
   floating solid cover
    Shade Balls for Municipalities Drinking Water
   ECC Floating ball covers also known as Shade Balls are providing
   a way to mitigate bromate formation by blocking sunlight in
   reservoirs. Less expensive than other remedies, the shade balls
   do not require extensive construction, parts, labor, or

   Bromate is a disinfection by-product that forms when three
   elements - bromide, chlorine and sunlight are present. The US
   Environmental Protection Agency’s guidelines for bromated is
   not to exceed 10 ppb. The ECC ball covers have successfully
   blocked 90% of the sunlight bringing bromate levels in drinking
   water to significantly below US Government regulations.

   The percentage of area covered by the balls is independent of
   the ball diameter, being the ratio of a circle to the hexagon
   which surrounds it. This equates to 91% of the liquid surface
   area. The frictional contact points ensure that each ball remains
   stable when subjected to increased liquid or air turbulence
PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                               e-choice
   Environmental Controls Company: Airport Bird Controls                The idea behind the balls is that they will block the ultraviolet
  Hollow & Waterfilled Covers for Airports, Bird Control                rays and prevent growth of algae and weeds, making it a less
  O D - Foreign Object Damage costs the airline industry millions of    desirable place for the birds to roost, said Master Sgt. Stacy
  dollars each year - objects on the ground can burst tires and bird    Maier, of the wing’s flight safety office.
  strikes in the air damage engines, wings and fuselage. This
  combined with the significant risk to human life make FOD a           The balls also prevent the birds from being able to sit on the
  serious issue.                                                        water and pose a threat of flushing when aircraft fly overhead,
                                                                        he said.
  Waterfowl such as large Canadian Geese are a major problem for
  airport safety managers as they are attracted to the local            "Bird-strike damage can range from something as simple as a
  environment surrounding an airfield - open fresh water ponds,         small scratch or dent, to something as big as causing an airplane
  long grass for nesting and few predators. In flight, they cross an    to crash, due to a complete system failure," Maier said.
  aircraft's path at the most critical flight phase - take off and      Additional positive aspects include easy installation, lack of
  landing.                                                              maintenance and ability of the balls to adjust to fluctuating
                                                                        water levels, he said.
  Water collection or storage ponds are constructed near to
  runways for many reasons. They have typically been netted in          Although Fairchild is the first base to experiment with this
  the past to prevent birds from gaining access to the water. The       technology, it has been used before. "San Francisco International
  problem is that netting does not camouflage the water and             Airport has used them with great success," said Lt. Col. Lesley
  therefore still attracts waterfowl.                                   Spraker, the wing's chief of safety. "Since they placed the Bird
                                                                        Deterrent Ball Covers in their open water, they have dramatically
  A simple solution to the problem has been developed by                reduced bird activity in and around the previously open water
  Environmental Controls Company- the water surface is                  areas."
  camouflaged by a layer of floating hollow plastic balls.
                                                                        No other Air Force bases use this technology, he said. When the
  Benefits include:                                                     idea was presented at the bird aircraft strike hazard conference,
  Simple to install                                                     several military bases and civilian organizations asked Fairchild
  Maintenance free                                                      to report the results so they could evaluate the technology.
  Proven track record                                                   "We expect this to be a very low-cost solution to an on-going
  Accommodates changes in liquid level, floating platforms and          problem," Spraker said. "Most other options were not practical,
  aerators.                                                             due to the large size of the drainage ditch."

  FAA's "Wildlife Hazard Management at Airports" manual states          Other solutions were considered but were either not cost-
  that of ponds with will completely exclude birds."      effective or would present other problems in the future, he said.
  Transport Canada Bulletin no. 25 states that "The balls hide the      Fairchild has many other precautions to prevent bird strikes.
  water from the birds and as a result they don't see the               Such precautions include covering nearby skimming ponds with
  ponds...the balls (Floating Ball Covers) adjust to changing water     netting, using several remotely controlled propane cannons and
  levels, are easy to install and survive winter conditions."           mounting one in the rear of a truck as a scare device.

  USAF Story: "Bird Deterrent Ball Covers" Preventing Aircraft          Additionally, falconer Dave Knutson, from the wing safety office,
  Strikes                                                               travels the airfield daily with his trained falcons to clear the
  by Airman Christie Putz, 92nd Air Refueling Wing, Public Affairs      runway of birds.
  10/14/2003 - FAIRCHILD
                                                                        Knutson also uses his personal hunting dogs to flush the birds
  AIR FORCE BASE, Wash. (AFPN) -- The base here is the first Air        out of the grassy areas adjacent to the runway, Spraker said.
  Force installation to use "Bird Deterrent Ball Covers" as part of a   "With the combined effort at Fairchild, we have seen our
  new program to prevent airfield bird strikes.                         damaging bird-strike costs drop dramatically. The last damaging
  The new tool, part of the 92nd Air Refueling Wing bird-aircraft       bird strike was in December of 2002 and resulted in a cost of
  strike hazard program, uses small, environmentally safe, black        $1728," Spraker said.
  balls to cover the surface of the water on the drainage ditches
  near the flight line.
PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                              e-choice
  Plane Safety                                                         Bird Control
  FAA Approves ECC Bird Deterrent Covers                               The balls camouflage the water surface from waterfowl which
  The floating ball covers are approved by the FAA. It is suggested    prevents unwanted birds from using or contaminating the water.
  that when the ECC ball covers are located within 100 yards of a      Berms are cleaner as there are no geese droppings around the
  runway the a heavier water-filled ball should be installed.          pond and no droppings will eliminate a potential additional
  A water rescue does not create a problem as the balls will simply    ammonia load.
  move out of the way when rescue equipment is deployed in the
  ponds.                                                                Many respected biologists have described the ECC bird deterrent
                                                                        ball cover as self cleaning. Bacteria, and other vegetation will not
  When it is not possible to drain a large detention pond               grow on the ECC balls due to the continuous motion of the balls
  completely, use physical barriers, such as ECC bird balls, wires      on the surface of the water. This is also another advantage of
  grids, pillows, or netting, to deter birds and other hazardous        eliminating waterfowl. If the waterfowl has nothing to eat on the
  wildlife. When physical barriers are used, carefully evaluate their cover they will move on to another area.
  use and ensure they will not adversely affect water rescue.
  Before installing any physical barriers over detention ponds on Foam Suppression:
  Part 139 airports, get approval from the appropriate FAA              The balls also inhibit the formation of foam on the water surface.
  Regional Airports Division Office.
  Encourage off-airport storm water treatment facility operators to The ball cover eliminates odors as it covers 91% of the open
  incorporate appropriate wildlife hazard mitigation techniques         surface that holds odors in the waste lagoons.
  into storm water treatment facility operating practices when
  their facility is located within the separation criteria specified in
  AC 150/5200-33A (see above and Appendix C).

  Floating plastic balls can be used to cover ponds and prevent
  birds from using the site. FAA approval is required before
  physical barriers may be used over ponds at certificated airports

  The FAA guide lines chapter 5 page 51
  Other references
PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                            e-choice
  ECC Ball Covers Also Work As An Insulator                           Plastic Ball Covers for Municipalities and Industrial Waste
  On average the covers will keep tanks, reservoirs and ponds, 7 to   Water
  10 degree F warmer in the winter months than it would be not        Waterfowl fatalities and process fouling in municipal and
  covered. The summer months work just the opposite, 7 to 10          industrial ponds can be prevented by covering ponds with a
  degree F cooler than the water would be without a cover.            Floating Ball Cover system.

  Many clarifiers have found that the ECC ball covers have a return   Two main problems associated with birds and waste water are
  on investment of 6 to 12 months. The energy consumption is          process fouling resulting from increased organic accumulations,
  reduced by 75% and chemical consumption is reduced 7% to            and wildlife fatalities from toxic process wastewater.
  12%                                                                 Wastewater can be potentially deadly to birds and other wildlife
                                                                      if they contain hazardous substances. Typically wastewater is
                                                                      stored in open tanks or ponds, which can attract and potentially
                                                                      kill wildlife.

                                                                      Floating Ball Covers cover system is a proven and effective
                                                                      wildlife deterrent recognized by organizations such as the "US
                                                                      Fish and Wildlife Service". The floating ball covers the entire
                                                                      surface of the water, making the pond unattractive to the birds.
                                                                      Other wildlife such as deer do not attempt to walk onto the
                                                                      cover, as the individual balls do not support the animal's weight.

                                                                      Applications for Bird Deterrent Cover
                                                                      Industrial Wastewater Ponds
                                                                      Raw water reservoirs
                                                                      Urban storm water Ponds
                                                                      Agricultural wastewater lagoons
                                                                      Lake and swim areas
                                                                      Ice melting/control
                                                                      Ammonia reduction
                                                                      Odor control
                                                                      Process waste water
                                                                      Cooling ponds
                                                                      Evaporation reduction
                                                                      Algae and ice formation prevention
                                                                      Bird control
PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                               e-choice
  Temperature Control / Chemical Reduction / Odor Control               Advantages of ECC Balls
  ECC floating ball blankets provide highly effective solutions to
  difficult liquid storage problems in industries including                ECC Balls provide several advantages over other cover systems:
  processing, petrochemical and metal treatment. By placing a              Heating costs reduced by up to 75%
  sufficient quantity of hollow plastic balls onto the surface of a        Reduction of liquid loss through evaporation by up to 90%
  liquid, the balls automatically arrange themselves into a close          Reduced chemical consumption
  packed formation over 91% of the surface area. This high surface         Improved working environments
  coverage provides an extremely effective barrier and                     A reduction in corrosive vapors, ensuring increased life
  significantly reduces the mass and heat transfer mechanisms              expectancy of building structures
  operating between the liquid and surrounding environment. The            Reduced demand on air extract systems, saving factory heating
  hollow plastic balls that form a floating cover for ponds, tanks,        and reducing gas scrubber demands
  lagoons, and other basins.                                               Dramatic reduction of foul odors reaching the atmosphere
                                                                           Allows movement of equipment through the liquid
  The plastic balls offer very low heat conductivity. Together, these Reduces penetration of UV rays, precluding growth of algae
  properties result in a very effective thermal insulation barrier.        and clogging weeds
  The air pockets between the balls - although not sealed - also           Reduction of ice formation in freezing conditions, lowering the
  contribute to this cellular insulation system, dramatically              ice formation point by up to 50°F
  reducing heat loss.                                                      The balls spread automatically as the liquid levels rise and fall
                                                                           The balls are available in a variety of materials; high density
  The barrier works both ways: the low liquid surface area exposed polyethylene (HDPE) is the most popular ball material for
  to atmosphere dramatically reduces liquid loss through                   outdoor applications.
  evaporation and odor release to the atmosphere. It also                  Reduced heat loss helps to maintain biological reactions during
  prevents surface absorption of oxygen.                                   cold weather
                                                                           Rain water is not a problem. Unlike solid covers, the balls allow
  Yet this barrier to the elements does not present an obstacle to rain water to pass directly into the basin. There is no opportunity
  product dipping or equipment moving through the liquid                   for ponding to occur.
  surface. The balls are pushed aside, but quickly re-form their           Quick and simple to install; installation is as simple as pouring
  cover as the equipment moves forward or products are lifted              the balls into the tank.
  away from the tank. The balls will rise and fall with liquid level       The balls naturally assume equal distribution
  within storage tanks, and also provide a constant cover over             Immediate solution to odor problems
  liquids held in reservoirs with sloping sides. If the liquid level falls Virtually maintenance free
  - causing the surface area to shrink - the balls simply stack in a
  double layer; they automatically spread themselves into a single
  layer again as the level rises.

  Innovative Applications for ECC Hollow Plastic Balls Include...
  Heat retention. As the balls cover more than 90% of the surface
  area, they provide an insulation blanket on the tank.
  Evaporation reduction. Covering the water surface minimizes
  evaporation and water loss.
  Algae control. The balls block the UV from penetrating the water.
  Oxygen absorption.
  Vapor containment. The balls reduce chemical vapor emissions.
  Odor containment. Less exposed surface area results in less odor
  Radiant protection
  Acid mist reduction from electro wining process
  Camouflage pond basins from waterfowl / bird deterrent
PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                              e-choice
  Energy Savings                                                         MIST & VAPOR CONTROL
  Waterfowl fatalities and process fouling in industrial ponds can       Acid mist generated by electrowinning metals from acidic
  be prevented by covering ponds with a Floating Ball Cover              electrolytes can be dramatically reduced with ECC Hollow Plastic
  system.                                                                Balls.

  Two main problems associated with birds and industrial ponds           The Copper refining technique of electrowinning generates
  are process fouling resulting from increased organic                   oxygen gas at the surface of the anodes. This saturates the
  accumulations, and wildlife fatalities from toxic process water        electrolyte and forms bubbles which rise to the surface and burst
  and wastewater.                                                        into the atmosphere. A fine acid mist is created, which is
                                                                         dangerous to human health and damages the building structure.
  Industrial process water and wastewater can be potentially             Increased ventilation rates become costly, cause significant
  deadly to birds and other wildlife if they contain hazardous           electrolyte temperature loss and merely transfer the
  substances such as cyanide, oil, salts or acids. Typically process     contamination outside the building.
  water is stored in open tanks or ponds, which can attract and
  potentially kill wildlife. Industrial ponds that can be particularly   Although several techniques have been employed in attempts to
  harmful are:                                                           solve these problems, none offers the performance and
                                                                         flexibility of a ECC floating blanket of 3/4" (19mm) hollow
  Acid Process Water Ponds                                               polypropylene balls. Forming a layer up to four balls deep, most
  Industries such as phosphate fertilizer processors and precious        of the acid mist particles impact or condense on the ball, then
  metal extraction.                                                      return harmlessly into the liquid. The balls allow unobstructed
              Birds landing in these acidic ponds can ingest this        retrieval of the cathode and will not become trapped on the
              water, which causes severe trauma to their                 copper deposits.
              gastrointestinal tracts and eventual death.
              The acidic water removes natural oils from the birds'      Advantages and Benefits
              feathers causing them to die by drowning or                Heat Savings
              hypothermia.                                               The thermal insulation qualities of a ECC floating ball cover can
  Cyanide Ponds                                                          reduce heat loss by up to 70% depending on the liquid and
              Pregnant cyanide solution used in heap leach gold          ambient temperatures. Process liquid temperatures can also be
              mining.                                                    maintained at optimal operating conditions more easily.
              The solution is applied to the ore heaps for gold          Surface Coverage
              extraction.                                                Typically, three layers of 19mm (3/4") diameter balls are
              Bird fatalities occur due to the same reasons as Acid      recommended. Approximately 2,900 balls cover 270 ft2 (1m2)
              Process Water Ponds                                        with a single layer. Recent tests have suggested that further
  Oil Field Waste Pits                                                   improvements can be obtained by mixing 19mm and 10mm balls
              Ineffective separation of oil and water results in         in a volume ratio of 70/30
              wastewater covered by a layer of oil
              Oil can weigh birds down and cause them to drown.
              Oil destroys the ability of the birds' feathers to
              insulate, resulting in death from heat or cold stress.
              Two million migratory birds are estimated to die each
              year in oil and mining wastewater pits in the western
              United States.

  A Floating Ball Cover system is a proven and effective wildlife
  deterrent recognized by organizations such as the "US Fish and
  Wildlife Service". The Floating Ball Covers cover the entire
  surface of the water, making the pond unattractive to the birds.
  Other wildlife such as deer and foxes do not attempt to walk
  onto the cover, as the individual balls do not support the
  animal's weight.
PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION                                            e-choice
  Wildlife Protection & Odor Control
  Waterfowl can be kept away from leach ponds through the use
  of ECC Bird Deterrent Plastic Ball.
  In gold mining applications, heap leach pregnant solution ponds
  must be covered to prevent waterfowl fatalities. The
  conventional solution has been netting, which is expensive to
  maintain, is regularly damaged by winter storms and fails to
  camouflage the liquid surface from the air.
  By floating a layer of ECC Bird Deterrent Plastic Ball on the
  surface, the liquid is camouflaged and birds fail to see the ponds.
  The balls rise and fall with changing liquid levels and easily
  accommodate objects such as floating pump barges.

  Advantages and Benefits
                                                                        Ammonia and Chemical Tanks Safety Covers
  Liquid Loss Through Evaporation
                                                                        Ammonia and Chemical Tanks Potential Hazardous leaks or spills.
  Water is an expensive commodity, especially to mine operators
  who work in mountainous or inaccessible locations. A single
                                                                        The ECC Vapor Containment Covers will give the first responders
  layer of Vapor Balls automatically arrange themselves into a
                                                                        extra time to clean up the Hazard.
  close-packed formation over 91% of the surface area, greatly
                                                                        Cover automatically covers spill
  reducing sunlight penetration (and thus reducing liquid
                                                                        Insurance loss preventive recommended solution
  evaporation). The thermal insulating qualities of Vapor Balls also
  assist in maintaining winter operating temperatures of the            Long lasting application
  water.                                                                No Maintenance

  Vapor Balls are black UV stabilized HDPE to provide more than 10
  years of continuous service in conventional applications. The
  balls are also completely reusable, should another basin require
  covering if and when the original location is no longer in service.

  Maintenance Free
  Unlike netting, Vapor Balls are an "install-and-forget" solution.
  The balls are simply poured from their packing onto the liquid
  surface. Moderate winds and snow -- which damage netting so
  easily -- fail to affect a Vapor Balls floating cover.

  Surface Coverage
  The people at ECC have over 40 years experience with hollow
  plastic balls for industrial applications. The ball weight and
  diameter of the standard Vapor Balls usually gives optimal
  performance at moderate wind speeds while ensuring the most
  economical cost per square foot. A ECC Vapor Balls weighs a
  nominal 40.0g and is 100mm (4") in diameter. Approximately 116
  balls cover one square metre (10 per sq ft). Should the surface of
  the pond be exposed to higher wind speeds, our heavier 120g
  water-filled Vapor Balls are recommended.

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