Country Plan Angola 2011-2015

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Country Plan Angola 2011-2015 Powered By Docstoc
					                  Country plan 2011-2015

                                    Angola


                                Date: 29.10.2010



    Contact information:

    Name Resident Representative:     Vibeke Skauerud

    Office telephone:                 +244 222 333 419

    Telefax:                          + 244 222 335 816

    E-mail:                           ain.nca@snet.co.ao



    Address:                          Rua de Nossa Senhora da Muxima no 16

                                      Ingombota, Luanda



    Name Program Coordinator:         Jane Vogt Evensen

    Office telephone:                 +47 982 02 508

    E-mail:                           jane.vogt.evensen@nca.no



    Address:                          Norwegian Church Aid

                                      Bernhard Getz gate 3, 0165 Oslo

                                      Postboks 7100, St. Olavs plass, 0130 Oslo



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Contents


1.      CONTEXT ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................................. 3
     1.1    ANALYSIS OF MAIN RIGHTS DEFICITS ................................................................................................................. 3
     1.2    ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY AND FBO’S (IN THE CONTEXT OF STATE AND MARKET) .......................................................... 6
     1.3    NCA’S COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES IN ANGOLA ................................................................................................ 7
     1.4    RELEVANCE IN RELATION TO DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES........................................................................................ 8
       1.4.1     Relevance to national policies, plans and priorities ........................................................................ 8
       1.4.2     Relevance to Norwegian development objectives .......................................................................... 9
2.      MAIN INTERVENTION STRATEGIES ......................................................................................................... 10
     2.1    STRATEGIC PRIORITIES AND PROGRAMMES ...................................................................................................... 10
     2.2    STRATEGY FOR STRENGTHENING LOCAL CIVIL SOCIETY FROM A RIGHTS BASED APPROACH .......................................... 12
     2.3    NCA INTEGRATED APPROACH ....................................................................................................................... 13
     2.4    NCA ACCOUNTABILITY COMMITMENTS .......................................................................................................... 13
     2.5    NCA COMMITMENTS TO MAINSTREAMING DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES ................................................................. 13
       2.5.1     Gender equality............................................................................................................................. 13
       2.5.2     Conflict sensitivity ......................................................................................................................... 14
       2.5.3     Environmental sustainability ........................................................................................................ 14
3.      FUNDING STRATEGY............................................................................................................................... 16
     3.1    RESOURCE FRAMES 2011 – 2015 ................................................................................................................ 16
     3.2    PROPOSED FUNDING STRATEGY..................................................................................................................... 16
       3.2.1    Main funding sources.................................................................................................................... 16
       3.2.2    Diversification strategy ................................................................................................................. 17
       3.2.3    Capacity assessment ..................................................................................................................... 17
       3.2.4    ACT Alliance coordination ............................................................................................................. 17
4.      APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................................... 18
     4.1       APPENDIX 1 – PARTNER INFORMATION FORMS ................................................................................................ 18
     4.2       APPENDIX 2 – NCA’S ACCOUNTABILITY FRAMEWORK....................................................................................... 18




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ANGOLA 2011 - 2015


1. CONTEXT ANALYSIS

Angola is located on the west coast of Africa, south of the DRC and north of Namibia,
and has an estimated population of 18 million. Angola is a former Portuguese colony
and independence was won in 1975, however almost immediately followed by civil war.
Preceded by a 15 year long struggle for liberation from Portuguese rule, Angola‟s 27 year
civil war ended in April 2002 with the Luena peace accord. The years of violent conflict
destroyed the infrastructure of the country and left the countryside, once a rich
agricultural base, almost uninhabitable, mainly due to landmines and UXO‟s (unexploded
ordinances). It is estimated that more than 1.5 million people lost their lives during
these years of struggle and conflict that also resulted in millions of IDPs and refugees,
about 80% of which were women and children. The reintegration of nearly 4.5 million
displaced people and 100,000 ex combatants was mainly completed in 2005; a process
that placed enormous pressure on local social systems, which still need time to adjust.
The Angolan economy has achieved very high growth rates since 2004 – among the
highest in the world - mainly due to high oil prices and successful attempts to bring
inflation under control. The country remains highly dependent on oil revenues, a capital
intensive sector that whilst accounting for 90% of exports and 80% of tax revenues it
employs only 10,000 people.1 Profits from oil and gas production benefit only the few,
being siphoned out of the country to the benefit of the national power elite and
international companies. In contrast, it is estimated that over 50% of Angola‟s
population get their income directly from small holder agriculture and trading in
agricultural products, a sector accounting for less than 10% of GDP. Despite the
booming economy, it is estimated that almost two thirds of the population still live below
the poverty line. It should however be mentioned that recent government policies aim at
mitigating some of these negative effects by encouraging "Angolanization" of companies and
greater use of Angolan suppliers of goods and services.

Parliamentary elections were held for the second time ever in the nation‟s history on
September 5th 2008. Although the elections undoubtedly marked a positive step in the
long-term democratisation process in Angola, the overwhelming 80% victory won by the
ruling party MPLA fuelled worries that its absolute majority in parliament will limit the
political space for the opposition as well as for civil society organisations. In the present
social, economic and political climate it is increasingly evident that the role of civil
society as an independent and critical voice is more important than ever.
Presidential elections, originally scheduled for 2009, were put on hold until a revision of
the constitution had been voted through by the newly elected parliament. One of the
main changes in the new constitution is that the president will be elected at the time of
parliamentary elections, as head of the winning party‟s list. This means that president
Dos Santos, who is already one of Africa‟s longest serving leaders, will continue in power
at least until next parliamentary elections in 2012.



1.1      Analysis of main rights deficits
Participation
Little access to information, fear of reprisal from the power elite and subsequent self
censorship are all factors inhibiting greater citizen participation. Despite the apparent
success of the recent parliamentary elections, citizen participation in governance remains
generally low at all levels of society and local elections are yet to be announced. Women
1
    EIA – Country Analysis Brief Angola, January 2010.

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and youth are still largely excluded from leadership positions and decision making,
mainly due to traditional social norms and power relations linked to age and gender. It
was therefore seen as a positive sign when after elections in 2008, the percentage of
women in government rose to around 30%. Local government, which should be in the
front line of democratic participation, is not elected, but appointed by the national
government. In recent years, there have been moves to reform the legislative and the
judiciary systems, but actual progress has been slow. The Local Administration Act of
1999 first revised in 2007 and more recently in 2010 brought one noteworthy change in
that for the first time the municipal administrations are considered budgetary units (law
17/10 art. 84). Although some critics argue that the law is not so much about
decentralisation as it is about de-concentration of central power, it is nevertheless an
opportunity for engaging communities and local government through dialogue. It may
also prove an important step towards preparing the ground for local elections.

Marginalised people often lack the political influence to participate in decision-making
processes to ensure the correct use of public funds in order to obtain essential services.
Civil society organization in Angola can play an important role in service delivery of
water and adequate sanitation in alliance with local and national governments.

Lack of access to reliable information is also a major constraint to participation. The
overall literacy rate in Angola is 67% for both women and men. 2 All forms of media
have in the past been controlled by government and there has been generally little
government transparency. Some alternative media, such as independent radio stations
and weekly newspapers are found in urban areas. However, at the cost of two dollars,
and with a printed edition of only a few thousand, few have in reality access to these
alternative sources of information. Government transparency on oil revenues has
improved through the publication of the Oil Diagnostic, initiated in 2004 in a
collaborative effort of the Angolan government, World Bank/IMF and independent
international accounting consultants KPMG. On the other hand, there is still a long way
to go on transparency on the expenditure side.

Equity
The main equity deficit is found in the unjust distribution of Angola‟s considerable
national resources, primarily made up of oil, diamonds, other minerals, water and
agricultural land. These resources have made it possible for Angola to maintain its
position as one of the fastest growing economies in the world over the last year, 2009-
figures3 indicate a 13.2 % growth in real GDP, second only to Macau. In stark contrast,
Angola has some of the worst poverty levels in Africa, according to the latest Human
Development Index (HDI) of UNDP 4, more than 70% of the population is still living for
less than USD 2 a day with illiteracy, infant and maternal mortality rates remaining high.
Although its overall HDI-ranking has improved from 162 to 143 between 2007 and 2008,
economic inequality measures still place Angola amongst some of the most unequal
countries in the world.5 Lack of accountable governance, illustrated by high corruption
and low transparency in the management of public funds is another barrier in order to
overcome the equity deficit. Angola is ranked 162 (down from 142 in 2006) of 180
countries on Transparency International‟s 2009 corruption index.



2
  UNICEF 2003 – 2008.
The results of a new study on the well-being of the population (IBEP – Inquérito sobre o bem estar da
População 2008/2009) were partially released in August 2010. Although the full report was not yet available to
the public at the time of finalizing this document, we know that the literacy level for the age-group 15 to 24
years old in the IBEP indicates a literacy rate of 73% nationally, i.e. 81 %for men and 65% for women.
However, there is still a big difference between rural and urban areas, with a literacy rate of only 52% in rural
areas.
3
  CIA World Factbook
4
  UNDPs Human Development Report 2009
5
  UNDP HD index 2009, Gini Coeffiicient of 58.6.

4
On the expenditure side, while the Ministry of Finance does publish national budgets,
there is no meaningful role for parliament or civil society in the budget debate, and
published budgets often have little influence on actual government behaviour.
International pressure has mainly been self-serving and the call for good governance has
focused more on issues of transparency and improved foreign investment climate than
on poverty alleviation and democratization. Countries with a strategic interest in Angolan
oil (such as China and the US) have willingly provided concessional oil-backed loans,
carrying no demands for improved governance. One positive development is that Angola
signed the UN Convention on Anticorruption in 2006.

Another barrier is the relative weak capacity of the public sector and low spending on
social services critical to poverty reduction. The shares allocated to the health sector
(4.4% in 2006) and education (3.8% in 2006) increased to approximately 5.0% for
health and 8.5% for education in the national budget for 2010. The numbers continue,
nevertheless, to be amongst the lowest within the SADC region.

There is also an equity deficit related to access to public goods such as the water supply.
Water supply in rural areas has a coverage rate of 38% and for sanitation only 18%. For
urban areas, the rates are 60% and 86% respectively.6 The lack of access to water,
especially in rural areas, contributes to the low attendance rate of girls in primary and
secondary schools, since women and girls are traditionally expected to fetch water for
the household. Furthermore, women‟s limited power in decision-making and their
restricted access to resources and information make them especially vulnerable to the
effects of climate change.

Despite recent years‟ improvements in women‟s participation in national decision-making
structures, there are still challenges within the faith-based structures, i.e. none of the
provincial representatives of the Christian Council of Churches (CICA) are women.
Although women‟s‟ rights are fairly well protected in the legal framework in Angola, there
is still a big gap between the law and traditional, everyday practice. It is for example
still rather common that a widow is expelled from her property upon her husband‟s
death and that the property is returned to the husband‟s family.

Protection
The key protection deficit is the serious lack of personal safety for Angola‟s most
vulnerable citizens: demobilized soldiers, both women and men, but especially women as
they are more stigmatized, female headed households, the disabled, the elderly and
orphaned children. There are several underlying causes or barriers contributing to the
protection deficit. The destruction of social tissue, such as family and ethnic networks
during the war is considered to have contributed to the high levels of gender-based
violence. Decades of physical and psychological violence, availability of weapons and
desperation of poverty have intensified violence against women, both inside and outside
the home. Women are afraid to report these abuses and the few who try to seek legal
justice, are met with indifference and a by and large non-functioning judicial system –
especially in rural areas. The war has also contributed to a rise in female headed
households. Women‟s informal earnings have become relatively more important
undermining men‟s traditional position as the family‟s main provider. In the context of a
culture of violence, men‟s feelings of inadequacy and displacement are believed to be
another explanation for the increase in domestic violence. There is a high prevalence of
gender based violence in society, and as the churches are a mirror of Angolan society,
this is also a challenge concerning the church.



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  These numbers have actually dropped if we take into consideration the results of the new study on the well-
being of the population (IBEP – Inquérito sobre o bem estar da População 2008/2009) which was partially
released in August 2010. According to the IBEP, only 30% of the population have access to adequate water
and sanitation. The number is split between 10% in rural areas, and 49% in urban areas.

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In the absence of good census data and low epidemiological surveillance, many Angolans
face a precarious health situation. In 2005, there were serious outbreaks of Marburg and
polio, and in 2006 an outbreak of cholera claimed over a thousand lives. Factors
contributing to spread of water-borne diseases such as cholera are rooted in the lack of
access to clean water and good sanitary facilities. Malaria is the disease known to claim
the largest number of lives each year. In 2009, 3.1 million Angolans were infected and
8,000 died of malaria.7

Given the high prevalence in neighbouring countries and strong patterns of migration
during and after the war, there are strong indications that the official estimated HIV and
AIDS prevalence of 2.1%8 is much too low and not well updated since the war, and that
the situation in the country is frequently described as a „ticking bomb‟ in regards to HIV
and AIDS. A recent study carried out by a respected 9 organization in July 2010 actually
estimates prevalence at 5.5%. From data on HIV and AIDS in other countries, there is
good reason to assume that the infection rate for women is higher than for men.

Factors contributing to the spread of HIV and AIDS have their roots in three decades of
war and include rapid urbanization, migration, forced movement of people, illiteracy,
polygamy, unprotected sex, widespread sexual violence, high incidence of sexually
transmitted diseases (STD), the destruction of health care systems, and increased cross
border trade in the south and north of Angola, coupled by increased prostitution. Lack of
reliable data, limited government action, together with stigma and discrimination
attached to the disease, is seriously hindering the openness and transparency needed for
effective prevention, treatment and care. While access to ARV has improved, challenges
still remain in particular in the rural areas, hence mobilizing people for their right to
treatment and care will be a priority, along with promoting gender justice while
addressing the root causes for the transmission as well as fighting stigma and
discrimination is an important area also for the faith based institutions.

Angola has a high dependency on natural resources making the country vulnerable to
climate change. Angola ratified the Kyoto protocol in 2007 and is committed to several
declarations on environmental sustainability. But despite the declarations, little work is
being done to mitigate the countries vulnerability to climate change. 50 percent of the
rural population is making their livelihood out of subsistence farming, and food insecurity
is a challenge particularly due to recurring droughts in the south and floods in most parts
of the country. Firewood and charcoal is an important material for cooking, adding
pressure on the forests. Deforestation and desertification are considered significant
challenges in Angola today.



1.2      Role of civil society and FBO’s (in the context of state and market)
Civil Society in Angola has more than ever a critical role to play in claiming respect for
human rights, citizen participation and accountable governance in the country. After the
parliamentarian elections in 2008 which virtually decimated opposition in the parliament.
Civil society in Angola is however still quite weak and poorly organized and therefore
need to be capacitated in advocacy and lobbying in order to be better equipped to define
their own agenda and strategy in addressing sensitive social and political issues.
Although the position of women is that of the poorest in representation and organization,
women are also the most promising force for social change. There are however worrying
signs that political space for civil society is gradually decreasing, seen i.e. through the
process of the revision of the constitution where civil society where not given sufficient

7
  Statistics from the National Programme for the Fight Against Malaria, presented at a press conference in
Luanda, 19 April 2010.

8
    Public statement by Minister of Health on 24 August 2010.
9
    ADPP

6
time and space to participate. The interruption and prohibition of peaceful
demonstrations in Benguela and Huila provinces, organized by local human rights
organizations in solidarity of the victims of forced house evictions and demolitions are
yet other examples that add to the impression of shrinking space.

In Angola, NCA has chosen to work in partnership with faith based organizations and
churches. The churches in Angola have a huge membership base with presence at all
levels from the national arena to local communities, and potential to link grassroots level
initiatives to broader processes of national development. It is estimated that more than
90% of the population is Christian, of which approximately 60% are catholic and 30%
protestant. Most of the churches in Angola have strong national structures, with a
presence in Luanda and historical ties to the main political parties. The three main
liberation movements in Angola (MPLA, UNITA and FNLA) drew their inspiration and
leadership from three central Protestant churches in Angola (Methodist, Congregational
and Baptist). Most of Angola‟s current political leaders grew up in one of these traditions
and are currently members of a church, and perceive the Church to be a legitimate and
influential institution in Angolan society.
The churches are considered the best organized institutions within Angolan civil society
holding a largely untapped potential to mobilize poor men and women for active
citizenship. If organized to speak with a united voice and act upon a common agenda,
the churches have the moral leverage and mobilization power to positively influence
policy makers on a range of social justice issues. Encompassing almost 90% of the
population, the churches are also a mirror of Angolan society. Efforts to improve
equitable internal governance and practices of churches and openly address gender
based violence will thus be an important contribution to improving governance in society
at large. Youth and women, when first given the opportunity to participate actively in
clerical and lay leadership positions within the church, can transfer these skills to civil
society at large as well as to formal political institutions.



1.3   NCA’s comparative advantages in Angola
NCA as a faith based organisation
As an organization rooted in the Norwegian churches, NCA is in a good position to work
with the Angolan churches in addressing issues like gender equity and equality, gender
based violence, transparency and governance. NCA has specific competence in
mainstreaming gender and protection which will be put to use in the cooperation with
core church partners in Angola. Special components in the programs will address issues
related to gender based violence.

NCA as a partner in capacity development
NCA is skilled in capacity development and networking. Our approach is the approach of
walking together with the partner and focus upon tailor-made solutions defined by the
partner and NCA together, fitted to the needs of each partner and related to the aims
and goals of the program. NCA has therefore started to work with a two-pronged
approach, using resource persons or resource organisations to both train and develop
support strategies for core partners and NCA staff. NCA will continue to support partners‟
capacity development on finance management and other components of the project
management cycle, such as the planning, programming, monitoring, evaluation and
reporting phases with a special focus on a rights based program approach. Such an
approach is generally new for many of our partners in the south and is demanding both
for the partner as well as for NCA and gives other and new challenges to our partnership
approach. Another important focus for NCA within the field of capacity development will
be to strengthen the ACT Angola Forum.




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NCA regional programs and networks
Visits and participation by partners in regional meetings and seminars is encouraged,
and NCA is facilitating links between Angolan CSO‟s and regional and international
networks and organizations. NCA will also facilitate exchange and capacity development
with relevant NCA partners and programs in countries such as Brazil, South Africa as
well as other countries in the Southern African region.

NCA is in the process of establishing a regional policy office in Pretoria that will focus
their work on Economic Justice and Gender Justice. Both programs are relevant to the
NCA portfolio in Angola. The existence of the regional office will enable NCA Angola to lift
its support to advocacy work up to a regional level, especially with regards to SADC. The
resources at the regional policy office will provide support to the NCA Angola Country
office in its advocacy work. Angolan partners can benefit from linkages to networks or
resource organizations in the region with expertise on economic justice, gender justice,
HIV and AIDS, water and sanitation and climate change.
As several other NCA supported programs in the region are addressing gender based
violence and gender equity, links will also be made to those programs in order to
enhance common learning.

NCA alliances with international networks
NCA has a strong and longstanding relationship with international church and civil
society networks, and therefore has the ability to link local work on the five
programmatic areas to international networks and initiatives. With regard to economic
governance, an international voice is crucial to expose and challenge external actors who
fuel corruption and unfairly exploit Angola‟s rich natural resources. Progressive
international church networks can provide solidarity and support to local churches
wishing to work more actively with issues related to HIV and AIDS, gender based
violence and climate change adaptation. NCA will also seek closer cooperation with
European sister organizations within the ACT Alliance and the APRODEV group such as
Christian Aid and ICCO on provision of capacity development for common partners.

NCA as a Norwegian NGO
NCA has valuable experience from the Norwegian national context, with a strong social
welfare state and a well-organized and active civil society. As an oil-producing country,
Norway has positive experiences on state ownership and regulation of the oil companies
as well as policies to for using oil profits to benefit society at large. The Oil for
Development Programme holds an interesting potential for supporting efforts to help
Angola improve the just management of their petroleum resources. NCA‟s Head Office in
Norway has done considerable work on Corporate Social Responsibility, and NCA Angola
will explore how these experiences can be used to develop partner‟s capacity in
advocacy and policy analysis and facilitate networking and exchange on issues related to
economic governance and corporate social accountability. NCA has a considerable
emergency response capacity, being a member of NOREPS and the humanitarian reform
process. These resources will be used in the planning and development an emergency
response capacity integrated in the long term development plans for NCA and ACT
partners in Angola.



1.4   Relevance in relation to development priorities
The government develops multiyear sector plans that serve as guidelines for NCA‟s and
partners programmes in Angola.


1.4.1 Relevance to national policies, plans and priorities
Angola operates with two-year plans that drive policy in Angola and are clearly linked to
the budget. The current plan covers 2010 - 2011 (“Plano Nacional para o Biénio

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2010/2011”). NCA‟s work will contribute positively to a number of the plan‟s main
objectives: promotion of national unity and cohesion, development of human resources,
equitable development throughout the country and consolidation of the democratic
process.

NCA and partners will continue to link up with President Dos Santos statement on
transparency and abolishing corruption from his speech in November 2009.           One
example of this is the Oil for Development project which started in 2010, with focus on
anti-corruption and budget monitoring. NCA and partners will also be using the
opportunities for engaging community leaders and local governments in dialogue
according to the local administration act (17/10) of 2010 actively in programmes on
accountable governance and citizenship.

The new water law (Law 6/02) in 2002 was a starting point for a sector reform process
of the water and sanitation sector that is still on-going. The Angolan government has
adopted the Millennium Development Goal expressed as ”provision of adequate access to
water for 67% and 70% of the urban and rural population respectively”. To achieve this
goal the government has among other activities developed a USD $650 million "Water
for All 2012" program to improve water supply in 140 Municipalities and about 265
Communes. This program is expected to benefit more than 3 million people between
2007 and 2012. NCA is working closely with authorities on national, provincial and
municipal levels in order to contribute to enabling the government to secure the right to
basic services, and to avoid duplication with government plans.

As women and men have almost equal rights in the legal framework of Angola, this is
another area of importance in this program and gives a good basis for promoting equal
rights also within the faith based institutions and to focus upon gender equity in all the
programs supported by NCA. One of the important entry points here is the water,
sanitation and hygiene program. NCA Angola sees this program as one of the very
important arenas for social mobilization related to gender justice and which has the
potential for a spill over effect into other programs as well.



1.4.2 Relevance to Norwegian development objectives
According to the “Guidelines for Norway‟s Cooperation with Angola 2010 – 2014”
published on the Norwegian Embassy in Angola‟s web-page, co-operation between
Norway and Angola for this period should amongst other matters give priority to
“Consolidation of democracy, good governance and human rights, both through support
to civil society and through institutional cooperation that is not funded by aid”.

According to the embassy, the consolidation of democracy entails providing support to
civil society with focus on human rights and democracy development, including
strengthening of institutional cooperation that is not funded by aid, for example the
judicial system and human rights, as well as maintaining contact between Norway‟s
parliament and Angola‟s National Assembly. A general focus on gender equity and
addressing gender based violence is a basis for any rights based focus, so also here.
NCA‟s plan is in line with Norway‟s development policy objective for Angola in particular
with regards to consolidating the democracy process through our support to a number of
key civil society actors and faith based institutions in the country which we believe are
important change agents with vast, national outreach.




9
2. MAIN INTERVENTION STRATEGIES


2.1     Strategic priorities and programmes


NCA Angola will in the next five years work on two main strategic priorities, namely;
Economic Justice and Gender Justice. Within these strategic priorities, we will focus upon
a total of five thematic program areas. Although the program areas are sorted under
either Economic Justice or Gender Justice, all five program areas will include aspects
related to both priorities. The following program areas have been chosen:


                 Economic Justice                  Gender Justice




     Resources       Climate           Water,              Social          Gender
        and          Change           Sanitation        Mitigation          Based
      Finance       Adaptation           and            of HIV and         Violence
                                       Hygiene             AIDS




Resources and Finance
Resources and Finance with the aim of targeting poverty through challenging the
unequal distribution of resources mainly generated by the petroleum industry. Special
focus will be put on promoting transparency in public financial management by holding
local and national governments accountable for the just management of the revenues
generated mainly by the petroleum industry. There will be programs on social- and
budget-monitoring, including training and mobilization of local church networks and
members of the local administrations. NCA and partners will equally strive to hold
private sector, and in particular Norwegian companies operating in Angola, accountable
for their investments and operations in the country, and make linkages to NCA‟s overall
work on Corporate Social Responsibility.

Link to strategic priorities: This thematic area is mainly linked to economic justice, but to
some extent also gender justice since women continue to be a more vulnerable group
than men and hence are more likely to suffer from the consequences of poverty.


Climate Change Adaptation
In Angola, the work on climate will focus on Climate Change Adaptation. The majority of
the population are subsistence farmers, which makes them vulnerable to the increasingly
dramatic climate changes such as changing weather patterns. Poverty is also driving
people to look for other sources of income, such as cutting down trees for firewood and
burning of charcoal for economical purposes. This means that in addition to the need to
identify alternative energy sources there is also a need to identify alternative sources of
income. Attention will be given to disaster risk reduction measures, as well as access to
water and diversification of livelihood strategies. There will be an emphasis on involving
women when developing local strategies.

Link to strategic priorities: This thematic program area will tackle issues both linked to
gender justice and economic justice. Since women tend to be more vulnerable than
men, special attention will be given to address the needs of women affected by climate
change. At the same time, women represent a crucial force in society when it comes to
income generating activities such as subsistence farming and small scale trading. As a

10
consequence, women will have to be included not only as a target group, but also as
change agents in all strategies for change.


Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
The right to clean, potable water remains a challenge in Angola, in particular in small
and isolated rural communities. Emphasis will be given to providing access to Water
Sanitation and Hygiene and to ensure sustainability through extensive community
mobilization, with a focus on improved hygiene practices both in long-term development
and in emergency situations. A crucial aspect will be to mobilize communities to
advocate for and claim their right to water and sanitation, and to work with local and
national authorities to improve the management of water resources.

Link to strategic priorities: This thematic area is linked to both gender and economic
justice. Women are more affected by the lack of access to basic infrastructures such as
water, since they are traditionally in charge of fetching water on a daily basis to the
household. This often prevents women from assuming income generating activities such
as working in the fields or selling at the market. Girls are often prevented from going to
school, and are hence prevented from taking active part in social, political and economic
activities later in life.


Social Mitigation of HIV and AIDS
Social Mitigation of HIV and AIDS is important and there are strong indications that the
prevalence is rapidly increasing, from 2.8% in 2004 to an estimated 5.5% in 2010.
Access to ARV has improved, although challenges still remain in particular in the rural
areas, hence mobilizing people for their right to treatment and care will be a priority.
Special attention will also be given to addressing stigma and discrimination, as well as
providing gender sensitive life skills training and spiritual, social, economical and
physical support to people living with HIV and AIDS.

Link to strategic priorities: This thematic area is in particular linked to gender justice due
to the feminisation of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. However, there is also a link to
economic justice since addressing stigma and discrimination may lead to a more
inclusive environment for PLWH, enabling them to participate in social and economic
activities which may ultimately benefit society at large.


Gender Based Violence
Gender Based Violence is a priority in Angola where women are particularly vulnerable
due to poor education levels, limited economical empowerment and cultural practices.
The decades of war left behind a culture of violence which has seeped into most spheres
of Angolan society, including the family. Emphasis will be given to challenging the
behaviour of women and men towards practices of gender based violence, and to
fighting discrimination by addressing gender based violence as a structural issue. Special
attention will also be given to empower women to participate in governance issues and
structures, including faith-based structures.

Link to strategic priorities: This thematic program area is mainly linked to gender justice,
but also to some extent economic justice since the program will have a focus on
empowering women to participate in social, political and economic life.




11
2.2   Strategy for strengthening local civil society from a rights based approach
NCA sees people living in poverty and injustice as rights-holders, rather than as objects
of charity. We accept individuals‟ legitimate claims to rights and life with dignity and
acknowledge that there are also duty-bearers with obligations to realise these human
rights.

NCA‟s Rights Based Approach (RBA) entails a two-pronged strategy. A vital component
of our strategy is to acknowledge poor and vulnerable groups as rights holders. By
claiming abstract rights as tangible entitlements, poor people improve their lives. At the
same time, we recognize that social relations and institutions (both formal and informal)
within society can pose serious barriers to poor women and men who try to claim their
rights. We acknowledge that gender assessments are important in order to ensure equal
participation and equal access for women and men. NCA‟s RBA approach also entails the
identification of key duty bearers and strategies to engage with them to transform these
institutional barriers and mechanisms of exclusion.

Mobilizing communities for social change
In order to mobilise communities for change, NCA works through partners who are
locally rooted and enjoy legitimacy in their local communities, like the churches.
NCA is committed to the promotion of inclusive communities in which everyone
irrespective of sex, ethnicity or tribe has a voice and is shown respect. NCA Angola
strategically uses its water, sanitation and hygiene program as an entry point to gain
access to communities, enabling us to add issues on accountable governance and gender
in the community mobilization process. Mobilization of communities to claim their basic
rights and engage duty-bearers is therefore an important part of Norwegian Church Aid‟s
rights-based strategy for change.

Building vertical and horizontal alliances and networks
There is a growing awareness among development actors of the need for more
coordination and cooperation in national contexts in order to achieve better results.
Therefore, strengthening the horizontal links between organisations in national contexts
will be another important dimension of NCA‟s work in the years ahead. We will give
particular attention to facilitating linkages between our core partners and resource
organisations with specialised skills in relevant areas.

During this Global Strategy period, NCA will emphasise the development of the ACT
Alliance. The ACT Alliance mobilises resources, brings together communities, churches
and organisations from all over the world in the common struggle for global justice. It is
an important alliance for building strengths and for horizontal and vertical coordination.
ACT Angola Forum is the meeting point for all ACT members in Angola. The forum
includes national organisations as well as Northern agencies like NCA, DCA and LWF.
Creating synergies between partner organizations on local, national, regional and global
levels is an important opportunity for Norwegian Church Aid to contribute to change on
all levels.

Mutual capacity development
NCA will focus on mutual capacity development with our core partners in particular and
when possible, coordinated in the ACT Alliance or with APRODEV sister organizations.
Challenging NCA to reflect on own practice is an integral part of mutual capacity
development- NCA became a member of HAP in 2010, aiming at achieving HAP-standard
certification during next programme period.




12
2.3   NCA integrated approach
NCA uses three rights based working methods: Long-term development, advocacy, and
emergency preparedness and response. NCA‟s integrated approach looks at working
methodologies which include disaster risk reduction (DRR), broader disaster/emergency
preparedness, first phase emergency response and long term sustainable development,
thereby cutting across the emergency to development continuum. In Angola, NCA plan
to invest considerable time and resources in developing the capacities of the ACT Angola
Forum, with the aim of addressing emergency preparedness and response through the
ACT Alliance. In our water projects, we work to secure access to clean water and
sanitation also in emergency situations. Equal access to water is seen as a basic right
and NCA along with partners train communities on their rights and how to hold local
government accountable. Marginalised people and communities are mobilized to
primarily prevent, but also to manage emergencies, although to a lesser extent.

NCA does strongly maintain that the advocacy work of the partners shall be rooted in the
practical work of the partners themselves and participation and equity shall be the basic
strategies for such work in order for the partners to use advocacy as a tool for change,
also within their own organisation.



2.4   NCA accountability commitments
NCA will during this planning period focus on further development and quality assurance
of our accountability to right-holders, host communities, partners and other stakeholders
based on the HAP accountability and quality managements standards. 10 Focus will be on
provision of information, securing equality in participation and developing systems for
feedback and complaints focusing on right-holders and host communities during all
phases of project and program implementation. Special systems for complaints in
relation to GBV will also be implemented and the ACT Alliance Code of conduct against
sexual exploitation and abuse and corruption will be signed by all partners and staff.
Clear commitments and expectations on accountability in our relationship with partners
will also be developed and adapted to the specific partnerships.

For more information on the Accountability framework, please refer to appendix 2.



2.5   NCA commitments to mainstreaming development principles


2.5.1 Gender equality
Grounded in NCA Statement of Principles and policy documents by WCC, ACT and LWF,
NCA has a commitment to women‟s rights and gender equality which recognizes that
gender inequalities and continued discrimination of women are based on unequal power
relations, access to resources and assets. A right based approach to changing this
through addressing the distribution of power, resources and responsibilities whilst
challenging men‟s attitudes, behaviour and patriarchal structures and values is how NCA
foresees contributing to greater gender equality outcomes.

Based on this NCA applies the guiding principles of gender-sensitive planning and
implementation. NCA as part of the ACT Alliance is also committed to promoting gender
equality as a common value and gender mainstreaming as a method of work to achieve
gender equality through the ACT‟s Gender Policy Principles (http://www.act-



10
  HAP: Humanitarian Accountability Partnership. The HAP Accountability and Quality management standards:
http://www.hapinternational.org/pool/files/hap-2007-standard(1).pdf

13
intl.org/manual.php). The Policy Principles outlines how this should be done in
humanitarian action, long term development and advocacy.

To mainstream gender equality therefore NCA country offices will undertake gender
analysis which is meant to ensure that gender relations and their implications are
clarified and ensure that these differentials are addressed, with the objective of greater
gender equality in policy and programming outcome. This knowledge will be incorporated
into organizational action and especially decision-making.        Capacity development,
development of clear responsibilities and follow-up plans will take place at each country
office, guided by the Gender Equality and Action Plan 2011-2015.

2.5.2 Conflict sensitivity
NCA has in its Statement of Principles and in its Global Strategy committed itself to
“Conflict Sensitive Programming”. External aid will always impact the context where it is
provided. An intervention can facilitate or hinder long-term peace and development.
Conflict Sensitive Programming is about how assistance shall be provided in violent
conflict settings to help local people disengage from the violence that surrounds them,
and begin to develop alternative ways for addressing the problems that underlie the
conflict, rather than feeding into and exacerbating the conflict.


NCA‟s methodology for conflict sensitive programming is drawn from the Do No Harm
Project (DNH), which is coordinated by Collaborative for Development Action in Boston
USA11. This approach draws upon 20 years of evidence, showing predictable patterns of
impact that external assistance has on Dividers (actors who threaten to peace and
stability) and Connectors (actors who support to peace and stability). This evidence is
the basis for the DNH training material, which NCA will use to equip staff and partners to
develop options for conflict sensitive programming.

All NCA program staff shall be given an introductory DNH training. NCA shall also
facilitate training in DNH - or equivalent conflict sensitive programming – for program
staff of implementing partners. Reference to conflict sensitive programming will be
integrated into all NCA program formats. NCA and partners‟ program staff will utilize a
DNH check list in the planning and monitoring of projects. DNH analysis will be required
of all programs and projects introduced through emergency interventions and in
situations where programs are development in a context of conflict. It is also
recommended that the DNH check list be consulted for all NCA program implementation
to minimize unintended negative impacts of NCA‟s programs.


2.5.3 Environmental sustainability
Grounded in NCA Statement of Principles is a commitment to the protection of the
environment as part of the Creation with its inherent value that shall be respected and
preserved. NCA shall contribute to the sustainable management of natural resources for
the common good of all humanity and the benefit of future generations.
A right based approach will be used to achieve this through addressing the distribution of
power, resources and responsibilities to rights holders, whilst challenging the behaviour
and values amongst duty bearers, is how NCA foresees contributing to sustainable
development outcomes.

Based on this NCA applies the guiding principles on Climate Change for ACT Alliance
programmes. NCA as part of the ACT Alliance is committed to promote justice and rights
for woman, men and children affected by climate change. The Guiding Principles on



11
     www.cdainc.com

14
Climate Change for ACT Alliance programmes outlines how this should be done in
humanitarian action, long term development and advocacy.

NCA will aspire to the following environmental standards in the next strategy period:

       Address environmental concerns and climate change in strategic planning in all
       aspects of the project cycle
       Identify the impact that climate change is having on the lives of right holders
       targeted by our activities by using the rights based criteria in programme
       development in order to foresee risks and take action in order to protect them.
       Plan for the effects that future climate change will have on the same right holders
       Support adaptation, mitigation and emergency response measures that do not
       have a negative impact on the environment.
       Climate-secure some of the programmes in order to lay the ground for climate
       proofing of the portfolio in the future.




15
3. FUNDING STRATEGY


3.1   Resource frames 2011 – 2015


Tentative distribution of funds per thematic programme area:

 Programme Area             Funding Source      Expected funding for the planned years 2011-2015
                                                (Million NOK)
                                                 2011        2012        2013       2014      2015
 Representation and         Norad / embassy               3          3          3         3
 technical support          Private sector
                            Other (WB, EU, UN
                            etc.)
                            NCA own funds               1           1          1         1             4
                            SUBTOTAL                    4           4          4         4             4
 Resources and Finance      Norad / embassy             4           4        3.5       3.5           3.0
                            Private sector                                   0.5       0.5           0.5
                            Other (WB, EU, UN
                            etc.)
                            NCA own funds
                            SUBTOTAL                    4           4          4         4        3.5
 Climate Change             Norad / embassy             1           1          1         1
 Adaptation                 Private sector                        0.2        0.5       0.5            1
                            Other (WB, EU, UN
                            etc.)                                            0.5       0.5           0.5
                            NCA own funds
                            SUBTOTAL                    1         1.2          2         2        1.5
 Gender Based Violence      Norad / embassy           1.5         1.5        1.5       1.5
                            Private sector                                             0.3           0.5
                            Other (WB, EU, UN
                            etc.)                                                      0.5            1
                            NCA own funds
                            SUBTOTAL                  1.5         1.5       1.5        2.3        1.5
 Social Mitigation of HIV   Norad / embassy           1.5         1.5       1.5        1.5
 and AIDS                   Private sector                                                           0.5
                            Other (WB, EU, UN
                            etc.)                                            0.5       0.5           0.5
                            NCA own funds
                            SUBTOTAL                  1.5         1.5       2.0          2             1
 Water, Sanitation and      Norad / embassy             2           2         2          2           0.5
 Hygiene                    Private sector              4           4         4          4             3
                            Other (WB, EU, UN
                            etc.)
                            NCA own funds
                            SUBTOTAL                    6           6         6          6        3.5
 GRAND TOTAL                                           18        18.2      19.5       20.3         15




3.2   Proposed funding strategy
The main objective for NCA during the period is to maintain current funding levels.

3.2.1 Main funding sources
Funding from Norad and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (through the Royal Norwegian
Embassy in Luanda amounting to NOK 10 million per year), which has accounted for the
main part of the funding of NCA‟s Angola office during the previous strategy period, is
expected to be maintained until 2014. Indications from Norad and the embassy indicate
that it is unlikely that there will be available funding for support to civil society in Angola
beyond this date. It is important for NCA to encourage the Norwegian authorities to


16
continue and eventually increase support to civil society in Angola also after 2014. It is
nevertheless crucial to prioritize the identification of alternative funding sources. Existing
funding level from Statoil is likely to continue and perhaps slightly increase for selected
projects, and NCA will be developing strategies to receive funds from other Norwegian
companies working in Angola.


3.2.2 Diversification strategy
Angola‟s main problem is not lack of resources, but its highly unequal distribution.
Norwegian companies, lead by Statoil, generate considerable profits and Statoil alone
contributed with more than NOK 10 billion to the Angolan state in 2008, in addition to
cashing in a profit equal to the total Norwegian development cooperation budget. A
healthy and well educated population would facilitate the supply of needed and skilled
local staff and would in the long run ensure social and political stability - a much desired
perspective for long term investors like Statoil, Hydro, DNV and Yara. Last – but not
least – one would expect that Norwegian companies would support the idea of taxes paid
being converted into improved livelihood for the people at large.
NCA will focus on challenging companies on providing funds and competence in areas
related to their core activities, like for instance Statoil funding activities promoting a fair
and transparent distribution of public revenues and DNV on providing training to NCA
staff and core partners in the same area. NCA Angola will develop project “packages”
within areas we work in such as water, sanitation and hygiene, resources and finance
and climate change adaptation, as a funding strategy.


3.2.3 Capacity assessment
NCA will consider employing a fundraising officer in order to meet the needs of
identifying new funding sources and promote good standards for reporting to the
different donors in accordance with their requirements. The fundraising officer will also
be developing partners‟ capacity in fundraising.


3.2.4 ACT Alliance coordination
NCA will, together with its ACT and APRODEV partners, also explore joint funding
possibilities internationally, regionally and locally, through e.g. the UN, World Bank and
the EU.




17
4. APPENDICES


4.1   Appendix 1 – partner information forms


4.2   Appendix 2 – NCA’s Accountability Framework




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                                                                                      Appendix 1

          Name of partner      Conselho das Igrejas Cristãs em Angola (CICA) and member
                               churches
        Year of Foundation     1977
                   Mission     Social assistance to the poor, evangelizing and capacitating leaders
                               and society
              Constituency     Twenty (20) protestant churches and two (2) Christian Institutions in
                               Angola (WCC members)
         Geographic Focus      Whole of Angola, in which its member IECA is strong in Benguela,
                               ACM is strong in Kwanza Sul, and IEBA and UCF are strong in Uige
                               and Luanda.
               Programme       Equity and participation, Economic Justice, Good governance,
                               Health, HIV AND AIDS and Democracy.
                 Strategies    Humanitarian support to the needy. Mobilizing the society to fight
                               poverty.
       Role in Civil Society   Ca. 5 million protestants in Angola (estimates 35% of total
                               population).
 Particular Achievements       Peace work, Education, Humanitarian assistance, Refugees
   Relationship with NCA       Core Partner. Strong, and a partnership built on mutual interest and
                               exchanges
       Start of Cooperation    1985
        NCA’s rationale for    Strong partner and common ideology. Important partner in building
                relationship   a democratic and just society in Angola. Work all over Angola.
         Planned increase;     Stable / increase
       decrease; phase-out
     Strategic Potential for   Yes
        Future Cooperation
       Partners, other than    Christian Aid, Church of Canada,
                        NCA


          Name of partner      Associação Cristá da Mocidade - ACM (YMCA)
        Year of Foundation     1976
                   Mission     To share the Christian ideal of building a human community of peace
                               with justice for all.
              Constituency     Independent Association, Member of World Alliance of YMCA,
                               Member of CICA.
         Geographic Focus      Uige, Luanda, Huila, Kwanza-Sul and Bengo
              Programme        Human Rights, Accountable Governance, Health and Water &
                               Sanitation, HIV and AIDS,
                 Strategies    Capacity building, Seminars/Workshops and Training of Activists,
                               Information and Good Collaboration with the Government and CICA.
       Role in Civil Society   Strong movement, in particular in regard to engaging young citizens
                               of Angola. Well acknowledged by the Government and the churches.
                               Member organization of CICA.
 Particular Achievements       Well recognized by the Angolan Government as an association that
                               has paved way within several Community Development issues, in
                               such a way that the Government include this in their plans for
                               development. Like e.g. latrines and basic sanitation.
     Relationship with NCA     Core Partner. Strong, and a partnership built on mutual interest of
                               work and confidence.
      Start of Cooperation     2005
       NCA’s rationale for     An association that engage young people all over Angola, and is very
               relationship    strong in one of NCA‟s prioritized provinces, Kwanza-Sul, also
                               present in Uige. Thematic Focus and strategies corresponds well with
                               NCA‟s Country Programme Plan for Angola.
         Planned increase;     Planned increase
       decrease; phase-out
     Strategic Potential for   Yes
        Future Cooperation
       Partners, other than    German Government, Christian Aid, Diakonia Emergency Aid, Brot

19
                       NCA     fur die Welt, NPA.


          Name of partner      Uniao Crista Feminina - UCF (YWCA de Angola)
        Year of Foundation     2000
                   Mission     To encourage and promote women to develop their capacity to
                               intervene in public questions and debates for a society in which
                               women have good living conditions.
              Constituency     Independent Association, Member of World Alliance of YWCA since
                               2003, Member of Rede Mulher, Observing member of CICA - through
                               ACM (YMCA), will be fully member from 2008. Collaborate with
                               Ministry of Promoting Women.
         Geographic Focus      Luanda, Kuanza-Sul, Uige and Huila. Will during 2007/2008 start
                               also in Benguela and Huambo
               Programme       Gender Based Violence, Human Rights, Education and Literacy
                               training of women, HIV and AIDS.
                 Strategies    Education/Training and Information
       Role in Civil Society   Strong movement. In particular in regard to engaging young female
                               citizens of Angola. Well recognized in the society and by the
                               Government and the churches. Member organization of CICA
 Particular Achievements       Strongly rooted within the women circles, and respected both by the
                               Government and the Churches.
     Relationship with NCA     Core Partner. Strong. Partnership built on mutual interest and
                               corresponding thematic focus.
      Start of Cooperation     2007
       NCA’s rationale for     An association that engage young females all over Angola, and which
               relationship    NCA sees as a main movement to strengthen Civil Society, and the
                               females role in the society, and decrease Gender Based Violence and
                               HIV prevalence and the stigmatization of PLWA‟s.
         Planned increase;     Planned increase
       decrease; phase-out
     Strategic Potential for   Yes
        Future Cooperation
       Partners, other than    Christian Aid, UNICEF, World Alliance of YWCA, Norwegian Alliance of
                       NCA     YWCA.



          Name of partner      Radio Ecclésia (RE)
        Year of Foundation     1955. Closed down by the Government in 1978, reopened 1997
                   Mission     To give a voice to those without a voice.
              Constituency     Radio Station, and an institution of The Episcopal Conference of
                               Angola and São Tomé
         Geographic Focus      Nationally, but only permitted to broadcast in Luanda
              Programme        Broadcast values that cultivate democracy, good governance,
                               information about the elections, forgiveness, justice, peace,
                               reconciliation, the truth, development, gender issues, and
                               economical dialogue. Also some programmes on HIV and AIDS.
                 Strategies    To use journalism and Broad casting to pave way for an active and
                               participatory civil society in the fundamental questions for Angola as
                               a nation.
       Role in Civil Society   Seen as the strongest and most reliable source of information, even
                               only permitted to broad cast in Luanda, they are reaching millions of
                               citizens.
 Particular Achievements       Opened up more space to freedom of the press. Strengthened the
                               voice of Civil Society.
     Relationship with NCA     Core Partner. Strong, with several common objectives – both within
                               Civil Society for Accountable Governance and HIV and AIDS.
      Start of Cooperation     2004
       NCA’s rationale for     Several common objectives, a strong medium for capacity building,
               relationship    information and advocacy.
        Planned increase;      Stable

20
       decrease; phase-out
     Strategic Potential for   Yes
        Future Cooperation
       Partners, other than    CORDAID, Christian Aid, Miserior, NIZA
                       NCA


          Name of partner      Departamento de Assistência Social, Estudos e Projectos –
                               DASEP-IECA, Igreja Evangelica Congregacional em Angola
        Year of Foundation     1991 (The church in 1880)
                   Mission     Social area, to work for peoples rights, with particular attention to
                               questions related Justice, peace and reconciliation, gender, health,
                               research, communication and spread of information, institutional
                               strengths and sustainable development.
              Constituency     Department of Congressional Church, Which is recognized by the
                               Angolan Government, through Ministry of Justice. The General
                               Assembly of IECA is the highest organ.
         Geographic Focus      8 Provinces; Luanda, Kuanza Sul, Benguela, Huambo, Bié, Namibe,
                               Huila and Kuando Kubango. Departments are being set up in
                               Cabinda, Lunda Sul and Moxico.
               Programme       Evangelization, Justice, Peace and Reconciliation, Gender, women
                               and children, Health and HIV & AIDS, Education, capacity building
                               and training, Institutional strengthening, Sustainable Community
                               Development,
                 Strategies    Capacity building, researches, information, advocacy and training.
       Role in Civil Society   Strong, well-known, High degree of credibility, in particular strong
                               within the faith based organizations and churches.
 Particular Achievements       Strongly rooted within the civil society, and highly respected both by
                               the Angolan Government and the churches.
     Relationship with NCA     Core Partner. Strong, and with several common objectives, both
                               within the Thematic Civil Society for Accountable Governance and
                               HIV and AIDS.
      Start of Cooperation     2004
       NCA’s rationale for     To achieve NCA‟s objectives, through a strong partner for
               relationship    implementation of several projects within the NCA Country Program
                               Plan.
         Planned increase;     Planned Increase
       decrease; phase-out
     Strategic Potential for   Yes
        Future Cooperation
       Partners, other than    Tearfund UK, Development Workshop – DW, Christian Aid, Brot fur
                       NCA     die Welt, ICCO



          Name of partner      Igreja Evangélica Babtista em Angola - IEBA
        Year of Foundation     1878
                   Mission     Evangelization and integral development of the human
              Constituency     National Church, Recognized by the Angolan Government in 1987,
                               through Ministry of Justice, member of CICA
        Geographic Focus       Nationally, but strongest in the North of Angola and Luanda
               Programme       Evangelization, Social work, Human Rights, Education and Health
                 Strategies    Through parishes and Social Work
       Role in Civil Society   Schools, Education, Development Work, Health - and through this
                               work “awake” the citizens to recognize their reality.
 Particular Achievements
   Relationship with NCA       New partner
     Start of Cooperation      2007
       NCA’s rationale for     Core Partner, The church is strong in the north of the country, like
              relationship     e.g. Uige. Good projects related to Human Rights and Democracy,
                               Gender, HIV and AIDS
        Planned increase;      Stable or increase
      decrease; phase-out

21
     Strategic Potential for   Yes
        Future Cooperation
       Partners, other than    The World Alliance of Baptist Society
                       NCA



          Name of partner      National Counselling Centre - NCC
        Year of Foundation     1999
                   Mission     Contribution to achieve an active citizenship, participative, to save
                               the basic rights, to construct a pluralist society, and stable society
                               for all levels
             Constituency      National Non Governmental Organization
         Geographic Focus      Luanda and the Provinces; Kuanza-Sul, Uige, Benguela, Huambo,
                               Lubango, Kunene, Cabinda and Malange.
               Programme       Civic Education, Democracy, Defend Human Rights, Divulgation of
                               the Laws, Advocacy and Lobbying.
                 Strategies    NCC strategies consist as following:
                                         A utilization of mechanism capable to influence the decisions
                                         maker power( Government, National Assemble, State as well
                                         and deferments Organs);
                                         The increase technical capacity of diverse groups (Church,
                                         political party, Associations, Local NGO‟s, Agents of public
                                         Administration) to know more the public interest.
                                         Perspective to produce space to debate and dialogue into the
                                         community, valuable contributions to forward the different
                                         institutions to prove changes;
                                         Divulgations through the radio, the actual issue that shows
                                         powerfully in the people daily life, as for example,
                                         democracy, elections, good governance, transparency,
                                         human‟s rights……
       Role in Civil Society   Guarantee the participation of the Angolan citizens in various
                               political, social and cultural processes in favour of the development
                               of Angola in all aspects.
 Particular Achievements       In particular, the obtained results in the realizations of the various
                               activities can be resumed as follow:
                                         Increase knowledge levels into the Angolan society legal
                                         rules that defend the citizenship rights
                                          Opened in part of the government institutions development
                                         action by NCC in all provinces of the country.
                                         Grow of incentive people in partaking in capacity
                                         development
                                         Conscientiousness to defend and protect fundamental rights
                                         on behalf of the citizens.
     Relationship with NCA     Resource Organization.
       Start of Cooperation    2006
        NCA’s rationale for    To strengthen NCC and also in order to expand to other
                relationship   Geographical areas in the country. To build capacity for NCA‟s core-
                               partners and to build a linkage between the Secular National NGO‟s
                               and the various Social Department of the Churches (NCA‟s Core-
                               Partners).
         Planned increase;     Stable / increase
       decrease; phase-out
     Strategic Potential for   Yes
        Future Cooperation
       Partners, other than    European Union, ICCO
                       NCA



          Name of partner      Institute for Democracy in Southern Africa - IDASA
        Year of Foundation     1987
                   Mission     IDASA is an independent public interest organisation committed to
                               promoting sustainable democracy based on active citizenship,

22
                                democratic institutions and social justice.
             Constituency       African societies in general
         Geographic Focus       Africa
              Programme         Democracy promotion, focusing broadly on:
                                         Community and citizen empowerment
                                         Political governance and parliamentary information and
                                         monitoring
                                         Economic governance
                                         Governance and AIDS
                                         Safety and Security
                                         Migration and Citizenship
                 Strategies     IDASA focuses on building capacity for democracy in government
                                and civil society through promotion of active citizenship, building
                                democratic institutions and advocating social justice in the thematic
                                focus areas mentioned above.
       Role in Civil Society    IDASA is a civil society organisation which, on the one hand,
                                partners with a diverse range of civil society organisations in
                                meeting common objectives, and on the other hand builds the
                                capacity of civil society to play an important role in democracy
                                promotion.
 Particular Achievements        IDASA currently works on more than 100 projects in any year.
                                However, its main achievements since inception can be summarised
                                as follows:
                                In South Africa:
                                1987-1990 Building a climate for democracy
                                1990-1993 A critical ally of the transition to democracy
                                1993-1995 Supporting the founding election
                                1995-1997 Building democratic institutions
                                On the African continent:
                                1997- present: Empowering citizens
     Relationship with NCA      IDASA and NCA have common objectives in terms of building the
                                capacity of citizens to promote accountability at local government
                                level. IDASA and NCA therefore entered a formal agreement in
                                2006, according to which IDASA would develop training material for
                                citizen leaders in Angola and train a pool of Angolan trainers in the
                                use of this material.
      Start of Cooperation      2006 (in Angola)
       NCA’s rationale for      Resource Partner, to build Core-Partners capacity within Local
               relationship     Accountable Governance, and draw upon IDASA‟s experiences from
                                their work within this thematic in South Africa.
         Planned increase;      Stable
       decrease; phase-out
     Strategic Potential for    Yes
        Future Cooperation
       Partners, other than     Afro barometer, Open Democracy Advice Centre, World Movement
                       NCA      for Democracy, Kettering Foundation, Institute for Sustained
                                Dialogue, Impact Alliance, Reflect Network, Fredskorps, Centre for
                                Democratic Governance (Ghana), Zimbabwe Institute, Angola2000.




         Name of partner       Instituto de Estudos Socioeconomicos (INESC) - Brazil
       Year of Foundation      1979
                  Mission      Contribute to the strengthening of the representative and
                               participatory democracy, aiming at guaranteeing the human rights
                               through networking and strengthening of civil society to influence on
                               local, national and international authorities
             Constituency      An assembly of members invited by the organisation. The assembly
                               elects the Board and Fiscal Council, as well as the three directors
                               responsible for the organisations‟ activities
        Geographic Focus       Entire Brazil, as well as internationally
             Programme         Human Rights, Budget Monitoring, International Politics, Children and


23
                               Youth, Indigenous Rights, Food Sovereignty, Socio-environmental
                               Rights, Agrarian Reform
                 Strategies    Methodology on Budget monitoring is their main instrument. Capacity
                               building of civil society organisations, realization of debates,
                               formulations of law proposals
       Role in Civil Society   Participates in several networks nationally and internationally.
                               Important role in ABONG and World Social Forum. Important advisor
                               for NGOs and social movements in the debate on public policies.
Particular Achievements        Strong contribution to make public budgets and expenditures
                               accessible to the population.
  Relationship with NCA        Long term strategic partnership in Brazil. For Angola, to be used as an
                               international resource organization to strengthen NCA Core-partners
                               work on Fair economic governance in Angola.
      Start of Cooperation     1995, in Angola from 2005
       NCA’s rationale for     INESC has a unique position in Brazil, working as an advisor both
               relationship    towards the parliament and the civil society. As for Angola: a resource
                               Partner, to build Core-Partners capacity within Fair Economic
                               Governance, and draw upon INESC‟s experiences from their work
                               within this thematic in Brazil.
         Planned increase;     Stable / decrease
       decrease; phase-out
     Strategic Potential for   Yes
        Future Cooperation
       Partners, other than    Action Aid, Christian Aid, OXFAM, CCFD, EED, Kindernothilfe, Ford
                       NCA     Foundation, Heinrich Böll Foundation




24
                                                                                              Appendix 2

Norwegian Church Aid’s Accountability framework

Introduction
Norwegian Church Aid is an ecumenical, diaconal, humanitarian and non-profit
organisation mandated by churches and Christian organisations in Norway12 to
work for global justice, by empowering the poor and challenging the wealthy and
powerful. Together with our constituency and our partners, NCA commits itself to the
vision: Together for a just world.
Our work is guided by the following values: Integrity of Creation, human dignity, global
justice, inclusive communities and compassion.
We are rooted in faith and believe that religion can be a power for positive change when
people, across religious boundaries, identify and strengthen those forces within their
own religion that affirm justice and protect the oppressed and destitute.

Our assistance is provided unconditionally and without any intention of influencing
people‟s religious affiliation. We do not support proselytising activities and confront
biases based on religion. We support all humanity irrespective of culture, gender, sexual
orientation, age, functional abilities, ethnicity and political persuasion.

Translating visions into strategies and action, NCA is working on the following five
Global Strategic Priorities; The right to Peace and Security, Gender Justice, Economic
Justice, Climate Justice and The right to Water and Health.

Our three working methods; long-term development aid, emergency assistance and
preparedness and advocacy are interlinked. Combining and handling them under one
management system is what we in Norwegian Church Aid understand as an integrated
approach to social change.

Commitments
In the Principles NCA has identified five standards that we are committed to translate
into practice:
    1. A commitment to rights
    2. Women‟s rights and gender equity
    3. Protection of the environment
    4. Peace and reconciliation
    5. Accountability

A Rights-Based Approach is at the base of all Norwegian Church Aid‟s work. As a
duty-bearer, Norwegian Church Aid is committed to the principles of accountability,
transparency, non-discrimination, equality and respect for all people.

Norwegian Church Aid strives for open and honest communication about our
activities, where and how we carry out our mission and how financial and human
resources are utilized. Publishing our global plans and reports, we aim to communicate
openly with the public both at home and abroad, donors and authorities, our
constituency, partners, individuals and groups that become involved and engaged in our
work.

12
   Church of Norway, the Pentecostal Movement in Norway, the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church of Norway,
the Free Evangelical Congregations, the Baptist Union of Norway, the Mission Covenant Church of Norway, the
Salvation Army, the United Methodist Church in Norway, the Norwegian Sami Mission, the Domestic Seamen‟s
mission, the Norwegian Universities and Schools Christian Fellowship, Norwegian YWCA-YMCA. Observer
organisations: Global Aid Network, the Norwegian Council for Mission and Evangelism (NORME), Christian
Council of Norway.

25
Standards
Norwegian Church Aid is committed to key standards for our work. They are defined as
obligatory standards. Our compliance to these standards is verifiable. Working in
challenging situations Norwegian Church Aid might be in situations where we are not
able to work in compliance with our standards. In such situations, Norwegian Church Aid
has routines for justifying and deciding on exoneration and these are regularly flowed
up.

Norwegian Church Aid‟s standards:

        Norwegian Church Aid has developed its own Code of Conduct that is binding for
        all employees globally. Norwegian Church Aid is also committed to the Code of
        Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and Non-
        Governmental             Organisations         in          Disaster         Relief
        http://www.ifrc.org/publicat/conduct/index.asp as well as the Code of Conduct
        on sexual exploitation for staff members of the ACT Alliance http://act-
        intl.org/resources/manual/CodeConductSexualExloitation.doc
        In our emergency work Norwegian Church Aid aims to meet The Humanitarian
        Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response, the Sphere Project.
        http://www.sphereproject.org/content/view/27/84/lang,English
        Norwegian Church Aid applies the ACT guiding principles for gender-sensitive
        planning and implementation http://www.act-intl.org/manual.php
        As a member of the Ethical Trade Initiative Norway (ETI-Norway) Norwegian
        Church Aid and our suppliers are obliged to comply with ETI-Norway‟s Base Code
        http://www.etiskhandel.no/English/Base_Code
        Working in conflict sensitive areas our work is guided by the Do no Harm- and
        Local Capacities for Peace Projects, http://www.cdainc.com/dnh/
        As member of the Humanitarian Accountability Partnership (HAP), Norwegian
        Church Aid is committed to the HAP standards for accountability and quality
        management13:                http://www.hapinternational.org/pool/files/hap-2007-
        standard(1).pdf
        As an employer in Norway, Norwegian Church Aid adheres to the Norwegian laws
        and regulations for employees, The Working Environment Act. Norwegian Church
        Aid has a global work place policy on HIV and Aids.
        Norwegian Church Aid follows the Norwegian accounting standards and
        International Financial Reporting Standards. In our fundraising work we apply the
        standards given by The Norwegian Control Committee for fundraising. For further
        details on financial standards see annex I.


Implementing mechanisms

Implementation of our work is guided by policies and guidelines. Norwegian Church Aid
has developed a handbook - Routines & Guidelines (R&G), to contribute to securing that
our work is in compliance with our standards. The R&G includes documentation
pertaining to Norwegian Church Aid‟s governance, risk management, planning and
budgeting, financial management, human resource areas, monitoring and reporting. The
R&G is an authoritative point of reference for applicable rules, guidelines and templates
relevant to every day work. Norwegian Church Aid undertakes continual improvement of
its Routines & Guidelines and strives to keep the content as updated as possible.


13
  Regarding the Principle for Humanitarian Action Neutrality included in HAP standards, Norwegian
Church Aid will in certain contexts reserve the right to give political support to resistance with
legitimate means against illegitimate regimes. This is in line with our mission as stated in Norwegian
Church Aid’s policy document

26
Partnership

Norwegian Church Aid works with partners. Rather than impose our accountability
standards on our partners, we aim to share our standards and to facilitate support to
partners who share our commitment of good practice and improvement. We focus on
improving the quality of our partnerships and together with our partners develop good
accountability mechanisms towards the rights-holders.

Norwegian Church Aid includes accountability in our capacity development and
organizational support to our partners, and in monitoring our partners‟ work.


Declarations of interests

We cooperate with ecumenical organizations such as the World Council of Churches and
the Lutheran World Federation. Norwegian Church Aid is a member of the ACT Alliance
and we take part in several ecumenical networks with our sister organizations.

We are a member of networks among non-governmental organizations and faith-based
organizations in Norway and take part in professional working groups. We also take part
in working groups with the Norwegian government.

Norwegian Church Aid gets funding and resources from the Norwegian Government,
other governments‟ agencies, our sister organizations, the United Nations and other
agencies and private donors.




     •   There has been progress in some areas such as reduction in U5MR,
         increased enrolment primary school, contraceptive prevalence
     •   There has been limited progress access to adequate sanitation, safe water,
         Birth registration, Immunization and maternal health care
     •   Even where there is progress, there are wide disparities between gender e.g. in
         access to secondary education, rural and urban areas and between the rich and
         the poor in terms of access to water, sanitation,




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