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					Introduction and Intensity Strategy




               Young-Kee Kim

               November 9, 2009
           4th Workshop on Physics
        with an Intensity Proton Source
    Particle Physics

    •   Global enterprise

    •   Many laboratories have changed missions.
        A few principle particle physics laboratories
        in the world

    •   Important and healthy to maintain expertise,
        long term stability, and support in all three
        regions, and to engage the world wide
        community

    •   More coordination and collaboration


2            4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
    Particle Physics at the Three Frontiers
      Endorsed by the US Particle Physics Community




                                          Supernova
                                          Neutrinos




    P5 (Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel) Report

3           4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
      Fermilab Programs at Three Frontiers (Now)


    Hadron Colliders:
       Tevatron
         LHC




                                                                                     Dark Matter
                                                                                     Dark Energy
                                                  Supernova
        Neutrinos                                 Neutrinos
                                                                                     Cosmic Rays




               http://www.fnal.gov/pub/science/frontiers/


4                   4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
      Fermilab Programs at Three Frontiers (Future)

                                                                                    Lepton Colliders:
    Hadron Colliders:                                                                 Sub-TeV: ILC
                                                                                   Multi-TeV: m Collider
          LHC                                                                                   (CLIC)




                                                                                      Dark Matter
                                                                                      Dark Energy
                                                Supernova
       Neutrinos                                Neutrinos
                                                                                      Cosmic Rays
    Rare Processes /
                                                                                        CMB
    Precision Meas.s
                                                                                      Unification

                http://www.fnal.gov/pub/science/frontiers/


5                 4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
             US Accelerator-based Programs
        Energy-Intensity Integrated Program: Today operates
     the world’s highest energy collider & highest power n beam




                                             Supernova
                                             Neutrinos




    Future: Integrated plan for the Energy & Intensity Frontier

6               4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
          The Energy Frontier: The Tevatron

                      Progress: the Tevatron

Int. Lum / week                                                           Total Luminosity
                                             FY09
                                                      FY08

                                                          FY07



                                                           FY06
                                                 FY05
                           FY10                              FY04
                                                              FY03
                                                                FY02
         year                                                                      year

        ~100 publications / year, ~60 Ph.D.s / year
  Plan to run through FY2011: nearly double the luminosity
                  4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
                       Fermilab and LHC:
Accelerator and Detector Design/Engineering/Construction and Upgrades




                                                LHC upgrade
      LHC IR quadrupoles                        3.4m Nb3Sn prototype
                           CMS Detectors                               CMS Pixel Detector
                               Calorimeter
                           Muon Chamber
                           Silicon Tracker




         Fermilab: US CMS Host Lab; the only US CMS Lab

8                  4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
                                                   Fermilab and LHC
                                          US CMS Host Lab; the only US CMS Lab
       CERN
                                                  CMS Tier-1 Computing Center
                                                     LHC Physics Center
                                                  Support US CMS Community

                                   Fermilab



                                           Remote Operation Center (ROC):
                                        Detector Commissioning and Monitoring
                                                Accelerator Monitoring
                                               CERN Night = FNAL Day

         To make being at Fermilab as good as being at CERN.
Requires critical mass (~100 Fermilab + University Scientists at Fermilab).
9                   4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
     Supporting the LHC Community
     CERN-Fermilab Hadron Collider Physics Summer School
              1st          Fermilab                  August 9-18, 2006
             2nd             CERN                     June 6-15, 2007
              3rd          Fermilab                 August 12-22, 2008
              4th            CERN                     June 8-17, 2009

                                                   3rd School at Fermilab




           Graduate Students and Postdocs
                from around the world

10         4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
            Lepton Colliders beyond LHC


                                     ILC               By far the easiest!

                          E < 1 TeV
     LHC Results                                                        CLIC
                          E > 1 TeV

                                Multi TeV               or


                                                               Muon Collider


11           4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
     International Linear Collider (ILC)

                                                                                   ILC
                                                                        e-               e+



                                                                                   LHC




                                                                         p               p



12                4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
     Multi-TeV Lepton Colliders
     •   Muon Collider Approach: Fermilab’s Focus
            Based on a secondary beam: we have experience basing
             colliders on antiprotons. But for m’s we must do it in 20 ms.
            Advantages: narrow energy spread (no beamstrahlung)
             and small physical footprint (no synchrotron radiation)
            No new methods of acceleration, but new method of
             deceleration!: muon cooling
     •   CLIC Approach: CERN’s Focus
            Advantages: stable particles, polarization
            Two-beam accelerator scheme
     •   Physics/detector: ILC-CLIC-Muon Collider Synergy
            Identify benchmark processes and determine realistic
             detector configuration (workshop at Fermilab: Nov.10-12)

13             4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
                     http://www.fnal.gov/pub/muon_collider/

Muon collider layout




                 4 TeV                           ILC/Project X
                                                  technology




                              Project X upgrade

      4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
                 Muon collider functional layout




     Project X    Target     Capture              Cool            Format            Accel   Collide




                           Color indicates degree of needed
                           R&D (difficulty) and demonstration



15                         4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
        ILC / Project X technology at Fermilab
                                                 Horizontal Test Stand




                                                                           1st cryomodule




     Vertical Test Stand
16              4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
17   4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
          About a Muon Collider (for Clarification)
 We are not proposing the muon collider as a substitute for the ILC if
 the LHC tells us that the exciting physics in the next stage is within
 the range of the ILC (0.5TeV) or a bit higher. The muon collider is
 what we want to explore and understand in case the LHC tells us that
 the next machine should be several TeV in energy. For this case the
 Europeans have a major program exploring CLIC, an e+e- linear
 collider using a two beam accelerator concept, and we want to
 explore the muon collider. Either the muon collider or CLIC would
 come much later than a possible ILC. The ILC design is mature, while
 a lot more R&D is needed before we can tell that a muon collider or a
 CLIC is possible. We are proposing a feasibility study to understand
 whether such a machine is possible. The techniques for a muon
 collider would also be applicable to a much simpler neutrino
 factory. The muon collider R&D really pushes the envelope for
 accelerators and there will likely be many other applications.

18                4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
     International Neutrino Summer School
       Merging various neutrino schools into one coherent school
                       Rotating in three regions

               1st          Fermilab                    July 6-18, 2009
              2nd               KEK                             2010
               3rd            Europe                            2011

                                1st School at Fermilab




                         Graduate Students and Postdocs
                              from around the world


19          4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
     The Intensity Frontier: Neutrinos
                                          260 kW 120 GeV MI protons
                                         & 8 kW 8 GeV Booster protons
           8 GeV                      run simultaneously with the Tevatron
MiniBooNE Booster
 SciBooNE
                                                    Tevatron


120 GeV Main Injector

                                  Neutrino beam from 8 GeV Booster
                                  MiniBooNE: Excludes “4th gen.” n
                                       Low Eng Excess in n, Now running anti-n
                                  SciBooNE: n – Matter Interactions
                                  MicroBooNE: 170ton LAr (Mission Needs: Approved)
            4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
Neutrino beam from 120 GeV MI


                         Best Dm223                         iron mine
                           q13 ?                            at Soudan
                             …                           MINOS (Far Det.)
            Global fit:
             q13 = 0 disfavored by ~2s
                                                                      735 km
             Central value sin22q13=0.08                              2.5 msec




                                                                                     MiniBooNE
                                                                                      SciBooNE
                                                                 MINOS (Near Det.)
                                                                                        MINOS
                                                                                     MINERvA
                                                                      ArgoNeuT       ArgoNeuT

          MINERvA: Ops. w/ Partial Det.(2009) MINERvA
               n4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
                 – Matter Interactions
                           NOvA
               under construction


                                                         iron mine
                              700kW                      at Soudan
               15kt Liquid Scintillator
                                                      MINOS (Far Det.)
   NOvA: Data Taking in FY12-13
• q13
• Mass Ordering:                                       810 km
                                                                    735 km
                                                                    2.5 msec
    the only near term project in the
    world sensitive to mass ordering
• improved precision: 2-3
•…                                                                               MiniBooNE
                                                                                  SciBooNE
                                                                              MicroBooNE
                                                               MINOS (Near Det.)
                                                                                   MINOS
                                                                                MINERvA
                                                                    ArgoNeuT    ArgoNeuT
                                                                                    NOvA
          MINERvA: Ops. w/ Full Det.(2010) MINERvA
              n – Matter Interactions
              4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
          Muon to e Conversion (mN  eN)




                                                          Collaborating with Japan (KEK,
                                                           Osaka) for common issues

Muon g-2, K+  p+nn (1000 events) under consideration
 23            4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
                       NOvA


                              (FY2012)
                                                            iron mine
                                      700kW                 at Soudan
                       15kt Liquid Scintillator
                                                         MINOS (Far Det.)
 NSF’s proposed
Underground Lab.
     DUSEL                                                           735 km
                                                          810 km     2.5 msec
                                                                                      MiniBooNE
                                                                                       SciBooNE
                                  1300 km
                                                                                        MINOS
      ~300 kton                                                                          NOvA
                       ~100 kton Liquid Ar TPC                                         MINERvA
Water Cerenkov                                                                        MicroBooNE
      (Super K)    ICARUS           ArgoNeuT
                                                                Project X: ~2 MW

            Matter – Antimatter Asymmetry with Neutrinos
                                    Proton Decay
            Combination of WC and LAr
                          Supernovae Neutrinos
                     4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
       The Intensity Frontier: Fermilab  DUSEL Option




                                                              excluding the big cavern




Existing + Potential Underground Lab.s



  25                4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
     Project X: intense proton accelerator
           http://www.fnal.gov/pub/projectx/

     •   The intensity frontier
         answers fundamental
         questions

     •   Project X is the key

                                                                       Supernova

     •   Project X can lead us                                         Neutrinos




         back to the energy
         frontier


26            4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
     Evolution of Project X: 3 Simultaneous Beams

     •   2 MW CW (continuous pulses at 325 MHz) 2+ GeV protons
              rare processes and precision measurements
              flexible time patterns and pulse intensities
     •   20 – 200 kW 8 GeV protons
              rare processes and precision measurements
     •   2 MW 60 – 120 GeV protons (to Homestake) for neutrinos

         2 MW at 2 GeV




          20-200 kW at 8 GeV

          2 MW at 60-120 GeV



27             4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
     US Strategy: Project X
     •   Would be a fantastic machine at the intensity frontier
         for neutrino, kaon and muon beams
            Provide a powerful beam of neutrinos to the Homestake site
            Provide intense proton beams for muon, kaon, low energy
             neutrino physics and other possible applications
              • without affecting the neutrino program
              • flexible time patterns / pulse intensities (different expt.s)

     •   Would develop to serve as the front end of future
         facilities like a neutrino factory and/or a muon collider
     •   Would develop / exercise the technologies to position
         US to host (or contribute to one elsewhere) a global
         facility at the energy frontier (ILC / muon collider)


28                4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
     US/Fermilab Strategy at the Energy/Intensity Frontier
     Energy      Tevatron                        (LHC)                           ILC, Muon Collider
     Frontier               (FY2012)

                                protons



     Intensity    NuMI              NuMI                    Project X injector n Factory
      Frontier   (260kW)          (700kW)                2 MW (120GeV) for n
                                   (FY2013)
                 Booster                              + 2MW(2GeV) + 200kW(8GeV)
                 MINOS        NOvA    1300km baseline n
                 MiniBooNE             DUSEL WC / LAr
                 SciBooNE MINERvA      (+Proton Decay,..)
                 ArgoNeuT MicroBooNE                            This workshop is
                                      Mu2e         Mu2e II
                                                              about this physics
                                   m g-2           m g-2 II
                                   K+            (K0/KL, K+) II
                                              EDM (m, L, S+) II
time                                          Nuclear Physics       White Paper
                                                    ….
                                                                        on Physics with Project X
29                     4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009
and
                 Name Project X




      4th Intensity Frontier Workshop: Young-Kee Kim, Nov.9-10, 2009

				
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