Tomato - University of Kentucky by zhangsshaohui123


									   University of Kentucky                         CDBREC Home                                CDBREC Crop Profiles                               College of Agriculture

  Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a warm
  season crop that originated in South America.
  Tomatoes are one of the most popular and
  profitable crop alternatives in Kentucky. Growers
  able to provide the earliest locally grown tomatoes
  can often demand a premium price.

  Tomatoes are grown in Kentucky primarily for
  fresh market sales. There has been little in-state                                        last decade. According to University of Kentucky
  market potential for processed tomatoes since                                             research, most tomato marketing channels in the
  the movement of those industries to California                                            state are currently underutilized.
  several years ago. However, recent developments
  in locally produced tomato-based products have                                            Production Considerations
  resulted in a small regional processing market in                                         Variety selection
  some parts of the state.                                                                  Cultivar selection is a critical decision for
                                                                                            commercial tomato growers, but with thousands
  Fresh market options include roadside stands,                                             of varieties available it can seem a daunting
  local wholesalers and retailers, national                                                 task. Cultivars differ in such horticultural traits
  wholesale markets, community supported                                                    as fruit characteristics (e.g. size, color, shape,
  agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, cooperatives,                                            flavor, and intended use), earliness (early, mid,
  produce auctions, local restaurants, and farmers                                          and late season), growth habit (determinate
  markets. Planting for very early or for late fall                                         and indeterminate), and disease resistance.
  markets often brings the most profit since prices                                         Consideration needs to be given to regional
  tend to be higher. New producers should consider                                          preferences, as well as whether to grow hybrids
  low-volume retail sales opportunities, such as                                            and/or heirloom cultivars. Growers should only
  farmers markets or roadside stands. Large-                                                select adapted varieties that have the qualities in
  scale production usually requires knowledge of                                            demand for the intended market.
  wholesale marketing channels that can handle
  larger volumes of produce.                                                                Site selection and planting
                                                                                                              Choose a site with well-drained
  Market Outlook                                                                                              soil that warms up quickly in
  The     U.S.     per    capita                                                                              the spring. Tomatoes are quite
  consumption of fresh tomatoes                                                                               cold-sensitive, so avoid low-
  has remained steady during the                                                                              lying fields that are subject to

Agriculture & Natural Resources • Family & Consumer Sciences • 4-H/Youth Development • Community & Economic Development

       Educational programs of the Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service serve all people regardless of race, color, age, sex, religion, disability, or national origin.
late frosts and high humidity. Locate tomato           the control of foliar and stem diseases will require
fields where plants will not be damaged by             regular sprays of both bactericides and fungicides
herbicide carryover or drift. In addition, fields      for most of the season. Timing of sprays and
should be rotated out of tomatoes and related          good coverage are critical to disease control.
solanaceous crops (e.g. tobacco, pepper, and           Blossom end rot is a common physiological
potatoes) for a period of 3 years. Tomatoes do         disorder related to poor calcium uptake. While
well when transplanted to a field where fescue         instances arise where calcium levels in the
sod was plowed under the previous fall.                soil are deficient, blossom end rot usually
                                                       results from sporadic irrigation and insufficient
Stocky, container-grown transplants are most           calcium movement into the fruit via the plant’s
desirable for transplanting as they will result in     transpiration stream. This disorder can largely be
higher early yields than bare-root plants. Early       prevented with careful water management.
tomatoes generally command higher prices,
which usually more than offsets the higher cost        Potential insect pests include aphids, cutworms,
of good quality container-grown plants. Many           flea beetles, fruitworms, mites, and stinkbugs.
growers produce transplants in 72- or 128-cell         Scouting to monitor populations can help the
trays, although some grow transplants for their        grower determine when and how often insecticides
earliest crops in larger cells. Tomatoes will tend     should be applied. Herbicides, plastic mulch, and
to get “leggy” if produced in smaller cell trays       a good rotation system can help manage weeds.
where plants are tightly spaced. Transplanting is
done during the latter part of April or early May      Harvest
for a spring crop and in mid-July for a fall crop.     Tomato fruit is easily damaged and should be
Most growers use approximately 4,200 to 5,000          handled as carefully as possible in all picking,
plants per acre.                                       grading, packing, and hauling operations. Fruit
                                                       is harvested at the maturity stage preferred by
Tomato plants are pruned, staked, and trellised        the intended market. Vine-ripe tomatoes must
to obtain higher and earlier yields. Trellising        be harvested as often as twice a week, whereas
not only improves fruit quality, but allows for        mature-green tomatoes are only harvested three
quicker harvests and better spray penetration for      or four times during the season. Pack tomatoes in
pest management. University of Kentucky on-            the type and size container the market requires.
farm demonstrations have shown that the highest
profits can be obtained with raised beds covered       Labor requirements
with black plastic and using drip irrigation and       Labor needs per acre are approximately 60 hours
fertigation. The moisture levels under the plastic     for production, 600 hours for harvest, and 100
must be carefully monitored when using this            hours for grading and packing. Plasticulture will
plasticulture system so that they are relatively       add 10 to 18 hours more per acre, mainly for the
constant during the growing season. Allowing           removal and disposal of the plastic.
soils to dry and then rapidly applying large
volumes of water can lead to cracking in the fruit.    Economic Considerations
                                                       Initial investments include land preparation, the
Pest management                                        purchase of seed or transplants, and the purchase
Tomatoes are subject to a large number of              of stakes or other training system. Additional
diseases, which includes anthracnose, bacterial        start-up costs can include the installation of an
canker, bacterial spot, early blight, Fusarium wilt,   irrigation system and black plastic mulch.
root knot nematode, Septoria leaf spot, southern
blight, and Verticillium wilt. Resistant varieties     Production costs for staked, trickle irrigated
are available for several diseases; nevertheless,      tomatoes are estimated at $2,090 per acre, with
harvest and marketing costs for 1,600 boxes at              Selected Resources
$8,440 per acre. Total expenses are approximately           • IPM Scouting Guide for Common Pests
$10,815 per acre.                                           of Solanaceous Crops in Kentucky, ID-172
                                                            (University of Kentucky, 2008)
Since returns vary depending on actual yields     
and market prices, the following per acre returns           pdf
to land and management estimates are based                  • Vegetable and Melon Budgets (University of
on three different scenarios. These estimates               Kentucky, 2008)
are the returns above a $3,300 cost attributed    
for 220 hours of operator labor at $15 per hour.            html
Conservative estimates represent the University             • Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial
of Kentucky’s average cost and return estimates             Growers ID-36 (University of Kentucky)
in 2009.                                          
Pessimistic         Conservative             Optimistic     • Commercial Tomato Production Handbook
 $(475) *              $610                   $2,020        (University of Georgia, 2010)
* Parentheses indicate a negative number, i.e. a net loss   displayHTML.cfm?pk_id=7470
                                                            • Fresh Tomatoes Profile (Agricultural
                                                            Marketing Resource Center, 2009)
                                                            • Organic Tomato Production (ATTRA, 1999)

Reviewed by Brent Rowell, Extension Specialist (Issued 2002, Revised 2006)
Reviewed by Tim Coolong, Extension Specialist (Revised 2010)
USDA-ARS photo courtesy of                                                         March 2010

               For additional information, contact your local County Extension agent

To top