Byul Yoon SOC313 35267432 Extra Credit Essay Assignment # 1 # 2. There are three authority system; matriarchy, patriarchy, and egalitarian. Matriarchy is where oldest females, usually grandmothers and mother holds control. Patriarchy is, on the other hand, oldest males such as grandfathers, fathers and uncles hold control. Egalitarian family is a structure where both partners share power and authority about equally. # 4. Both immigration and war brought women to work places. Many of immigrated people were mostly not skilled so they were restricted to work at certain places. There men’s wages were too low, women were ended up working as well. Due to World War II, many of men were enlisted and scarce of able-bodied workers led women to join the labor scene. They would work at places where men used to work such as shipyards, steel mills, and ammunition factories. # 5. I would use survey and quantitative research method. Sample of my study would be women in agricultural society and industrialized society. Most of wives in agricultural society aren’t engaged with their own work so I would compare the work and divorce rate in agricultural society and industrialized society. # 6. There are only few similarities between contemporary families and families from colonial era. They both find nuclear form of family be a general form of family. In colonial era, parents Byul Yoon SOC313 35267432 would insist their children to go out get married and create their own fortune and land. Today, couples usually live by themselves, not with their parents. Differences are that back in colonial days, church kept vital statistics records of people’s births and population, not federal government do in current times. And role of women was different. Not like today, women were expected to have a lot of babies for their agricultural society. Labor was most valued. # 7. Structural functionalist theory: They see family as working to survive in the society. By doing that, each family members’ role playing is crucial. Each members hold their own roles and they are expected to play well in their roles. For example, husband is expected to provide food and shelter for the family and be hardworking, tough, and competitive. On the other hand, wife is expected to support her husband emotionally and sustain the family unit. Social conflict theory: conflict theorists see conflict and the resulting changes in traditional roles as natural and inevitable. Due to societal changes, families do change and their roles change too. And during this changes, conflicts are inevitable and healthy. Social exchange theory: Social exchange theorists believe that an individual will bear the losses if rewards overweigh the losses. So in division of household labor, if a spouse think that he/she is getting enough reward then he/she will do more labor than the other. Byul Yoon SOC313 35267432 Symbolic interactionist theory: Interactionists believe that all the actions individuals make convey their own meaning. So if a husband asks a wife to do more labor then there should be reasons why he’s doing such as he’s tired or he’s busy this week. We should look at the meaning of other people’s actions. # 8. After the industrialization, there were a lot of factories made in the cities. Families, who were formerly engaged in agriculture, now move to cities to work at factories. Living condition in the cities is different from agricultural society. There weren’t enough living places to raise more than 5 children and also there was no point since parents are working at factory that they don’t need a lot of labor for their farm. Second of all, there was civil war happened. Most of men were enlisted and got killed or injured. If the husband went to a war and got killed, who’s left? Just a wife. Due to civil war, not only fertility rate was decreased but overall population itself went down. Another reason could be the living of the third person. There used to be non-family members living with your family such as apprentice, slaves, and boarders. After industrialization, they left the household.
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