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CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS I. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS • CONTAIN CARBON ( EXCEPT OXIDES-CO2 ) • STRUCTURE OF MOLECULE DETERMINES FUNCTION • MONOMERS-SMALLEST UNIT POLYMERS-CHAIN OF MONOMERS • BIOSYNTHESIS-BUILDING OF ORGANIC MOLECULES BY LIVING ORGANISMS. Metabolism-all the chemical reactions in the body Organic Compounds From simplest to most complex: Carbohydrates – Sugars/Starch Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids II.Carbohydrates ELEMENTS- C, H, and O -Ratio of H:O = 2:1 (like water) FUNCTION-Quick energy source (sugar) or energy for storage (starch) Monomer Monosaccharide – single sugar C6H12O6 Examples:Glucose,Fructose, Galactose = Isomers- same molecular formula but different structural arrangements Glucose C6H12O6 OH OH OH OH OH OH Glucose 1. Main source for energy for plants and animals 2. Bonds in the glucose molecule contain potential energy 3. 6 carbons=hexose shape(ex-glucose, fructose, galactose) 4. 5 carbons=pentose shape (ex-ribose) 5. Can travel across cell membrane POLYMERS Disaccharide – Double sugar (ex- sucrose)-2 monosaccharides bonded together Polysaccharide –3 or more monosacchrides bonded together in long chains Polysaccharides Animals store as glycogen in liver & muscles Plants store polysaccharides as Starch (ex-potatoes) or Cellulose Cellulose: •1. Cellulose provides support in plants (ex- celery) •2. Human digestive system cannot break down cellulose. •3. Cellulose provides FIBER (roughage) in diet. Tests for carbohydrates: Monosaccharide – Benedicts + Heat=turns from blue to orange or red Starch – Iodine=turns black III. LIPIDS – FATS, OILS,WAXES ELEMENTS: C,H,O H:O > 2:1 FUNCTION IN CELL: Long Term energy Build cell membranes Build sex hormones Fats do not dissolve in water- Soluble in solvents like ether or chloroform. *Important for cell membrane stability Monomer Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids Saturated Fats Unsaturated Fats A. Solid at room temp. A. Usually liquid B. All single bonds- B. One or more double Hard to break bonds-easy to break C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C C-C=C-C=C-C-C C. Increases Cholesterol C. Found in Artic animals D. EX- palm & coconut D. EX-CORN, oil, BUTTER, LARD, SOYBEAN, & MEAT FAT FLAXSEED OIL Cholesterol •Backbone of many hormones (chemical messengers) •Contributes to heart disease • Saturated fat increases cholesterol Cholesterol Proteins Function Build and Repair body parts Can be used as an energy source if carbohydrates/lipids absent Most abundant organic compound in the body. (Water is the most abundant inorganic) Elements CHON NH2 H C COOH R R=variable side chain Monomer-amino acid Amino Acid Peptide Bond (C – N) covalent POLYMER Dipeptide-2 amino acids bonded together Polypeptide-long chain of amino acids Examples-muscles, enzymes, insulin, hormones other than sex hormones, hemoglobin, enzymes, antibodies Enzymes 1. Are Catalyst-speed up reaction by lowering activation energy (energy to get a reaction started) 2. Specific-one enzyme works on one reactant called a substrate (lock and key) 3. Used over & over 4. Made of protein 5. Works best at its own specified pH Enzymes Lock and key Active site- place on the substrate where the enzyme matches up TEST FOR PROTEIN Biuret Test In the presence of protein turns from blue to violet or pink. V. Nucleic Acids Elements C+H+O+N+P P=phosphorous Function Stores hereditary information Directs the amino sequence of proteins EXAMPLES: DNA AND RNA Monomer-Nucleotide Phosphate group Nitrogen Base 5 Carbon Sugar
"ORGANIC COMPOUNDS I. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS"