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ORGANIC COMPOUNDS I. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

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									CHEMICAL
COMPOUNDS
OF LIFE:
ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS
     I. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
•   CONTAIN CARBON ( EXCEPT
    OXIDES-CO2 )
•   STRUCTURE OF MOLECULE
    DETERMINES FUNCTION
•   MONOMERS-SMALLEST UNIT
    POLYMERS-CHAIN OF
    MONOMERS
•   BIOSYNTHESIS-BUILDING OF
    ORGANIC MOLECULES BY
    LIVING ORGANISMS.
    Metabolism-all the chemical
    reactions in the body
Organic Compounds
From simplest to most complex:

Carbohydrates – Sugars/Starch
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
       II.Carbohydrates
     ELEMENTS- C, H, and O
   -Ratio of H:O = 2:1 (like water)




FUNCTION-Quick energy source
 (sugar) or energy for storage
 (starch)
           Monomer
   Monosaccharide – single sugar
C6H12O6

Examples:Glucose,Fructose, Galactose = Isomers-
 same molecular formula but different
 structural arrangements
          Glucose

   C6H12O6
                   OH OH
              OH

                           OH
                   OH OH
                  Glucose
1.  Main source for energy for plants and
    animals
2. Bonds in the glucose molecule contain
    potential energy
3. 6 carbons=hexose shape(ex-glucose, fructose,
    galactose)
4. 5 carbons=pentose shape (ex-ribose)
5. Can travel across cell membrane
          POLYMERS

 Disaccharide – Double sugar (ex-
  sucrose)-2 monosaccharides
  bonded together
 Polysaccharide –3 or more
  monosacchrides bonded together
  in long chains
       Polysaccharides
Animals store as glycogen in
     liver & muscles
 Plants store polysaccharides as
Starch (ex-potatoes) or Cellulose

                  Cellulose:
                  •1. Cellulose provides
                  support in plants (ex-
                  celery)
                  •2. Human digestive
                  system cannot break
                  down cellulose.
                  •3. Cellulose provides
                  FIBER (roughage) in diet.
        Tests for
     carbohydrates:
 Monosaccharide – Benedicts +
  Heat=turns from blue to orange or
  red
 Starch – Iodine=turns black
        III. LIPIDS – FATS,
           OILS,WAXES
ELEMENTS:
 C,H,O
H:O > 2:1
FUNCTION IN CELL:
 Long Term energy

 Build cell membranes

 Build sex hormones
Fats do not dissolve in
water- Soluble in solvents like
ether or
chloroform.
*Important
for cell
membrane
stability
Monomer

    Glycerol + 3
    Fatty Acids
     Saturated Fats          Unsaturated Fats
A. Solid at room temp.   A. Usually liquid

B. All single bonds-     B. One or more double

Hard to break               bonds-easy to break
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C          C-C=C-C=C-C-C
C. Increases Cholesterol C. Found in Artic animals
D. EX- palm & coconut D. EX-CORN,
   oil, BUTTER, LARD,       SOYBEAN, &
   MEAT FAT                 FLAXSEED OIL
Cholesterol
•Backbone of many hormones (chemical
messengers)
•Contributes to heart disease
• Saturated fat increases cholesterol
              Cholesterol
Proteins
Function
 Build and Repair body parts
 Can be used as an energy source
  if carbohydrates/lipids absent
   Most abundant organic compound in the
    body. (Water is the most abundant
    inorganic)
            Elements
CHON
 NH2

H C COOH

  R

R=variable side chain
         Monomer-amino acid




Amino Acid      Peptide Bond (C – N) covalent
              POLYMER
  Dipeptide-2 amino acids bonded
   together
  Polypeptide-long chain of amino acids
Examples-muscles, enzymes, insulin, hormones
 other than sex hormones, hemoglobin,
 enzymes, antibodies
               Enzymes
1. Are Catalyst-speed up reaction by lowering
  activation energy (energy to get a reaction
  started)
2. Specific-one enzyme works on one reactant
  called a substrate (lock and key)
3. Used over & over
4. Made of protein
5. Works best at its own specified pH
Enzymes




  Lock and key
Active site-
place on the substrate where
the enzyme matches up
TEST FOR PROTEIN
Biuret Test
In the presence of protein turns from blue to
violet or pink.
V. Nucleic Acids
Elements
C+H+O+N+P




           P=phosphorous
           Function
 Stores hereditary information
 Directs the amino sequence of

  proteins



    EXAMPLES: DNA AND RNA
   Monomer-Nucleotide
            Phosphate group
              Nitrogen
                Base
5 Carbon
  Sugar

								
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