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					        Cell biology test study guide
            Test date: Thursday, November 17, 2011
Also review pgs. 16-31 in your textbook, returned homework/projects,
Reading Notes: Cell Biology One, Notes: Cell Biology Two, Flashcards!

All Cells
      Perform the basic functions of like: take/make in “food” (energy); rid themselves of waste; etc.
      Organisms can be only one-celled or they can be multi-celled.
      Are the basic unit, structure and function of living things.
      CONTAIN:
    DNA information – the structures that carry your hereditary information and tells the cells what to do,
     what to make, etc.
    Cytoplasm – the jelly/liquidy like substance that holds all of the cells organelles in place.
    Organelles – structures within a cell that carry out a specific function; all are membrane covered.
    Cell Membrane – a semi-permeable coating that regulates what enters and exits the cell. In addition, it
     also keeps the cytoplasm inside the cell.
                  1.   All living things are composed of one or more cells.
                  2.   All cells come from other cells.
                  3.   Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
                  4.   Heredity information (DNA) is passed from one cell to another cell when new cells are

Prokaryotic Cells
      Bacteria only!
      Do not have a nucleus.
      All DNA information is bundled strands in the middle of the cell.
      The oldest life forms (according to the fossil record).

Eukaryotic Cells
   All living organisms, except bacteria.
   “Modern” cells.
   All contain a nucleus that stores DNA information.

The Animal Cell
      Roundish, but do not have a rigid or defined shape.
      Animal cells can move and squish without rupturing.
      Methelyne Blue stain or dye is used to color the cell for viewing under a microscope.
      The human body has billions of cells made up of about 200 different types of cells.
      Are eukaryotic cells.
      CONTAIN:
      Nucleus – the control center of the cell where DNA is stored.
      Endoplasmic Reticulum – the passageways that allow materials to travel through the cell.
      Ribosomes – make proteins for the cell; are usually attached to the ER, but can also be free-floating.
      Lysosomes – contain chemicals that break down food, old cell parts and bacteria; some are recycled, while
       others become waste.
    Cytoplasm – the jelly/liquidy like substance that holds all of the cells organelles in place.
    Cell Membrane – a semi-permeable coating that regulates what enters and exits the cell. In addition, it
     also keeps the cytoplasm inside the cell.
    Mitochondria – produce almost all of the cells energy.
    Cytoskeleton – fiber like structures that provide support and structure.
    Golgi Body – packages and sends materials throughout the cell.
    Vacuole – small ones can be found in some animal cells; store food, water and waste.

The Plant Cell
      Square/rectangle with a rigid and definite shape.
      Wrinkle and shrivel without enough water (central vacuole gets very small).
      Make their own food through a process called photosynthesis.
      Are eukaryotic cells.
      CONTAIN:
    Central Vacuole – large storage area for food, water and waste; takes up almost half of the plant cell;
     become small and wrinkled without enough water. (sometimes called “vacuole” without the central)
    Chloroplast – where the cell performs photosynthesis and makes food; where the green color of plants
     comes from.
    Cell Wall – Hard, rigid, cellulose type of structure located on the outside of the cell (with the cell
     membrane acting like a liner for the cell wall). This helps give the cell it’s shape, supports the plant and
     protects the cell.

Life Science Pioneers – Scientists – And Important Discoveries
    Robert Hooke – Developed the first compound microscope (a multi-lensed microscope) and saw cells for
     the first time ever! He sliced a thin piece of cork and observed the cells under his microscope.
    Anton van Leeuwenhoek – Created the best microscope lenses the world had ever seen. First to observe
     microscopic organisms such as pond organisms and bacteria.
    Franscesco Redi – Discovered that living things can only come from other living things, not from non-
     living things. Performed an experiment where he put rotting meat into two jars – one open, one closed.
     He found that the closed jar did not spawn life, but the open car became teaming with maggots because
     flies had laid their eggs in the rotting meat.
    Louis Pasteur – Developed a process called “pasteurization” which eliminates harmful bacteria in milk,
     juice, cider, water, etc. by using heat. This saved many, many lives. He also discovered that silk worms in
     France were being killed by a parasite and he developed an “anti-biotic” of sorts to kill the parasite and
     save the silk worm.
    Rudolf Virchow – A doctor who also concluded that cells are formed from other cells.
    Theodor Shwann – discovered that animals are made of cells.
    Maitthais Schleiden – discovered that plants are made of cells.

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