Cells Test Review - OCPS Teacher Server

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					                                      Cells Test Review
The following questions are to help you prepare for your cells test. You are to answer them on a
separate sheet of paper AND list the page number in the book or packet where you found the
answer. Please number the questions and write legibly. Please skip a line in between each
response! Good luck 

   1.   What is the difference between a theory, a law and a hypothesis?
        A theory is an explanation based on scientific knowledge and many observations & experiments, but
        cannot be proven (like Big Bang Theory or Cell Theory). A Law is a statement about how things work in
        nature and seems to be true all the time (like gravity). A hypothesis is a TESTABLE explanation of what
        you think will happen (NOT an educated guess)

   2. Why do we use models in science?
      The reason scientists use models is because sometimes things happen too fast or too slow to make
        observations in real time.

   3. How many kingdoms are there? 6

   4. How do you remember the difference between kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and
      Kings Play Cards On Fat Green Stools!

   5. Which is more specific? kingdom or species?
      Species- its unique to one and only one organism!

                        Gets more
                        specific as        Family
                        you move              Genus
                        towards the
                        bottom                    Species

   6. When you name an organism, how many names do you use and where do they come from?
      Binomial nomenclature is a two name naming system.
           2 names- use the genus is the first name and the species is the second name
           Examples: Homo sapien or Tyrannosaurus rex)

   7. Who developed the system of binomial nomenclature?
      Carolus Linnaeus
8. What is the correct way to write the genus and the species? (Write the correct binomial
   nomenclature for a human to show you can do this!)
   Genus is capitalized, species is lowercase and they must be written in italics (Ex: Homo sapien)

9. What is the difference between living, non-living and dead?
   Living means that it has the 5 characteristics of living things (example: Tree). Dead means that it
   once had the 5 characteristics of living things but does not any more (example: Wood). Non-living
   means that it was either never living in the first place (example: Pen) or that it was once alive but was
   processed (example: Paper).

10. Why is a leather wallet considered to be non-living?
    Because it has been processed.

11. What are the 5 characteristics of living things? (What do all living things have or are able to do?)
    1. Made up of one or more cells (are organized)
    2. Can grow
    3. Can reproduce
    4. Uses energy
    5. Can respond to stimuli

12. What are all living things made up of?
    One or more cells!

13. What are the 3 parts of the cell theory?
      1. All living things are made up of cells.
       2. The cell is the basic organizational unit of all living things.
       3. Cells must come from other cells
14. How does a multi-cellular organism grow larger in size?
    It adds more cells to its body (The cells divide to make new cells in a process called mitosis)

15. How does a single-celled organism grow larger in size?
    Its cell gets bigger in size.

16. How many lenses are you looking through when you look through a microscope?
    A simple microscope has 1 lens
    A compound microscope has 2 lenses
    We used a compound microscope in class!

17. What is the correct way to carry a microscope?
    One hand on the arm and one hand on the base!

18. When you look at an image under a higher power, what do you expect to see?
    Less of the image, but … in GREATER DETAIL

19. What is the total magnification of an object that is being viewed through a 10x eyepiece lens and a
    40x objective lens?
    10x   X       40x = 400x so the image is 400 times larger than the object appears in real life
20. Give an example of a prokaryotic cell. Draw and label it!

     Flagella                                                          Cell Membrane



21. Give an example of a eukaryotic cell. Draw and label it!

                                                  Cell Membrane   Cell Wall   Chloroplast



                                                  Smooth ER


                                                  Rough ER

                                                  Golgi Body


22. Are all cells the same shape? Why or why not?

             Cell Specialization
      Each cell has a different shape that fits
        what its job is.
23. What does each cell organelle do?
    Nucleus- controls the functions of the cell (“command center”)
    Mitochondria- changes sugar & oxygen into usable energy (cellular respiration)
    Ribosome- makes proteins
    Endoplasmic Reticulum-folds proteins
    Golgi Body- packages and ships materials within the cell
    Vacuole- stores extra materials like water
    Cell Membrane- selectively lets materials into and out of the cell (like a window screen)

24. The plant cell has two things that the animal cell does not. What are they? What do they do?
    The cell wall and the chloroplast.

   The cell wall is made of cellulose, which makes it tough (it’s what you hear crunching when you eat
   lettuce or raw green beans). The cell wall provides support for the plant cell (since plants don’t have
   skeletons to hold them up!).

   The chloroplast contains a pigment called chlorophyll that traps sunlight and changes it into chemical
   energy (glucose sugar) in a process called photosynthesis.

25. Explain the difference between active and passive transport.
    Passive transport is when the cell does not need to use any energy to move materials into or out of
    the cell. The atoms/molecules move from where they are to where they aren’t. There are 3 types of
    passive transport: diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion!

   Active transport is when the cell has to use energy to move materials into or out of the cell. The
   reason energy has to be used is because the cell already has what nature considers to be too much of
   something, but it still requires more. In this case, materials have to move from where they are NOT
   to where they ARE (opposite of what normally happens). A great example is when a root cell needs
   minerals from the soil. The soil has less minerals than what is inside the plant cell, yet the plant cell
   requires more.

26. Give an example of active transport and draw it happening.

                    Active Transport                                                 Active Transport
             Active Transport means the atoms or molecules must
             use energy to go through the transport proteins in the
                                                                                             5 molecules of
                             phospholipid bilayer.                                           minerals
                                                                           of minerals

                                                                             Root Cell
                                                                           Root Cell

27. Give an example for each of the 3 types of passive transport and draw it happening.

Osmosis and Diffusion                                                  Facilitated Diffusion
                                                           Facilitated Diffusion means the molecules must go through the
             Osmosis and diffusion can occur through the
                                                                     transport proteins in the phospholipid bilayer.
             phospholipid bilayer (it does not require
             transport proteins or energy)

                  Protein                                                                               Facilitate = to help
                                                                                                        So the proteins are
                                                                                  Protein               helping the molecule
                                                                                                        cross the cell

                       Diffusion                                           Osmosis

           2 molecules            10 molecules of                                   20 molecules of
                                  oxygen                      5 molecules           water
            of oxygen
                                  (Lung Cell)
                                                                of water

          Red Blood Cell

               Facilitated Diffusion                                   EQUILIBRIUM

                                  15 molecules of                                   5 molecules of
                                  sugar                                             water
            5 molecules                                       5 molecules
              of sugar                                          of water

28. What is the name of the process that cells do in order to grow, develop, and repair injuries to the
        Taxonomy                              Dichotomous Key                                                        Living                           Non-Living
  (Classification Order)
                                        1.   Tail Length
                                             a. Long... go to 2
      KPCOFGS                                b. Short… go to 3
 Kingdom                                2.   Coat color
                                             a. Tan fur… go to 4
                                             b. Black fur…go to 6
Gets more
specific as        Family
you move              Genus
towards the
bottom                    Species
                                                                                                                      Tree                               Paper

               Dead                           Potential for Life                                               Prokaryotic Cell                     Eukaryotic Cell

                                             Seeds, nuts and eggs

        Homeostasis                            Mitochondrion                                                   Cell Membrane                        Active Transport
                                                                                                            (Phospholipid Bilayer)

If the doesn’t have enough of
    the materials it needs to
survive, it will move materials
 into or out of the cell until it
 restores the balance again 

            Osmosis                                 Diffusion                                               Facilitated Diffusion                       Mitosis

                                                                                                                Facilitated Diffusion
            Osmosis                               Diffusion
                                                 Diffusion can occur through the phospholipid bilayer (it
                                                 does not require transport proteins or energy)
                                                                                                                                   FOR WHEN A
                             Osmosis                                                                                               MOLECULE
                              is the                                                                                               NEEDS TO GET
                                                                                                                                   INTO THE CELL
                             movement                                                                                              BUT CAN”T FIT
               Protein          of                         Protein                                                    Protein      IN BETWEEN THE

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