Cells Test Review
The following questions are to help you prepare for your cells test. You are to answer them on a
separate sheet of paper AND list the page number in the book or packet where you found the
answer. Please number the questions and write legibly. Please skip a line in between each
response! Good luck
1. What is the difference between a theory, a law and a hypothesis?
A theory is an explanation based on scientific knowledge and many observations & experiments, but
cannot be proven (like Big Bang Theory or Cell Theory). A Law is a statement about how things work in
nature and seems to be true all the time (like gravity). A hypothesis is a TESTABLE explanation of what
you think will happen (NOT an educated guess)
2. Why do we use models in science?
The reason scientists use models is because sometimes things happen too fast or too slow to make
observations in real time.
3. How many kingdoms are there? 6
4. How do you remember the difference between kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and
Kings Play Cards On Fat Green Stools!
5. Which is more specific? kingdom or species?
Species- its unique to one and only one organism!
specific as Family
you move Genus
6. When you name an organism, how many names do you use and where do they come from?
Binomial nomenclature is a two name naming system.
2 names- use the genus is the first name and the species is the second name
Examples: Homo sapien or Tyrannosaurus rex)
7. Who developed the system of binomial nomenclature?
8. What is the correct way to write the genus and the species? (Write the correct binomial
nomenclature for a human to show you can do this!)
Genus is capitalized, species is lowercase and they must be written in italics (Ex: Homo sapien)
9. What is the difference between living, non-living and dead?
Living means that it has the 5 characteristics of living things (example: Tree). Dead means that it
once had the 5 characteristics of living things but does not any more (example: Wood). Non-living
means that it was either never living in the first place (example: Pen) or that it was once alive but was
processed (example: Paper).
10. Why is a leather wallet considered to be non-living?
Because it has been processed.
11. What are the 5 characteristics of living things? (What do all living things have or are able to do?)
1. Made up of one or more cells (are organized)
2. Can grow
3. Can reproduce
4. Uses energy
5. Can respond to stimuli
12. What are all living things made up of?
One or more cells!
13. What are the 3 parts of the cell theory?
1. All living things are made up of cells.
2. The cell is the basic organizational unit of all living things.
3. Cells must come from other cells
14. How does a multi-cellular organism grow larger in size?
It adds more cells to its body (The cells divide to make new cells in a process called mitosis)
15. How does a single-celled organism grow larger in size?
Its cell gets bigger in size.
16. How many lenses are you looking through when you look through a microscope?
A simple microscope has 1 lens
A compound microscope has 2 lenses
We used a compound microscope in class!
17. What is the correct way to carry a microscope?
One hand on the arm and one hand on the base!
18. When you look at an image under a higher power, what do you expect to see?
Less of the image, but … in GREATER DETAIL
19. What is the total magnification of an object that is being viewed through a 10x eyepiece lens and a
40x objective lens?
10x X 40x = 400x so the image is 400 times larger than the object appears in real life
20. Give an example of a prokaryotic cell. Draw and label it!
Flagella Cell Membrane
21. Give an example of a eukaryotic cell. Draw and label it!
Cell Membrane Cell Wall Chloroplast
22. Are all cells the same shape? Why or why not?
Each cell has a different shape that fits
what its job is.
23. What does each cell organelle do?
Nucleus- controls the functions of the cell (“command center”)
Mitochondria- changes sugar & oxygen into usable energy (cellular respiration)
Ribosome- makes proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum-folds proteins
Golgi Body- packages and ships materials within the cell
Vacuole- stores extra materials like water
Cell Membrane- selectively lets materials into and out of the cell (like a window screen)
24. The plant cell has two things that the animal cell does not. What are they? What do they do?
The cell wall and the chloroplast.
The cell wall is made of cellulose, which makes it tough (it’s what you hear crunching when you eat
lettuce or raw green beans). The cell wall provides support for the plant cell (since plants don’t have
skeletons to hold them up!).
The chloroplast contains a pigment called chlorophyll that traps sunlight and changes it into chemical
energy (glucose sugar) in a process called photosynthesis.
25. Explain the difference between active and passive transport.
Passive transport is when the cell does not need to use any energy to move materials into or out of
the cell. The atoms/molecules move from where they are to where they aren’t. There are 3 types of
passive transport: diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion!
Active transport is when the cell has to use energy to move materials into or out of the cell. The
reason energy has to be used is because the cell already has what nature considers to be too much of
something, but it still requires more. In this case, materials have to move from where they are NOT
to where they ARE (opposite of what normally happens). A great example is when a root cell needs
minerals from the soil. The soil has less minerals than what is inside the plant cell, yet the plant cell
26. Give an example of active transport and draw it happening.
Active Transport Active Transport
Active Transport means the atoms or molecules must
use energy to go through the transport proteins in the
5 molecules of
phospholipid bilayer. minerals
27. Give an example for each of the 3 types of passive transport and draw it happening.
Osmosis and Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion means the molecules must go through the
Osmosis and diffusion can occur through the
transport proteins in the phospholipid bilayer.
phospholipid bilayer (it does not require
transport proteins or energy)
Protein Facilitate = to help
So the proteins are
Protein helping the molecule
cross the cell
2 molecules 10 molecules of 20 molecules of
oxygen 5 molecules water
Red Blood Cell
Facilitated Diffusion EQUILIBRIUM
15 molecules of 5 molecules of
5 molecules 5 molecules
of sugar of water
28. What is the name of the process that cells do in order to grow, develop, and repair injuries to the
Taxonomy Dichotomous Key Living Non-Living
1. Tail Length
a. Long... go to 2
KPCOFGS b. Short… go to 3
Kingdom 2. Coat color
a. Tan fur… go to 4
b. Black fur…go to 6
specific as Family
you move Genus
Dead Potential for Life Prokaryotic Cell Eukaryotic Cell
Seeds, nuts and eggs
Homeostasis Mitochondrion Cell Membrane Active Transport
If the doesn’t have enough of
the materials it needs to
survive, it will move materials
into or out of the cell until it
restores the balance again
Osmosis Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Mitosis
Diffusion can occur through the phospholipid bilayer (it
does not require transport proteins or energy)
FOR WHEN A
is the NEEDS TO GET
INTO THE CELL
movement BUT CAN”T FIT
Protein of Protein Protein IN BETWEEN THE