apdpip_endterm_report_and_tables00037 by keralaguest

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									the political life of communities. In a society of deep inequalities, people belonging to SCs
and STs have been generally excluded from participation in state institutions that make the
decisions and administer the resources that affect their lives. Similarly, in the cultural context
of the prevalence of patriarchic value systems in Andhra Pradesh as elsewhere in India, women
have also been excluded from the participation in these institutions. Hence, rules and laws have
been framed to ensure inclusion and participation of the excluded or marginalized groups in
local governance. In local governance, providing quotas for the SCs and STs and the recent
amendments to extend quotas to OBCs and women through 73rd Constitutional Amendment are
a case in point. These reforms in local governance focused primarily on the supply side of the
formal system and not on strengthening the demand side actions that enable marginalized
groups effectively to utilize the space created through new rules and regulations. Social
inequalities, cultural norms, lack of a support system and training still constrain vulnerable
social groups and women’s roles. In order to assess political capability, two parameters, viz.,
participation in local governance structures and the voice of marginalized in local governance
are considered. Participation in governance structures is measured in terms of contesting for
and electing Sarpanch, Vice-Sarpanch and Ward Members of Grama Panchayat. Participation
in Grama Sabhas refers to the voice of marginalized.

Women’s participation in village assemblies (gram sabhas) and raising issues in these fore
indicate the greater empowerment of women to participate more effectively in community
level decisions. There is insignificant improvement between FUS-I and FUS-II regarding the
participation and also rising issues by women in the panchayat Grama sabha. The more or less
the same proportion of women reporting their participation and raising issues in the village
assemblies from women of the participant households and those who are not is an evidence to
this. This is true across all the districts and the poor. Thus there is a gap between the awareness
and participation in the local governance political structures to present the voice of women in
decision –making. (Table 4.2)

Percentage of participant households contesting to the Panchayat Raj Institutions (GP, Mandal,
and ZP) has increased over FUS-I (from 1.82% to 2.33%) as well as higher compared to non-
participants (2.33 vs. 1.54). (Table 4.3). It is particularly true in case of Srikakulam and
Adilabad. Mere contesting in the elections may not reflect the influence of women groups; it is
the percentage of participant households who win the elections which reflects the influence of
women. The results reveal that the majority of participant households won the elections as
against the non-participants. Amongst the contestants, 57% of the participant households won



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      the elections while it is 47% in the case of non-participants. By and large, similar results hold
      good across the districts.

Table 4.1: Changes in the Decision Making (% of Households by Type of Decision Making)
                                               Non-
                                     Partic-
    Indicator        Round    All               Partic- Sig    SKLM   ANTP    ADB     PoP     Poor    NSP     NP
                                      ipant    - ipants
 Husband alone       FUS-2   10.4     9.9      11.1            13.4    9.3     3.4    10.3     3.5    16.7    17.1
takes decisions on
daughter's           FUS-1   10.8     10.2     11.4             9     12.7     8.9    11.8    12.2     8.4     9.9
marriage             Diff    -0.4     -0.3     -0.3             4.4   -3.4    -5.5    -1.5    -8.7     8.3     7.2
 Husband alone       FUS-2   13.1     10.2     17.1            14.5   14.6     3.8    12.5     7.8    22.9    12.5
takes decisions on
son's marriage       FUS-1   10.9     9.3      12.5             8.6   11.8     9.6    11.1    13.2     6.9    13.2
                     Diff     2.2     0.9       4.6             5.9    2.8    -5.8     1.4    -5.4     16     -0.7
 Husband alone       FUS-2   15.3     14.1     16.8            20.6   12.8     4.8    13.8    16.9    17.1    13.5
takes decisions on
purchase of          FUS-1   18.9     17.7     20.1            16.7   19.9    18.1    17.9    19.9    18.8    18.2
immovable            Diff    -3.6     -3.6     -3.3             3.9   -7.1    -13.3   -4.1     -3     -1.7    -4.7
property
 Husband alone       FUS-2   18.1     18.6     17.6     *      24.4   16.8     8.8    18.6    17.2    21.5    15.9
takes decisions on
purchase of          FUS-1   21.2     20.5     21.8            15.5   32.7     14     20.1    21.8    21.4    21.8
durables             Diff    -3.1     -1.9     -4.2             8.9   -15.9   -5.2    -1.5    -4.6     0.1    -5.9
 Husband alone       FUS-2   11.5      11      12.1            19.2   11.8     3.3    11.9    10.6    13.3    10.4
takes decisions on
food                 FUS-1   14.6      14      15.3            13.5   26.2     2.9    13.4    15.4    15.4    14.8
                     Diff    -3.1      -3      -3.2             5.7   -14.4    0.4    -1.5    -4.8    -2.1    -4.4
 Husband alone       FUS-2   18.2     18.4      18      **     24.3   16.6    14.1    18.6    18.4    19.8    14.6
takes decisions on
debt                 FUS-1   34.3     33.1     35.6            21.9   47.6     34     33.5    35.3    32.9    34.1
                     Diff    -16.1   -14.7     -17.6            2.4   -31     -19.9   -14.9   -16.9   -13.1   -19.5
Husband alone        FUS-2   13.4     12.6     14.5            19.4   13.9     6.9     15     11.1    15.1     11
takes decisions on
savings              FUS-1   19.4     17.4     21.6            14.5   28.5    14.9    18.4    19.7    19.8    20.5
                     Diff     -6      -4.8     -7.1             4.9   -14.6    -8     -3.4    -8.6    -4.7    -9.5
 Husband alone       FUS-2   12.5      13      11.8     **     16.7   13.3     4.7     12     10.3    16.3    12.6
takes decisions on
income               FUS-1   21.3     20.3     22.4            16.8   27.9     18     21.3    22.8    19.9    19.4
generating           Diff    -8.8     -7.3     -10.6           -0.1   -14.6   -13.3   -9.3    -12.5   -3.6    -6.8
activities
 Husband alone       FUS-2    9.9     9.9       10      **     17.2    8.5     5.2     9.1     9.9     12      8.2
takes decisions on
boys' education      FUS-1   14.5      14      15.1            12.2   18.2    11.2    13.9    16.1    12.9    16.2
                     Diff    -4.6     -4.1     -5.1             5     -9.7     -6     -4.8    -6.2    -0.9     -8
 Husband alone       FUS-2   10.3     10.3     10.2     **      18    10.6     3.3     7.6    10.8    14.3    11.4
takes decisions on
girls' education     FUS-1   12.9     11.8     14.1            11.2   17.4     8.7     13     14.9    10.7    11.4
                     Diff    -2.6     -1.5     -3.9             6.8   -6.8    -5.4    -5.4    -4.1     3.6     0
 Husband alone       FUS-2    8.8      8        9.7            16.9    5.9     2.7     8.7     9.7     9       5.7
takes decisions on
care of elderly      FUS-1    8.4     6.3      10.3     **      7.7   10.7     6.1     8.2    10.1     6.3     8.4


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Table 4.1: Changes in the Decision Making (% of Households by Type of Decision Making)
                                               Non-
                                     Partic-
    Indicator        Round    All               Partic- Sig    SKLM   ANTP   ADB     PoP     Poor    NSP     NP
                                      ipant    - ipants
                     Diff     0.4     1.7      -0.6     **      9.2   -4.8   -3.4     0.5    -0.4     2.7    -2.7
 Husband alone       FUS-2    7.3      7        7.7            13.3    5.1    3.9     7.3     6.6     8.5     7.1
takes decisions on
health care          FUS-1    7       6.4       7.5             4.4   10.1    5.9     7.8     7.7     4.9     5.6
                     Diff     0.3     0.6       0.2             8.9    -5     -2     -0.5    -1.1     3.6     1.5
Husband alone        FUS-2    5.9     6.1       5.8            10.6    5.2    1.4     4.8     6.6     6.4     8.5
takes decisions on
number of            FUS-1    5.5     4.7       6.3             2.4   10.2    3.4     5.6     6.7     3.4     6.3
children             Diff     0.4     1.4      -0.5             8.2    -5     -2     -0.8    -0.1     3       2.2
 Husband alone       FUS-2    5       4.9       5.1             8      5.1    1.1     4.9     4.6     6       4.3
takes decisions on
family planning      FUS-1    4.7     4.2       5.2             3      8.4    2.1     4.5     6.4     3.4     3.1
                     Diff     0.3     0.7      -0.1             5     -3.3    -1      0.4    -1.8     2.6     1.2
 Husband alone       FUS-2    4.2     4.2       4.3             9.5    1.8    0.6     4       4.3     4.8     3.5
takes decisions on
spacing between      FUS-1    2.8     2.1       3.5             1.7    4.8    1.6     3.2     3.2     2       2.6
births               Diff     1.4     2.1       0.8             7.8    -3     -1      0.8     1.1     2.8     0.9
 Wife alone takes    FUS-2    1.4      2        0.8             0      1.9    3.4     1.7     1.2     0       2.9
decisions on
daughter's           FUS-1    3.6     4.4       2.9             3.9    2.2    5.7     4.2     3       3.7     2.5
marriage             Diff    -2.2     -2.4     -2.1            -3.9   -0.3   -2.3    -2.5    -1.8    -3.7     0.4
 Wife alone takes    FUS-2    2.6     2.5       2.7             1.6    3.9    1.9     1       2.2     4.2     6.2
decisions on son's
marriage             FUS-1    3.6     4.8       2.3             3.4    1.8    5.4     3.6     3.3     3.5     3.8
                     Diff     -1      -2.3      0.4            -1.8    2.1   -3.5    -2.6    -1.1     0.7     2.4
 Wife alone takes    FUS-2    2.4     2.8       2               1.3    3.3    3.2     3.2     3.1     0       1.4
decisions on
purchase of          FUS-1    3.1     2.8       3.5             4.9    2.3    1.7     2.7     3.3     4.4     1
immovable            Diff    -0.7      0       -1.5            -3.6    1      1.5     0.5    -0.2    -4.4     0.4
property
 Wife alone takes    FUS-2    3.3     3.2       3.5             3.7    3.5    2.4     4.3     2.7     1.5     6.8
decisions on
purchase of          FUS-1    8       7.5       8.5             6      4.1   12.8     8.9     7.5     7.4     6.1
durables             Diff    -4.7     -4.3      -5             -2.3   -0.6   -10.4   -4.6    -4.8    -5.9     0.7
 Wife alone takes    FUS-2   15.8      15      16.8             8.8   13.2    29     18.6    14.1    14.5     9.7
decisions on food
                     FUS-1   34.9     36.2     33.5     **     18.4   16.4   71.1    36.8    35.6    31.6    27.3
                     Diff    -19.1   -21.2     -16.7           -9.6   -3.2   -42.1   -18.2   -21.5   -17.1   -17.6
 Wife alone takes    FUS-2    3.5     3.4       3.6             4      2.9    3.4     4.1     2.7     4.3     1.5
decisions on debt
                     FUS-1    5.5     5.5       5.6             6      5.2    5.2     5.5     5.7     4.6     6.3
                     Diff     -2      -2.1      -2              -2    -2.3   -1.8    -1.4     -3     -0.3    -4.8
 Wife alone takes    FUS-2    4       4.5       3.3    ***      5.3    2      4.2     4.9     2.7     5.2     2.2
decisions on
savings              FUS-1    8.4     9.3       7.4    ***      9.2   10.2    5.2     7.5     9       8.8     7.8
                     Diff    -4.4     -4.8     -4.1            -3.9   -8.2    -1     -2.6    -6.3    -3.6    -5.6
Wife alone takes     FUS-2    2.8     2.7       2.9             4      2.2    2.1     3.3     2.7     2.5     1.6

                                                         110

								
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