apdpip_endterm_report_and_tables00003 by keralaguest


									The section also turns to the federations of groups established at the village, mandal and
district level. The performance of federations with regard to the list of indicators provided
below is presented. It identifies the general trends in the performance and scope (in terms of
activities) of the federations since FUS-I to try and answer the question of whether the question
whether federations have been improving in quality as the project has matured.

Federation Indicators
Internal Practices

   •   Attendance at meetings (T)
   •   Up to date records (T)
   •   External Monitoring (S)
   •   Independent Book-Keeper (T)
   •   Financial transactions taking place within the meetings (S)
   •   Rotation of leadership responsibilities (T)
   •   Regular meetings at a time and location everyone is aware of (S)
   •   Establishment of norms with regard to late payment and thrift and representation (T)
   •   Frequent supervision of subsidiary organisation (S)
(T) indicates the measure is available across time, (S) indicates the measure is only available
at one point in time.

Ultimate Indicators of Successful Federations

   •   Financial Sustainability (S)
   •   Ability to deal with group conflicts internally (S)
   •   Default rates – number of members and value of loans (whether principal or interest)
   •   Value of bank loans taken (T)
   •   Value of spending on public goods (T)
   •   Scale of other activities undertaken (T)
   •   Extent of outreach activities to excluded sectors of the village population (S)
   •   No. of new created in village/mandal (T)
(T) indicates the measure is available across time, (S) indicates the measure is only available
at one point in time.

1.1 Self Help Groups – An Assessment

In all, a total of 1129 women of the participant households were the members of the SHGs.
Across the district, the 362 participant households were members of SHGs in Srikakulam, 417
in Anantapur and 350 in Adilabad. Conducting meetings regularly is one of the important
indicators to assess the performance of SHGs. As far as the frequency of meetings of SHGs in
various capacities is concerned, the highest frequency of meetings of SHGs conducted every
month was observed in Srikakulam (77.75%) in FUS-II, followed by Adilabad (64.6) and
Anantapur (59.6). With respect to the percentage distribution norms of meeting reported by
SHGs by adopting the norm twice a month, it is observed that it was highest in Anantapur
(80%) in 2005-06, followed by Srikakulam (22.58%) and Adilabad (14.69%). The case of
average number of meetings per annum actually held shows that during the period 2003-04 to
2005-06 (FUS-I to FUS-II), it was high in Anantapur again, followed by Srikakulam and
Adilabad. Further, it is in 55% of the sample SHGs in 2005-06, that the meeting details are
available in minutes, while, across the districts, Srikakulam had the highest percentage of
SHGs whose meeting details were available in minutes (74%), while Adilabad had the least
percentage in this regard (20.5%). In respect of average percentage of attendance at SHG
meetings is concerned in FUS-II, it is around 81% in programme area as against 78.8% in
control area, in Srikakulam, it is 85% vs. 81%. The data on percentage of SHGs having
meetings in the same place reveal that around 82% in the programme area, on the other hand,
across the districts, it is 85% each in Srikakulam and Anantapur and 74% in Adilabad (Table
1.6 to 1.8).

If we look at the percentage distribution of SHGs keeping books/audited/rated/submitting
masanivedikas in FUS-II, in the programme area, the percentage of keeping books is around
90% and those that audited is 26%. Across the districts, in Srikakulam, nearly 88% of SHGs
keep books and nearly 33% of these are audited. As far as the grade received in auditing is
concerned, around 24% received A grade, while 9% received B grade and 3% received C
grade. Though, Anantapur has the highest percentage of SHGs keeping books, only 30% of
these are audited. However, 35% of the audited books received grade A, which is the highest
amongst the three districts. (Table 1.9). In the programme area, nearly 11% of the SHGs
submitted masanivedika, while around 25% received A grade. Across the districts, nearly 21%
of the SHGs in Srikakulam submitted masanivedikas, while this was not done in Adilabad. In
Anantapur, 29% got A grade for masanivedika, while it 17% in Srikakulam. (Table 1.9).

Looking at the data on percentage distribution of SHGs by the type of book keeper employed,
29% of the SHGs in the programme area have literate members as the book keeper as against
23% in control area. Same trend is observed in Srikakulam (30% vs. 27%) and Adilabad (21%
vs. 3.75%). However, in Adilabad, it is observed that around 56% of the SHGs have CC/CA as
the Book keeper (Table 1.10).

The observations on other characteristics of book keeper clearly show that the percentage of
trained book keepers in the programme area increased from 52% FUS-I to 57% in FUS-II,
while it is 51% in FUS-II in the control area. In Srikakulam, the percentage of SHGs having
trained book keepers stands at 54% now as against 52% in the control area. Anantapur
recorded the highest increase in the percentage of trained book keepers compared to FUS-I
(62.40% vs. 30%). Writing records outside the meetings decreased from 31% in FUS-I to 27%
in FUS-II among the participants of the programme area. In Srikakulam and Adilabad also,
similar trends are observed. Book keepers handling money has declined in SHGs in the
program area (from 7.30% in FUS-I to 6.61% in FUS-II). Across the districts, the percentage
of book keeper handling money declined over FUS-I in Srikakulam and Anantapur and
increased in Adilabad, while it is not the case in Adilabad. The data shows the increased role of
book keepers in the SHG decisions in Srikakulam and Adilabad which is a concern to the
project. (Table 1.11)

Around 22% of the groups in the programme area followed norm of sanction for non-
attendance as against 18% in the control area, while the sanction for non-payment of loans
stands at 18.73 as against 11.63 in the control area. This is true in Srikakulam and Adilabad
districts also (Table 1.13). Sanction for default indicate a discipline in the functioning of

The data on distribution of SHGs practicing leadership rotation indicate that in the programme
area nearly 73% of the SHGs practiced no leadership rotation. Similar trends are observed
across the districts. The percentage of SHGs practicing that all leaders to be changed once in a
year are more in the program areas as against control areas and also across the districts. (Table
1.14). From the observations on old and new SHGs with respect to the practice of different
types of leadership reveals that new groups have performed better compared to old groups in
all the practices showing enthusiasm in the new groups. (Table 1.15).

The percentage of SHGs paying savings outside meeting is less in the programme areas
compared to control areas and also in the districts. A higher percentage of SHGs have rule
about repaying loan in meeting and the rule is also followed in the SHGs when compared to


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