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					Jatropha curcas

Prof. K.S. Neelakantan, I.F.S.
Dean Forest College & Research institute

BIODIESEL Dr.Rudolf Diesel – 1895 – Peanut oil
The use of vegetable oils for engine fuel may seem insignificant today. But such oils may become in course of time as important as petroleum and the coal tar products of the present time

Origin
South America & Africa

16th century – India – Portugese settlers.

Concept of Biodiesel

Soya based Biodiesel –U.S.A Rape seed based biodiesel – German Sunflower based biodiesel – France & U.K Incentives & tax concessions are offered.

World Energy Consumption (in MOTE)

Country

Oil

Gas

Coal

Nuclear

Hydro

Total

Per capita KG 8077 602 277 416 3995 1428

USA China India % Africa Japan World

883 200 95 34 116 259 3462

553 19 21 8 47 67 2064

543 511 150 54 89 92 2130

198 4.1 3.3 1.1 3.9 82 651

26 18 7 2.5 6 8 227

2205 753 276 100 261 507 8537

Indian Production and Import of Crude Oil (Million tones)

Year

Production

Import

Total

Import %

Cost Rs. in Crores 107 3349 6118 30695 90,000

1971 1981 1991 2001 2002

6.8 10.5 33 32 32

11.7 16.2 20.7 57.9 73.5

18.5 26.7 53.7 89.9 105

63 61 39 64 70

Planning Commission - GoI
Vision
Phase I – Demonstration Project 2003-2007 Phase II – Self sustaining & expansion 2007-2012 IIM Ahamadabad Study –In Gujarat & Maharashtra Jatropha is popular as soap oil

Planning Commission – GoI (Contd...)
Micro Mission
Forest land Non-forest land Other lands - Gujarat, Chatisgargh, Tamil Nadu, Tripura 50000/ha/state - NOVOD Board, Ministry of Agrl. & Cooperatives - Other Dept. of Rural Development

Procurement of Seed & oil extraction - KVIC Transesterification, Blending & Trade R&D - IOC, Ministry of Petroleum - SAUs, I I Ts

TN Government Initiatives

Forest College & Jatropha

Crop Mandate – 1992 onwards Ongoing Projects
1. Afforestation of wasteland through energy plantations – SLUB 2. NOVOD – Networking project on Jatropha 3. University – Venture Capital 4. ICAR – Network Project on TBO’s 5. ICAR – Agroforestry 6. ICAR under utilized crop

Jatropha Cultivation & Management
Propagation – seeds & cuttings

Soil – wide range Climate - arid & semi arid

Spacing –2x2m to 3x3m

Irrigation Nil – with proper & well distributed rainfall Additional irrigation – need based

Fertilizer Application
Organic Inorganic – FYM – 5 kg/plant – 20g of urea 120 g super p 16 g m.o.p

Biofertilizers – Azo. 10 g VAM 50 g

Pest and Disease

Pest – Defoliator

Disease Nursery – Damping off Field – Root rot Bavistin & COC

Yield
1st yield – 1st year Harvestable yield – 3rd year Economic yield – 5th year Rainfed Irrigated – 200 g to 2.5 kg – 500 g to 5 kg

Germplasm
Species collection Jatropha curcas Jatropha curcas (nontoxic) J. curcas x J integrerrima Jatropha gossypifolia Jatropha glandulifera Jatropha tanjorensis Jatropha multifida Jatropha podagrica Jatropha integerrima

Seed sources – 19

Oil content - 26.6 to 35.5% TNMC-6

Production and Supply of Quality Planting Materials
State Agricultural Dept. Horticultural Dept. DRDA Railways NGO’s Agroindustries & Farmers 1.5 lakhs seedlings have been supplied

1. Development of hybrids 2. Screening superior clones for higher productivity, resistance and drought tolerance 3. Developing strategies for mass multiplication of superior cultivars

4. Development of non-toxic Jatropha 5. Production, supply & establishment of bio-diesel park in every agroecological zones

6. Human Resource Development

Institute offers Trainings to Farmers Departmental Personnel NGO’s and Trainers Training Programme

7. Short and long term consultancy to agro-based industries and farmers

Requirement of Land for Jatropha
For Indian Railways 5% 10% 20% 5% 10% 20% 52,000 ha 1,04,000 ha 2,08,000 ha 1.185 millionha 2.37 million ha 4.75 million ha

For India

Cost of Cultivation / ha (TNAU)
Land Spacing Density I Land preparation Planting of seedlings Cost of FYM Fertilizer Irrigation Weeding/ intercultivation/ harvesting Total 2000 0 Poor soil / Rainfed 2 x 1.5 3330 II 0 0 0 0 0 2000 2000 III

6600 0 @Rs.2/- per seedlings 0 0 0 0 2000 10600 0 0 2000 2000

Cost of Cultivation / ha (NGO’s)
Seed Land Spacing Density I Yr. 2000 5000 Rs.2/per seedlings 1500 0 2000 2000 Normal Soil 2x2 2500 II Yr. 0 0 0 2000 1500 2000 0 0 0 2000 1500 2000 III Yr. I Yr. 1670 3330@Rs.2/per seedlings 1500 0 2000 2000 Fertile Soil 2x3 1670 II Yr. 0 0 0 2000 1500 2000 III Yr. 0 0 0 2000 1500 2000

Land preparation Planting of seedlings Cost of FYM Fertilizer Irrigation Weeding/ intercultivation/ harvesting Total

12500

5500

5500

10500

5500

5500

Cost of Cultivation / ha (NGO’s)
Seedlings Land Spacing Density I Yr. Land preparation Planting of seedlings Cost of FYM Fertilizer Irrigation Weeding/ intercultivation/ harvesting Total 2000 10000 Rs.4/per seedlings* 1500 0 3000 2500 Normal 2x2 2500 II Yr. 0 0 0 2000 3000 2500 III Yr. 0 0 0 2000 3000 2500 I Yr. 1670 8680 Rs.4/per seedlings* 1500 0 3000 2500 Fertile 2x3 1670 II Yr. 0 0 0 2000 3000 2500 0 0 0 2000 3000 2500 III Yr.

19000

7500

7500

17350

7500

7500

* May be subsidized @Rs.2/- per seedlings

Yield and Economic Projections
Poor Soil / Rainfed (TNAU) 2 x 1.5 m 3330 200 g (Unpruned) 670 kg (Unpruned) 220 kg 450 kg Rs.4400 Rs.2250 Rs.6650 Normal Soil (NGO’s) 2x2m 2500 1.00 kg 2500 kg 830 kg 1670 kg Rs.16600 Rs.8350 Rs.24950 Fertile Soil (NGO’s) 2x3m 1670 1.500 kg 2500 kg 830 kg 1670 kg Rs.16600 Rs.8350 Rs.24950

Planting density Population/ha Seed yield/plant (3rd year) Seed yield/ha Oil kg – 30% Cake kg – 70% Revenue @ Rs.20/kg oil Revenue @ Rs.5/kg cake Gross Total

TNAU – Pilot Plant for Bio-diesel

Cost of plant Capacity

-

Rs. 1.5 lakhs 250 lit/day 99% Glycerol Rs. 4 to 5 / lit

Conversion efficiency Bye product Cost of production of bio-diesel -

Effect on Rural Economy
Seed price – Rs.5/kg Seed yield – 2000 – 3000 kg 5 ha plantations/Group Rs.60,000 per year income Gainful employment in rural sector Contribution to national energy pool


				
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