• What is a Hybrid vehicle is and how they differ from conventional automobiles. • Discuss general operation of a Hybrid vehicle (how it works). •What’s out there and how to identify it. • Figure out HV, LV, & IV. •Safety hazards to responders and how to mitigate them. •Understand built in safety devices. •Extrication of the car and most importantly the patient.
Hybrid: Any motor driven vehicle with two power sources. Generally today's Hybrid vehicles consist of a gas powered engine an electric motor/generator and a high voltage battery. • May or may not be that high we will cover that soon. These vehicles can run off the gas engine the electric motor or both if maximum power is required. Traction motor convert Kinetic energy into electrical energy during braking or deceleration recharging the batteries.
This process is known as Regenerative braking.
Most Hybrids run HV batteries Yes that’s High Voltage anywhere from 246v to 300v some can be as much as 600v. This high voltage battery is what runs the electric motor.
Two Electrical systems Every hybrid vehicle has two separate batteries; one 12 volt battery &
Under light engine loads i.e. city driving idle/stopped, low speed driving the car will generally employ just the electric motor. With a higher load demand the gas engine is employed for extra power i.e. freeway driving , hard acceleration, or even sometimes when the battery pack is low on charge. If heavy loads are put on the system the car can employ both the gas and electric motors.
one high voltage battery
Some manufactures such as GM are now using what is known as intermediate voltage these batteries are classified as below 60volts but greater than 30volt. Federal Law mandates that all high voltage cables will be orange.
Low voltage DC<30v AC <15v
Intermediate DC >30 <60v AC >15 <30v
High Voltage DC >60v AC >30v
Audi Q7 SUV Hybrid BMW X5 SAV Chevy S3X Hybrid Chevy Equinox Hybrid Chevy Tahoe Hybrid Chevy Malibu Hybrid Dodge Durango SUV Hybrid Dodge ESX3 Hybrid Ford Escape Hybrid Ford Explorer Hybrid Ford Fusion Hybrid GM Opel Astra Hybrid GMC Graphyte Concept GMC Yukon Hybrid Honda Civic Hybrid Honda Accord Hybrid
It should be noted that there is no standard for Intermediate voltage and that the above chart is from GM’s ERG and BLUE is a color they have chosen.
Honda Insight Hybrid Hyundai Accent Hybrid Lexus RX400h Hybrid Lexus 450h GS Hybrid Mazda Tribute SUV Hybrid Mazda Ibuki Hybrid Mazda RX-8 Hybrid Mazda Senku Concept Mercedes Smart ForTwo Mercury Hybrid SUV Nissan Altima Hybrid Saturn VUE Hybrid Subaru B9 SC Hybrid Toyota Prius Hybrid Toyota Camry Hybrid Toyota Highlander SUV Hybrid
HYBRID TRUCKS Dodge Ram Hybrid Chevy Silverado Hybrid GMC Sierra Hybrid HYBRID MINIVANS Toyota Estima Minivan Hybrid Toyota Alphard Minivan Hybrid Toyota Sienna Minivan Hybrid HYBRID CROSSOVERS Hyundai Portico Hybrid Nissan Tino Hybrid
How to Identify a Hybrid vehicle
How to identify a Hybrid continued
Or can you really tell
Hazards to responders
High voltage batteries and cables • Batteries holding 200-300 volts and sometimes more. •High voltage cables running from front to rear of the vehicle. • Three Phase AC voltage (Toyota Highlander/ GM Trucks) All high voltage batteries contain potassium hydroxide(KOH) solution The electrolyte gel has a pH of 13.5 Potassium hydroxide(KOH) is highly alkaline(base) Hazmat information on potassium hydroxide solution listed in Emergency Response Guidebook Guide #154
And the one that’s going to get us
The “SILENT” Hybrid
When stopped, While in Neutral, With the clutch depressed, even while driving at low speed the gas engine may not run but the vehicle is able to move via battery power and the electric motor not making a sound. Called sleep mode / Ready / Auto stop it is generally indicated on the vehicles instrument cluster with a light. Your patient panics and hits the gas, a responder bumps the gear selector into gear, etc. and vroom the car moves. What effect would this have at your accident scene?
And what if there is no Key?
The Smart Key
The Smart key may be inserted in the Dash (red circle) but only has to be near the vehicle to allow it to start. Notice the button (green) this is how the car is started.
One Push = Accessory Two= Start Three= Off
How do we mitigate these problems?
High Voltage: Stay away from the Orange wires. Most Hybrid vehicles high voltage batteries can be isolated by removing the 12 volt battery from the system. Once isolated voltage is confined to the battery pack. On the factory side the battery is sealed in a impact resistant case leaking or exposed plate are rare. High Voltage is also managed with the air bag system, if deployment is detected the high voltage circuit is isolated. And a secondary switch monitors rapid deceleration in the case that the airbag system fails. Some models also come equipped with a hood switch when the hood is opened the high voltage side again is isolated. (remember to leave it up if hood will not interfere with other operations). Some have switches to disconnect the high voltage battery. (this varies and I will show some on the next slide).
Mitigating the silent car Chock the wheels! Set the parking brake. Place the car in park. Shut it off and remove the key
Smart key 16ft away
Mitigating a vehicle fire
Follow normal Firefighting Procedure When fighting a Hybrid vehicle fire. Firefighters will NOT be shocked or electrocuted.
Mitigating Airbags Remember the 5/10/20 rule Give 5” clearance between you ,your pt. and a side impact bag. Give 10” clearance between you, your pt. and a steering wheel air bag. Give 20”clearance between you, your pt. and a pass. side front air bag. Always remove the battery terminals Always. At this point there are covers for steering wheel air bags but no others. In today's world we have to remove interior trim prior to cutting the top failure to do so could be catastrophic for you or your pt.
Some Manufactures recommend a flow of 250gpm
The three tasks generic to all vehicle rescue after ensuring you and your crews safety. 1. Immobilize the vehicle. Chock the wheels/set the park brake/shift to park/ 2. Stabilize the vehicle Use cribbing/watch for high voltage wires (usually more towards center) 3. Disable Remove Key/Disconnect 12v battery/ensure “ready light” is off.
Only thing not performed was trunk tunneling due to the High voltage battery pack.
Pt care should not be delayed any longer than needed to disable the 12 volt battery system. The first person to access the pt is most likely the best choice for shutting off the car, removing the key, and placing the car in park with the e-brake on. Take full care of pt just as any other vehicle don’t rush if you don’t have to.
Get vehicle specific information ERG’s are available online for free offered by all manufactures of Hybrid vehicles
Firerescue1.com ERG’s from Toyota , GM, Ford, Honda
Hybrid Evaluation 1.What is a Hybrid? 2. Every Hybrid has two separate battery systems what are they?
1. 2. 3. 4.
4. Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) is found where in a Hybrid?
A. The engine B. The High voltage battery C. The gas tank D. The interior
A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.
12 volt and 12volt 12volt and 48volt 12 volt and high voltage 300volt and 24volt Green Red Blue Orange
3. The standard color for High voltage wire on a Hybrid is?
5. What is the best way to ensure a Hybrid is not “silent”
A. B. C. D. Chock the Wheels Remove the patient Disconnect the high voltage battery Put it in park and remove the key
Lt. Shawn Bro Spokane County Fire District 10 email@example.com
Renee Anderson Inland Northwest Health Services 601 W. First Avenue Spokane, WA 99201 509-232-8155 509-232-8344 Fax