Chichester _ District Archaeology Society by mifei


									Chichester & District Archaeology Society
Founded : 1991

A warm welcome to our Spring season of archaeological lectures and events, which we hope will prove both enjoyable and informative. This Newsletter brings you information on these, together with other news of the Society`s activities and some excellent Members` Reports. Our lecture programme resumes at New Park as follows: 28th March 25th April A talk by our own Jonathan Dicks entitled " Beyond Rowland`s Castle” Tony Rook of Welwyn Archaeology Society will give a talk with the title :"I`ve come about the (Roman) drains" Members Evening. Heads of Departments will speak about their various responsibilities and activities.

23rd May

During our summer break from lectures, we are planning some visits for May, June and July, in addition to our popular guided walks with James Kenny, the first of which will take place on Sunday 1st July and the next on Sunday 7th October. Further details of all of these will be given in due course at meetings and on the website. Our lecture programme resumes in the Autumn with the following: 26th September 24th October 21st November 19th December Anthony Haskins, Network Archaeology,will tell us “What Zooarchs really do!” Jo Short will speak on the effect of World War 11 on the Adur Valley Peter Sommer on “Tales from the Green Valley, a TV reconstruction” AGM and Christmas party

Our programme for the Spring 2008 season is: 23rd January 27th February 26th March 23rd April 28th May Ian Barefoot of the Nautical Archaeology Society will speak on “Underwater Archaeology” Nicki Horter, from Chichester Harbour Conservancy, will talk on “Rhythm of the Tides; a retrospective” To be confirmed Bill Sillar will lecture on UCL digs at West Dean Members Evening 1

Chairman`s Report Details of new CDAS Officers and Committee members elected at the recent AGM are as follows, with relevant contact information: Officers President Chairman Secretary Membership Secretary Treasurer

John Magilton Trevor Davies Harbourside, 12 Tower Street, Emsworth, Hants, PO10 7BH 01243 373587 Email: Aelia Lincoln Diane Wilson 86 Fletchers Lane, Sidlesham, Chichester PO20 7Q 01243 641421 Email: Kathleen Fancourt

Committee Neville Haskins, John Boldero, Yvette Cook, Ian Judd, Samantha Joy, Darren Fry and Keith Robinson. “The Committee recognise the trust that the members of CDAS have shown in them by electing them, and the responsibilities that result. I am particularly pleased that John Magilton has agreed to be President of the Society. John has been involved with the Society since its earliest days. At the time of the Society‟s inception, he was the Chief Excavations Archaeologist for the Chichester and District Council, overseeing a large programme of investigations in the Chichester area. He recognised the value of a group of knowledgeable amateurs who could provide support for his professional archaeological activities.He thus encouraged the establishment of the Society, and now I value his insights and support as the Committee further develops the Society‟s activities. The new Committee takes over at a time when the activities of the Society are vibrant -Aelia Lincoln has taken over as Secretary to the Society. Her responsibilities include minuting the General Committee meetings and liaising with the New Park Centre. -Diane Wilson continues as Membership Secretary. With membership moving towards 200, this is an increasingly responsible role, collecting subscriptions and recording members. -Kathleen Fancourt remains as Treasurer. As part of the growth in the Society‟s activities and sources of income, she has developed a budget process, so that we can make sure we spend the Society‟s funds effectively. -Neville Haskins continues to mastermind the lecture programme, which continues, on March 28th , with Jonathan Dicks` lecture about the Romano-British landscape surrounding Rowland`s Castle. -John Boldero continues to edit the Newsletter, and has been much involved in the Society‟s applications for funding to the lottery (Awards for All) and the Chichester District Council. -Yvette Cook has taken over publicity of the Society‟s activities. She is keen to widen the distribution of our posters, so if you know of a suitable site – school, college of further education, community hall etc , please let her know to whom the posters should be sent for inclusion on the appropriate notice board. -Ian Judd has been the Society‟s Webmaster for a number of years and his presence on the committee emphasises the increasing importance of this function. 2

-Samantha Joy is looking at the possibilities for visits, and we will keep you informed about her proposals. She is considering organising visits without the disadvantages of hired transport, so that we would arrange car pooling, particularly for members who do not have their own car. Fieldwork Jonathan Dicks is now chairing this committee. -CDAS now has a store for all our fieldwork equipment at Fishbourne Roman Palace, thanks to the generosity of the Chichester Harbour Conservancy and the Sussex Archaeological Society. -Neville Haskins is coordinating our geophysical survey activity. We have recently purchased two ruggedised laptop computers to support this activity. Neville and his team have done a number of small projects recently, the results of which have been very positive, and our confidence in using these new techniques is growing. Please contact Neville if you would like to join this group. -Alan Stanley is coordinating the field walking programme and has had a busy time walking newly ploughed fields in the Chichester Harbour Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB). This programme is part of the Society‟s partnership with the Chichester Harbour Conservancy. Alan has also masterminded the processing of finds from these field walks. -The Committee led by Jonathan and Caroline Scott are actively seeking potential future excavation sites. -George Anelay is organising some training digs during the summer of 2007 as part of the Chichester District Council outreach programme. -Nigel Brown is setting up a project to establish a CDAS archive. The objective is to consolidate all the Society‟s publications, and the documentary background to all the projects that have been undertaken over the past 15 years, in an archive at Fishbourne. This is part of our professional responsibility – if we do not file the data properly, the original work is invalidated, because the findings, positive or negative, cannot be shared with others. If you have or know of any documents that might be of interest, please contact Nigel Brown. -Trevor Davies has been coordinating a large group of volunteers who are monitoring 41 sites identified on the SMR within the AONB as part of the Society‟s partnership with the Chichester Harbour Conservancy. Our role is to visit the sites annually and report on their condition. Our reports are fed back to the Conservancy regularly. Training Following the brief survey of demand conducted at the January lecture meeting, the following training courses have been set up, to be conducted at the Fishbourne Discovery Centre, with coffee 9.30am, courses start at 10am and finish at 4pm. Bone 11th April; Roman Pottery Recognition 16th April; Flint Recognition: date to be decided in October 2007. The first courses were free, because they were funded by the Chichester Harbour Conservancy. To continue the programme and because we have to pay for the lecturer, we have decided to charge £15 for each of the first two courses. We will review the cost for October and beyond. This will mean that, over time, the Society will be able to run more courses without increasing the subscription level radically. Documentary Research Group This group has looked at four main projects during the winter: Bow Hill. A study in support of the survey project executed in partnership with English 3

Heritage. The objective was to find documentary evidence for the dating of the structure. Some interesting but inconclusive results were achieved, indicating that the structure might not be as old as first thought. Selhurst Park. There is an ongoing study of the Selhurst Park estate and its history, to shed light on the occupation of this site, which many members have dug under the supervision of George Anelay in 2005 and 2006. Denmead fishponds. A study to examine the history in general, and to find out who constructed the fishponds and when. Research is ongoing. Iping Mansio. A study to determine the documentary evidence for the Mansio which was only discovered in the late 1940s. Research is ongoing. Please contact Trevor Davies if you would like to participate in these or similar projects. Thank you for your support. I look forward to meeting more of you over the coming year.” Fieldwalks The main outside activity over the winter months has , of course, been fieldwalking and there follows a report on recent activities by Alan Stanley, our tireless Fieldwalks organiser. Pairs of wind swept figures slowly squelch across a bleak landscape, their eyes raking four metre strips of ploughed mud, icy fingers picking up objects our ancestors left behind. Winter archaeology at its best, plenty of fresh air, the chance to find artefacts last handled hundreds, even thousands of years ago. Last Autumn, when CDAS took over Chichester Harbour Conservancy's programme of archaeological field walking we wondered if we could tempt enough folk to do the job. We need not have worried, attendance has steadily improved and between Nov 2006 and March 2007 nine days of field walking and four days of finds processing has involved more than 200 people. We recently finished one of largest fields in the Conservancy's high priority list, and have made a start on another, both at Dell Quay in Apuldram Parish. Most of the finds have been processed and when the remainder have been sorted and then identified by the experts, a report will be compiled. Finds have included prehistoric worked flint, potsherds from a wide period, including the Iron Age and the Roman occupation, and concentrations of fire cracked flints. Considering that ploughs have turned this land for thousands of years, it is surprising how 4

much identifiable material can still be found. Mud caked finds are difficult to identify positively, but the rule is, when in doubt - bag it. Hence we have had to wash and sort through more than 500 kg. of finds, throwing out the post-medieval material spread with midden waste, counting and weighing kept finds, plotting individual finds and any concentrations. The system of setting up a baseline marked alphabetically at 20m. intervals and using the right angled prism to show offsets at the field edges, enabling walkers to sight and peg-in their 20m cords, works well. Washing and finds sorting with professional archaeologists has helped walkers refine their collecting, and courses on flint and pottery identification have been invaluable. Arthur and Diane Wilson's redundant glasshouse (now known as the `crystal palace`) has proved ideal for finds processing - bags of space for washing and drying, good natural light, weather proof, and we are indebted to them for their hospitality. Many thanks also to the Conservancy for funding equipment and training, to the farmer, who has been most helpful throughout, to professional archaeologists James Kenny and Keith Robinson; to Caroline Scott and Jonathan Dicks (ex-chair and current chair persons of the CDAS Field Works Committee) and to David Rudkin and all the Roman Palace staff for hosting training and meetings. Not forgetting all the splendid people who walk, wash and sort. The camaraderie and badinage turn the physical and intellectual challenge of archaeology into absorbing fun. Past Matters The fourth issue of this colourful magazine, which covers the heritage of Chichester and District, is now on sale. The Society‟s activities are again featured and other articles include coverage of how the unexpected discoveries made under the Shippams factory and Sports and Social Club illustrate the everyday lives of people throughout the past two millennia, more about the history of Chichester Harbour and how archaeologists are using the latest geophysical techniques to gain valuable information about the effects of rising sea levels. Copies available at the District Museum etc. Awards. CDAS has been awarded £2750 by Awards for All, to help meet part of the cost of new laptops, a new projector and new storage facilities. Funds were also received from Chichester District Council for the same purpose and from Chichester Harbour Conservancy for the purchase of software for geophysical surveying, to be used in the field, in one of our new `ruggedised` laptops. We are extremely grateful to all of the above donors for their support. Newsletter Members are invited to submit contributions for consideration for inclusion; topics can include visit reports, book reviews or other items of interest and should be typewritten and sent, where possible, electronically i.e. by email to or on cd/ floppy. Opinions expressed in reviews and articles are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Society. Email addresses allow the Society to make members aware, economically and at short notice, of visits, excavations and other opportunities of interest. Please advise the Membership Secretary of your email details as relevant, when renewing your membership application. Members Reports 1) Satellites and Archaeology: by Yvonne Munro Satellites don‟t immediately spring to mind when thinking about archaeology but the role of space technology in the archaeologist‟s toolkit is increasing, particularly in the fields of archaeological 5

reconnaissance and survey. Satellite imagery comes in a variety of „flavours‟ of which optical (either panchromatic or multispectral) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are the most commonly used for archaeology. Pairs of images can be used to produce a 3-D digital elevation model (DEM) of a region. Satellite data can be combined with aerial photographs and other data sources in a Geographic Information System (GIS). These systems are now being increasingly used in archaeology but, until relatively recently, publicly available satellite imagery was of significantly inferior resolution to aerial photography. However, two factors changed this: the release of previously classified military satellite data in 1995 and the advent of commercial high-resolution satellite imagery with the launch of IKONOS in 1999. . In 1995, President Clinton declassified more than 860,000 images of the Earth's surface, collected between 1960 and 1972 by the American CORONA photographic surveillance satellites. Though primarily intended to monitor the Soviet Union‟s production and deployment of long-range bombers and ballistic missiles, the resultant archive has extensive worldwide coverage (somewhat biased to eastern Europe and Asia) and includes images with resolutions as good as 2 m. Some images cover areas for which no aerial photographs exist or where subsequent land use change has obscured archaeological sites, for example flooding of a region after dam construction. Commercial optical satellite imagery is now available at resolutions as good as 0.7m, with licences set to be granted at 0.25 m in the near future. As with airborne photography, satellite images need to be taken at the appropriate time of year for crop and soil marks to be visible. Typically, imaging satellites revisit any area on the earth‟s surface with exactly the same viewing geometry every 30 days or so, with the ability to reimage more frequently at different angles or resolution. The ability to build up a sequence of images of an area over time not only facilitates the search for new archaeological sites, it can also help preserve existing ones, for example the use of IKONOS data in monitoring looting at the ancient city site of Uruk-Warka in Iraq Radar imagery, by its very nature, is more difficult to interpret than optical but radar sensors can be operated day or night, can penetrate clouds, vegetation and, in dry conditions, soil (the longer the wavelength the better the penetration). NASA‟s 1994 SIR-C/X-SAR radar mission acquired images at 3 wavelengths (3cm, 6cm and 24cm) of archaeological sites for the World Monuments Fund. These included Angkor in Cambodia, hitherto difficult to study because of the dense rainforest canopy, and Wadi Kufra in Libya. The Angkor data has helped archaeologists understand the development and subsequent abandonment of the city as well as providing information on the associated system of canals and reservoirs. At Wadi Kufra, the radar data has revealed the existence of paleodrainage channels buried in the sand. The location of the old stream valleys, which were active in the Palaeolithic and late Neolithic period, has in turn enabled archaeologists to refine their search for facts and to better interpret the history of early people and climatic conditions in the region. The best resolution commercial radar data currently available is 8m but 3m and 1m systems are planned for launch this year. Finally, it is at a more mundane and practical level that space technology has made its most visible impact on archaeology. The use of differential GPS survey equipment which receive signals from the US GPS satellites enhanced by a ground based beacon, enables sites to be surveyed quickly and accurately (<1cm depending on the equipment) by a single operator as opposed to the two required to use a level or total station. Bibliography:,,, 6

2)Saved in the nick of time: The Roman villa of Echternach; by Guy Lockton The charming town of Echternach beside the river Sûre on the Luxembourg-German border, is best known in Britain as the place where our own St Willibrord, a monk from Northumbria, arrived in 698AD to promote Christianity. He founded a monastery there and built a small Merovingian church, incorporated a hundred years later into the St Willibrord basilica. But there is a Roman connection too. How often have we heard stories similar to this? In the 1870s Professor Michel, a teacher in the town, reported that he had discovered a Roman mosaic somewhere in the area known as Schwarznuecht, but he failed to leave a note of exactly where it was. Then, one hundred years after his discovery, work began on the construction of a large artificial lake in that very area. Teachers of the town‟s college, remembering their earlier colleague‟s report, decided to keep a careful eye on the excavations. Sure enough, one August evening, a certain Monsieur Calteux, looking out from his hilltop house, noticed a chalky patch standing out where the mechanical diggers had been working. He immediately alerted local archaeologists, who confirmed the likely existence of the vanished villa. Time was not on their side; the construction bosses were not willing to disrupt their tight schedule. So volunteers were summoned from across the Grand Duchy in an early example of rescue archaeology, and by the Autumn the outlines of a most imposing villa, much larger than the norm, could be shown to the press and the public. But wouldn‟t you know it – the Public Works Department had planned a 4-lane highway which would pass right through the site, and the town council was convinced that this “villa” was nothing but a pretext by the populace to keep modern infrastructure out of their historic town. After a great deal of ) argument and a ringing denunciation of the villa as “nulle, ridicule” by a town councillor, pressure from archaeologists, the press and the public finally won the day and the site was saved and properly excavated.(continued over page) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CHICHESTER AND DISTRICT ARCHAEOLOGY MEMBERSHIP RENEWAL APRIL 2007 TO MARCH 2008 Name(s)..........................................................................incl first name(s) Tel No..................................... Email.............................

Address................................................................................................................................................... I/We wish to renew/ my/our Membership of the Society for 2007/2008 I/We enclose cash/cheque for £........(Single£12/Joint £22/Student fulltime up to 23 £4.50) (Cheques payable to Chichester and District Archaeology Society) I/We are interested in taking part in the Society`s practical archaeological activities. Fieldwalking...... Excavations......Recording........Research.......Training Sessions...... (Please tick/initial) Please return this form with your payment to the Membership Secretary, CDAS: Mrs D. Wilson, 86 Fletcher`s Lane, Sidlesham, CHICHESTER PO20 7QG
NB The Society maintains a record of your name, address and subscriptions paid solely to assist in the running of the Society. This information will not be passed on to any other organisation or to any individual who is not a member of the Society and will be deleted from the records within two years of your ceasing to be a member.


Today the foundations of the luxurious villa and some of its outbuildings can be seen marked out on the ground. It had the usual shape of a central building with two wings, the facades of which were colonnaded with 48 pillars of Tuscan origin. It was luxurious – 5 baths with cold, warm and hot water as well as a steam room, fragments of 20 different sorts of marble, and hypocaust heating. There was a large basin or pool in front of the villa, and a separate swimming pool to one side. Barns, workers‟ housing and other buildings stretch away in front; they have yet to be investigated. There are no historical references to the villa, but it must have been an idyllic place to live, surrounded on three sides by rolling hills with numerous springs and watercourses. The important city of Augusta Treverorum (Trier) lay only some 20 km to the east, and it is thought that the villa may have been inhabited by a rich merchant from there. In the 5th century AD the villa was abandoned and fell into ruin. Nothing of the original remains above the ground. The site was used as a quarry by Willibrord and those who built the two succeeding basilicas. The Luxembourgers would probably have liked to reconstruct the villa as a tourist attraction, as the Germans have done successfully at Borg, just to the south. But there are no historical references to it and no-one knows what it really looked like except in plan. ----------------------------------------Photo of Dell Quay Fieldwalk: Aelia Lincoln Editor:John Boldero



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