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MYRTLE BEACH STATE PARK 4401 South Kings Highway Myrtle Beach, SC 29575 (843) 238-5325 miles north of Highway 544 on U.S. 17 Business. The park is 4.5 miles south of the intersection of Highway 501 and U.S. 17 Business. The park is located on the beachfront side of Highway 17. Facilities Myrtle Beach Myrtle Beach State Park is located in the heart of the Grand Strand. This 312- acre park is a piece of green paradise in the middle of vast development. The maritime forests of the Grand Strand have We invite you and your students to visit virtually disappeared, but the state park our park and participate in an educational protects over 100 acres of this rare and program. Located in the heart of the Grand unique forest. The park also offers 1- Strand, Myrtle Beach State Park is one of mile of undeveloped beachfront that is the most popular public beaches along characterized by beautiful sand dunes and the South Carolina coast. This 312-acre sea oats. oceanfront park plays a major role in preserving and maintaining a portion of This park offers bathroom facilities, picnic the natural heritage of South Carolina’s areas, picnic shelters, 1-mile of beachfront, coastline. This traditional state park was fishing pier, nature center, 1.5-mile nature built by the Civilian Conservation Corps trail through the maritime forest, camping, in the 1930s and has the distinction of cabins, playground equipment, and fishing being the first state park open to the public pier gift store with drinks, microwave in South Carolina. The park includes a sandwiches, and gifts. The park is open campground, cabins, nearly a mile of 7 days a week from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. beach, picnic areas, a fishing pier and During the months of December, January nature center. In addition, a nature trail and February, the park is open until 8 p.m. provides a rare opportunity to see one of the last stands of maritime forest on the Reservations and Program Information northern coast of South Carolina. Because Ann Malys Wilson, Interpretive Ranger of this distinction, the forest has been Nature Center- 843-238-0874 declared a Heritage Trust Site. Email- firstname.lastname@example.org The nature center hours are varied, so please call for current hours. The nature Location center does have an answering machine- Myrtle Beach State Park is about 2 57 please leave your name, phone number, September- November and March- May. reason of call, and the best time to be The maximum amount of students for this reached during the day. The best times program is 28 or one class. This program to call for information or to make a can accommodate two classes in one day. reservation are 7:30 a.m. to 9 a.m. and A teacher led activity is provided for the 2 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. The nature center is time frame when a class is not with the closed on Sundays and Mondays. Interpretive Ranger. The park begins booking reservations for Before the Trip to Myrtle Beach State Park the school year on the second Monday of Students should be divided into 3 groups August. that will work well together while on the beach. They will be teamed to construct a Meeting Spot house made out of assorted pieces of wood The Discover Carolina program will meet to see if their house will survive a pass by a at Shelter B1. Show park admission “hurricane.” your confirmation letter and follow the road straight until you come to a sharp T The three groups will be divided into three intersection near the fishing pier. Take a beach habitats: Upper Beach, Sand Dune, Myrtle Beach left hand turn. Shelter B1 will be the first and Primary Sand Dune. Students should shelter on the right. know the name of their group. Meeting Time What to Wear at Myrtle Beach State Park School groups should arrive at the park 15 Students should wear clothes and shoes minutes prior to the time of the program. that will get sandy from digging while on This will give groups time to gather their the beach, and be prepared to be on the items and go to the restroom. Students beach the entire time. It may be windy, should be allowed to go the restroom chilly or hot! before they meet with the interpreter and start the program. The location of the Participants need to wear shoes at all times. restroom facilities are listed on the enclosed Give all students name tags that are legible map. from 6 feet away. This will help us to interact better with your students. A piece Coastal Dynamics Program and Lesson of masking tape works well. Keep in mind, the name tags need to be durable, since Description the students will be down on the beach. Through hands on activities and visuals, We don’t want to create more litter on the students will learn how the beach beach! environment is constantly forming and changing. While on the beach, students will learn, simulate and observe the Things to Bring to Myrtle Beach State Park major processes that occur along the • Plenty of drinks- it can get quite hot on coast: erosion, deposition, wave action, the beach! rip currents, longshore currents, tides, • A garbage bag to collect waste when and storms. They will also learn how the everyone is done eating. There are natural processes of coastal ecosystems garbage dumpsters nearby; please help change as development along the coast keep our park clean when done eating. increases. We will provide either a bin or bag for recyclables only- beverage containers This 1.5-hour program is offered and any plastic 1-7. Please help keep 58 trash out! • Hand Soap Big Blue Ocean- Bill Nye (Wonderful • First Aid Kit activities about tides, salt in the oceans, currents, and much more) Driving to Myrtle Beach State Park To better prepare the students for the Make it Work! Oceans- Andrew Haslam program at Myrtle Beach State Park, and Barbara Taylor (Great ideas and teachers should have the students observe activities about currents, seawater, marine their surroundings as they are driving to the life, tides, changing sea levels, etc.) park. Whether the route takes them down Highway 501, Highway 544, or Highway Oceans for Every Kid- Janice Van Cleave 17, students should notice the roads, (More great ideas and activities about cars, restaurants, gas stations, hotels, golf currents, seawater, marine life, tides, courses, stores, and houses, etc. The changing sea levels, etc.) Grand Strand is an area experiencing rapid growth and development. As you enter Awesome Ocean Science!- Cindy A. Myrtle Beach State Park, have the students Littlefield (Even more great ideas and take note of the lack of major development. activities about currents, seawater, marine life, tides, changing sea levels, etc.) Myrtle Beach They should notice the maritime forest, birds, squirrels, sand dunes, etc. Even though the state park is small in acreage, Of Sand and Sea: Teachings from the it is still an important refuge for animals, Southeastern Shoreline- Paula Keener- plants and even humans. Students will Chavis and Leslie Reynolds Sautter learn how important habitat preservation is (Incredible reference manual to discuss as they learn about coastal habitats during many different shoreline processes) their field experience at Myrtle Beach State Park. Good Sources of Information About Our Coast: Coastal Dynamics Bibliography Living with the South Carolina Coast- Student Reading Books: Gered Lennon- (Excellent resource for photos of the South Carolina coast- both Waves and Tides- Patricia Armentrout developed and undeveloped areas) (Discusses what causes waves and tides and how they affect people and the earth) How to Read a North Carolina Beach- Tracking Trash- Flotsam, Jetsam and the Orrin H. Pilkey (Wonderful resource that Science of Ocean Motion- Loree Griffin identifies many mysteries that we see Burns (Great photos and information about everyday at the beach) currents, waves, tides and how they affect humans) Atlantic Coast Beaches- William J. Neal (Book similar to How to Read a NC Beach, Educational Books: but covers the Atlantic coast) Oceans for Everyday- Easy Activities That Web Sites: Make Learning Fun! Janice Van Cleave (Great activity ideas for students to do. Project Oceanica Topics include: waves, tides, pollution, http://oceanica.cofc.edu/ producers and consumers, currents, and Coastal geology- 10 years of beach survey various marine animals) data, aerial photos of the barrier islands of 59 SC, beach activities that focus on geology, and much more! Waves and Currents Movie http://www3.interscience.wiley.com:8100/ legacy/college/strahler/0471238007/ animations/ch19_animations/animation1. html Coastal Wave Mechanics http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/ visualization/collections/coastal_wave_ mechanics.html COSEE- Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence http://www.scseagrant.org/se-cosee/ teacher/posters.htm#wave Order free posters on waves, currents, Myrtle Beach hurricanes. Excellent web site. http://www.scseagrant.org/se-cosee/ teacher.htm Excellent teacher resource. Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/ Hurricanes/ When is low tide on a particular beach in SC? http://www.saltwatertides.com/dynamic. dir/scarolinasites.html 60 Teacher Review Y COP ! ME I, Angela Collins, have reviewed Coastal Dynamics at Myrtle Beach State Park for fifth grade and the activities are appropriate for fifth grade. Name of Reviewer: Angela Collins School Name: Myrtle Beach Intermediate School School Phone Number: 626-5831 Email: email@example.com Date program is finalized and totally complete: November 27, 2007 Myrtle Beach Standards Met: The standards indicated for each lesson and/or activity have been met. Standard 5-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of features, processes, and changes in Earth’s land and oceans. Indicators: 5-3.1 Explain how natural processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition, and floods) affect the Earth’s oceans and land in constructive and destructive ways. 5-3.4 Explain how waves, currents, tides, and storms affect the geological features of the ocean shore zone (beaches, barrier islands). 5-3.5 Compare the movement of water by waves, currents and tides. 5-3.6 Explain how human activity (including conservation efforts and pollution has affected the land and the oceans of Earth. Any additional comments: This a great program! I think the pre- and post- activities are very beneficial to the students and allow for students to be actively engaged and also address inquiry standards that are so important. The Jeopardy game was wonderful. 61 Chaperone Letter Y COP ! ME Dear Chaperone, You will be accompanying students to Myrtle Beach State Park for our Discover Carolina program called Coastal Dynamics. During this program, students will learn how the beach environment is constantly forming and changing due to wind and water. The students and the Interpretive Rangers will need your active participation during this program. While at the beach, students will learn about the various coastal habitats found at Myrtle Beach State Park, the importance of sand dunes and sea oats, longshore transport and how it transports sand (and you!) down the beach, rip currents, the Musgrove Mill effects of development and groins, and the best places and ways to build along Myrtle Beach the coast. Throughout the program, please: • Keep your students focused and on task. • Feel free to help out during the Development along the Beach Activity, but do not give the students all the correct answers! Let them come up with their own answers, or help lead them in the right direction. For this activity, the students will be divided into three groups: • Upper Beach, Sand Dune, and Primary Sand Dunes. • Be sure that all the students in your group are involved and that all ideas are being heard. • Remind students not to throw sand. • Help round up the students when the Interpretive Ranger needs them in a group. During lunch: • After the students are done eating, please help the students clean up the shelter or picnic area. Garbage dumpsters are provided. We will provide either a bin or bag for recyclables only- beverage containers, and any plastic 1-7. Please help keep trash out! During past field programs, the students who had the most active and helpful chaperones learned the most. Please do not distract from the learning process by talking with other adults. As an additional courtesy, turn off cell phones. Help make this a positive and engaging learning environment for all involved! You never know what you may learn! Keep in mind, we will be conducting all activities at the beach. Please dress according to the day’s weather- it may be chilly, hot, or windy! You will get sandy! 62 Myrtle Beach State Park Park as they do a Beach Profile activity. Content Area: They will also learn how sand moves in the ocean via the Longshore Current/Transport. Science Students will understand how the coastal environment undergoes natural and human Grade Level: caused erosion and deposition changes 5 through waves, currents, tides, storms, wind, and development. Time to Complete: Focus Questions For Students Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site 1-2 class periods • List some factors that change the beach daily and seasonally. Title of Program: • What is the importance of sand dunes? • Name some coastal habitats found at Beach Profile and Longshore Transport Myrtle Beach State Park. • What are some factors that move sand? • Name a way human development South Carolina State Standards Addressed may interfere with the natural flow of Standard 5-3: longshore current/transport? The student will demonstrate an understanding of features, Culminating Assessment processes, and changes in Earth’s • List two factors that change the beach land and oceans. daily and seasonally. Indicators: • List two reasons why sand dunes are 5-3.1 Explain how natural processes important. (including weathering, erosion, • List at least four coastal habitats found deposition and floods) affect at Myrtle Beach State Park. the Earth’s oceans and land in • List two ways sand moves. constructive and destructive ways. • Name one way human development 5-3.4 Explain how waves, currents, may interfere with the natural flow of tides, and storms affect the longshore current/transport. geological features of the ocean shore zone (beaches, barrier islands). Materials and Resources 5-3.5 Compare the movement of • Beach Profile with Velcro labels and water by waves, currents and tides. visuals 5-3.6 Explain how human activity • Procedures for Beach Profile, Seasonal (including conservation efforts and Summer/Winter Beach Profile, pollution) has affected the land and Longshore Current/Transport the oceans of Earth. • Wrack/Scarp and Groin photos Program Description Background Students will learn about the different The provided Beach Profile is indicative of coastal habitats found at Myrtle Beach State the diverse habitat zones found at Myrtle 63 Beach State Park. The coastal environment that will work well together while on the extends from the offshore sand bars to beach. They will be tasked to construct a the maritime forest. Students will become house made out of assorted pieces of wood acquainted with the different zones they to see if their house will survive a pass by will encounter during the field experience. a “hurricane.” The three groups will be These habitats are constantly altered by called: Upper Beach, Sand Dune, and wind and water. A description of each Primary Sand Dune. Students should know habitat is provided in the laminated Beach the name of their group. Profile Procedure. Have students wear name tags- this helps As the students do the Beach Profile activity, to make our teaching more effective. they will gain a better understanding of the dynamic changes that take place Students should dress for the day’s weather. at the beach every day and throughout We will be outside on the beach the entire the seasons. Sand is constantly on the time- it may be chilly, windy or hot. Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site move due to water and wind. Erosion and deposition are natural occurrences Have students wear clothes that can get in the beach environment. These daily sandy while on the beach. and seasonal changes are not normally problems until humans develop too close to You may want to bring soap so the students the shore. Coastal systems can be severely can wash their hands after the program. altered as development, such as homes and groins, along the beach continues. Bring a garbage bag to help clean up after Students will learn how development along lunch. the coast can interfere with these natural processes and can lead to problems during this pre-site activity. Procedure See included procedure sheets: • Beach Profile Procedure • Seasonal- Summer/Winter Beach Profile Photo Procedure • Wrack Line and Scarp Photo • Longshore Current/Transport Procedure • Longshore Current/Transport Photo Procedure • Groin Photo Day of the Program at Myrtle Beach State Park Please bring back all the materials in the mailing tube on the day of your program. Please attach all Velcro labels and visuals to the poster. Any unattached labels should be placed in the provided envelope. Students should be divided into 3 groups 64 Y Procedure for Beach Profile Poster and COP ! ME Seasonal Summer/Winter Beach Profile The Beach Profile will arrive with 16 Velcro labels attached. Take off all the Velcro labels. There will be three more labels in an envelope. Notice the labels are marked on the back to correspond with the correct piece of Velcro. This should help avoid any confusion. The laminated Beach Profile sheets will also help guide you. The bold type, colored words mark each different step. The COLORED WORDS that are in CAPITOL LETTERS refer to the Velcro labels and visuals that need to be attached as you do the activity. As the Velcro labels and visuals are put on by the Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site students, the teacher should ask the students what each label or visual means. The Beach Profile should be hung up on the wall by clips or tape so that all the students can see it. Prior to the activity with the students, you may want to lay out the labels on a desk in the order that the students attach them. Divide the students into 5 groups. Hand out the Laminated Summer/Winter Beach Activity, and Bag of Chips to each group. Each individual chip represents a grain of sand as it is transported by wind and water. For this activity, students will NOT be doing the activity sheet labeled Longshore Transport. 1. Wind (1)- Wind affects the entire coastal environment. It helps to move sand around, creates waves, and also affects the growth of plants. The salt spray carried by the wind affects plants by dehydrating and often killing the exposed buds and leaves. This leads to the bushy, slanting effect on plants known as salt spray pruning. Students will see this effect during their field experience at Myrtle Beach State Park. Have a student put up the WIND (1) label. Have the students put up the names of the nine different coastal zones or habitats. Velcro each name on, and use the vocabulary list to describe each habitat. Students will see all of these zones/ habitats during the program at Myrtle Beach State Park. 2. Maritime Forest (2)- A forest by the sea. This habitat is further back from the sand dunes and the trees become less affected by the salt spray. However, this forest will not be as diverse as a forest further inland that feels no effects from salt spray. Myrtle Beach State Park has one of the few remaining maritime forests left in the Grand Strand. Once the bus drives into the park, the students will be in a maritime forest. Have a student put up the MARITIME FOREST (2) label. 3. Shrub Forest (3)- Sand dunes, to some degree, block some of the wind and salt spray and enables shrubby plants to grow behind the dunes. Some of these plants 65 may also grow in the maritime forest, but they will not grow as tall or healthy in this harsh, salty environment. Have a student put up the SHRUB FOREST (3) label. 4. Maritime Grassland(4)- The area of land directly behind the sand dunes is less impacted by salt spray and storm overwash than the sand dunes. Grasses, flowers and small shrubs can withstand the harsh elements, but their growth will be stunted by the salt spray that does reach their leaves. Plants that inhabit this area may include: seaside pennywort, yucca, gaillardia, camphorweed and sea oats. One way these plants survive is to have thick, waxy, and small leaves that help to reduce salt intake and water loss. This habitat is quite rare in Horry County due to development. Have a student put up the MARITIME GRASSLAND (4) label. 5. Secondary Dune (5)- A second row of sand dunes behind the first row of sand dunes (primary sand dunes). Secondary dunes tend to have more diverse types of plants than the primary dunes and do not erode as readily. Myrtle Beach State Park has secondary Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site sand dunes that were created after Hurricane Hugo in 1989. Have a student put up the SECONDARY DUNE (5) label. 6. Primary Dune (6)- A hill of sand that protects the area from storm surges and high tides. Primary dunes are constantly eroding and accreting. Sand dunes are held in place primarily by the roots of sea oats. Sea turtles need primary dunes for successful nesting. Sand dunes can not handle the constant impact of foot traffic, so people need to always use the boardwalks to reach the beach. Have a student put up the PRIMARY DUNE (6) label. 7. Upper Beach (7)- The area of dry sand between the intertidal beach and primary dunes. This area is often eroded during storms or major high tides. Some plants are adapted to quickly grow in this area. Ghost crabs and an array of insects may inhabit this area. Have a student put up the UPPER BEACH (7) label. 8. Wrack Line (8)- This is the line left along the high tide mark. It often consists of dead salt marsh grass, insects, and other microorganisms. This area, often times, provides the best beachcombing. The debris in the wrack line can trap wind blown sand and seeds. Over time, a wrack line, if left undisturbed, can develop into primary sand dunes. Have a student put up the WRACK LINE (8) label, and the WRACK LINE VISUAL (W). Show the students the provided laminated picture of the wrack line. 9. Intertidal Beach (9)- The portion of beach that is covered during high tide and exposed during low tide. Many types of invertebrate marine animals may live here. Have a student put up the INTERTIDAL BEACH (9) label. 10. Offshore Sandbar (10)- Offshore sandbars occur year round, depending on wave energy and currents. We are focusing on seasonal sandbar changes for this activity. Have a student put up the OFFSHORE SANDBAR (10) label. 11. High and Low Tides (T)- Tides are created by the gravitational force of the moon and sun. In South Carolina, we have two high and two low tides each day. Have a student put up the HIGH TIDE (T) label, and the HIGH TIDE VISUAL (H). Notice how much beach is covered. Take off the HIGH TIDE (T) label, and the HIGH TIDE VISUAL (H). Now, have a 66 student put up the LOW TIDE (T) label. Notice how much beach is exposed at low tide. As stated earlier, when it blows, wind can move lots of sand, but water is constantly moving sand. **To help understand this seasonal movement of sand better, have the students do the Seasonal Summer/Winter Beach Profile activity and follow the photo directions. As students do numbers 12 and 14, they can do their own “seasonal sand movement” with the chips. Each individual chip represents a grain of sand as it is transported by wind and water. 12. Have a student put up the WINTER (S) (for seasonal) and LOW TIDE (T) labels. Put on the PRIMARY SAND DUNE VISUAL (D). This visual shows a Primary Sand Dune that has not been eroded. During the winter, strong winds and storms, especially northeasterners, tend to erode the beaches. This natural occurrence does create erosion along the beaches and sand dunes. **Take off the PRIMARY SAND DUNE VISUAL (D). Notice how the Primary Sand Dune looks to be cut in half. A single northeast storm can move as much sand in a Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site few hours as it takes normal speed winds and waves to do all year. As the waves surge up the beach, they can flatten the beach out and tear up the Primary Sand Dunes or the Upper Beach. These larger waves and stronger winds carve sand away and create a steep slope on the beach. Beach walkers may notice a small cliff or “scarp” in the Upper Beach section and a narrower beach. Ask the students if they have ever walked the beach during the winter and noticed a drop off along the beach. Show the students the provided laminated picture of the wrack line and scarp. This sand can be washed back into the ocean where it travels just offshore to begin buildup of an Offshore Sand Bar. Have a student put up the WINTER OFFSHORE SAND BAR VISUAL (B). At low tide, you may see the actual sandbars, or where the waves are breaking over the sandbars. 13. Have a student put up the WINTER (S) and HIGH TIDE (T) labels. Northeast storms can create even more damage if they occur at high tide. Have a student put on the HIGH TIDE VISUAL (H). 14. Have a student put up the SUMMER (S) and HIGH TIDE (T) labels. Have a student put up the PRIMARY SAND DUNE VISUAL (D). During the summer, there are normally mild, southerly winds that allow the Upper Beaches and Primary Sand Dunes to build back up. The accreted sand from the winter that occurred on the sand bar will gradually flow back up to the Upper Beach and Primary Sand Dune. This tends to create a wider beach. **Have a student take off the WINTER OFFSHORE SAND BAR VISUAL (B) and put up the SUMMER OFFSHORE SAND BAR VISUAL (B) to show the movement of sand and how the offshore sand bar is decreasing in size. 15. Have a student put up the SUMMER (S) and LOW TIDE (T) labels. Have a student take off the HIGH TIDE VISUAL (H) to show how much beach is exposed a low tide. The coastal environment is a very dynamic place every day of the year. Erosion and deposition are natural occurrences that are supposed to happen. The coastal environment is designed to withstand change. The processes described here make the beach look different every season of the year. During the program at Myrtle Beach State Park, students, through hands-on activities, will gain a better understanding how these processes work and how development along the 67 coast can disrupt these processes. Cleaning Up: Put all 16 Velcro labels back on the Beach Profile activity, just like when you received it. Put the 3 extra Velcro labels back in the envelope. Put the laminated directions and photos back in the envelope. Take off any tape, etc. that you attached to hang the Beach Profile. Remember, other teachers will be using the activity after you! The chips should be put back in the Ziploc bags and the bags should be securely sealed. Roll the Beach Profile up and put it in the mailing tube in which it came. Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site 68 Y Procedure for Longshore Current COP ! ME or Transport Divide the class into five groups- each group will get the following: • Longshore Current/Transport Posterboard • 1 Groin (Rectangular Pieces of Laminated Black and White Construction Paper) • Ziploc Bag of Chips • Teachers- Use the photo instructions to help explain this activity to students This activity will introduce you and your students to Longshore Current/Transport on a beach and the effects that people have when the beach is developed and the Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site longshore transport is interrupted. This concept will be explored in further detail during the field experience, but this will help students to gain a little familiarity before they come to the state park. The Longshore Current or Transport (flow of sand along the beach due to currents and waves) is caused by waves that arrive at an angle to the shore. Because the waves hit the shore at an angle, they move up and along the shore, carrying sand with them. This helps to transport huge amounts of sand along the coast. It generally moves from north to south, although it can change directions! Think about when you walk into the ocean and go swimming. Often times, when you come out, you are pretty far from your original start or your beach towel. Sand is always moving like a big river and this changes the shape, profile, and width of our beaches. Sprinkle the chips over the brown beach to represent individual grains of sand on the beach. Remember that real beaches are never flat, so it is OK if your grains of sand (chips) pile over each other. Students’ hands will act as waves of water going north to south, down the beach. Remind the students to move only a few grains of sand (chips) at a time. These waves push the sand onto and away from the beach at an angle, normally in a southern direction. On an actual beach, new sand is being added from the north while the sand from our beach would continue south. For this demonstration, students will move the sand back to the beginning at point A when their wave moves the sand, or chips, off the end of the beach, or poster board, at point D. A natural beach has a constant flow of the sand. The sand can move freely from point A, past points B and C, and onto point D. The natural movement of sand over time tends to get interrupted once a beach becomes developed. When this happens, erosion may occur at a faster rate and create a problem for the homes and hotels that occur along the beach front. To counteract against erosion, people have built groins and other features which interrupt this river of sand. Groins are projections that jut out at right angles to the beach. Their purpose is to block the longshore current/transport of sand. Keep in mind, a jetty helps to keep a channel of water open for navigation- they have a different purpose than a groin. Groins may help build up sand on the updrift side 69 of the groin, but the beaches on the downdrift side erode or “starve” from lack of sand. Also, since the longshore current/transport tends to hook around the groin, this also tends to accelerate the erosion rate. Some groins may be 6 feet tall, 400 feet long and 10 to 30 feet wide. Depending on the beach and when they were built, groins are built of rocks, wood or metal. Add the groin between points B and C, perpendicular to the beach. This groin will interrupt that continuous flow of sand. Begin moving the sand again from point A to point D. How does the groin affect the flow of sand? The sand can still move from point A to point B and from point C to point D, but the groin stops the B to C sand flow. What begins to happen on the northern side of the groin where the sand meets the groin? The sand builds up! What happens on the southern side of the groin? The sand begins to erode away because the groin has essentially blocked the flow of sand from the north. Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site When this happens, coastal residents and officials in the past have added another groin below the erosion point to help build the sand back up. This may help to solve the erosion problem in that immediate area, but it tends to cause an erosion problem further down the beach. Another groin is added and the problem persists and the erosion cycle continues. This cycle will be explored further during the program at Myrtle Beach State Park. Cleaning Up: • Put all the chips back in their individual Ziploc bags and securely seal them. • All the chip bags should be put back in the larger Ziploc bag. • Put the groins back in the white envelope with the Velcro labels. • Put the directions back in the large folder. • Put all materials back in the mailing tube and secure the lid of the tube. The River of Sand – Optional Class Activity: Line everyone in a straight, single-file line. Each person in the line is now a grain of sand on the beach. Longshore transport begins moving the grains of sand down a beach, so everyone in the line start taking tiny baby steps to their right. A groin is added on the beach between two grains of sand. Use a chair or length of rope between two students to represent this groin. This stops part of the line behind the groin from moving any more, but the grains of sand beyond the groin can still travel. Even though a groin has been added, longshore transport is still moving sand. Continue taking small steps to the right. What starts to happen to the groin as everyone keeps moving to the right? What happens beyond the groin where the sand can still be transported? 70 71 Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site Y COP ! ME 72 Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site ME COP ! Y 73 Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site Y COP ! ME 74 Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site 75 Y COP ! ME 76 Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site Myrtle Beach State Park: On-Site (Ranger Led) students will learn how the beach Content Area: environment is constantly forming and changing. While on the beach, students Science will learn, simulate and observe the major processes that occur along the Grade Level: coast: erosion, deposition, wave action, 5 rip currents, longshore currents, tides, and storms. They will also learn how the natural processes of coastal ecosystems Time to Complete: change as development along the coast Myrtle Beach: On-Site 1.5 hours increases. This 1.5-hour program is offered Title of Program: September- November and March- April. Coastal Dynamics The maximum amount of students for this program is 28 or one class. This program can accommodate two classes in one day. A teacher led activity is provided for the South Carolina State Standards Addressed time frame when a class is not with the Standard 5-3: Interpretive Ranger. The student will demonstrate an understanding of features, processes, and changes in Earth’s Focus Questions For Students land and oceans. • List some factors that change the beach Indicators: every day. 5-3.1 Explain how natural processes • What causes tides? (including weathering, erosion, • What is the importance of sand dunes? deposition and floods) affect • Name ways humans have impacted the the Earth’s oceans and land in South Carolina coastline. constructive and destructive ways. • Name some coastal habitats found at 5-3.4 Explain how waves, currents, Myrtle Beach State Park. tides, and storms affect the • Name some differences between rip geological features of the ocean currents and longshore currents. shore zone (beaches, barrier islands). Culminating Assessment 5-3.5 Compare the movement of • List two factors that change the beach water by waves, currents and tides. every day. 5-3.6 Explain how human activity • List the two main forces that cause tides. (including conservation efforts and • List three reasons why sand dunes are pollution) has affected the land and important. the oceans of Earth. • List three ways human activity affects the beach and dune habitats. • List four coastal habitats found at Myrtle Program Description Beach State Park. Through hands-on activities and visuals, 77 • Name two differences between rip their area of beachfront. Students should currents and longshore currents. be divided into 3 groups before they arrive Materials and Resources at the park: Upper Beach, Sand Dune, and • Lincoln Log House on Stilts Primary Sand Dune. Students should know • 5 Groins the name of their group. • Various Beach Photos • Sheets • Hose • Buckets of Water • Various Pieces of Wood Teacher Preparation Read the lesson and activities completely and contact Myrtle Beach State Park with any concerns or modifications. Implement Myrtle Beach: On-Site pre-site activities before the scheduled program. Please plan adequate classroom time for post-site activities in order to help reinforce the topics discussed during the program at Myrtle Beach State Park. Procedures Coastal Habitats at Myrtle Beach State Park Students will learn about the different coastal habitats found at Myrtle Beach State Park and how they are affected by wind and water from the ocean. Importance of Sand Dunes Students will learn how important sand dunes are and how erosion and deposition occur everyday through wind and water. Longshore Transport and Rip Currents Students will learn how Longshore Transport (River of Sand) moves sand along our beaches and how development and groins affect the flow. They will also learn how to avoid the dangers of rip currents and how they are formed. Development Along the Beach Students will “build” their house on some “beachfront property” and learn how their architecture and piece of property fares when a hurricane (buckets of water!) hits 78 Myrtle Beach State Park: On-Site (Teacher Led) pollution) has affected the land and Content Area: the oceans of Earth. Science Program Description Students will learn about the many habitats Grade Level: at Myrtle Beach State Park with the use 5 of a teacher led scavenger hunt. The scavenger hunt will teach them about the Time to Complete: upper beach, the intertidal zone, primary and secondary sand dunes, swashes, 1 hour Myrtle Beach: On-Site maritime forest, maritime grassland, and the ocean. Most importantly students will Title of Program: learn how to read a beach from what the Scavenger Hunt tides are doing, how the waves and wind are affecting the beach, where potential rip currents are located, what the sand is comprised of, etc. It is important to know This activity is to be completed while the how to read a beach when you go for both other group is with the interpretive ranger. safety and for fun- you do not want your This activity is OPTIONAL! It is up to you if beach towels and shoes to be taken away you wish to do the activity. with the tide! South Carolina State Standards Addressed Materials Standard 5-3: Materials will be given to you on the day of The student will demonstrate your field program. an understanding of features, • One scavenger hunt processes, and changes in Earth’s • Two sets of labeled photos land and oceans. • One stop watch Indicators: • One bag of Magnolia leaves 5-3.1 Explain how natural processes • Quartz (including weathering, erosion, • One magnifying box deposition and floods) affect • One tide table the Earth’s oceans and land in • One trash bag constructive and destructive ways. 5-3.4 Explain how waves, currents, tides, and storms affect the Procedures See the Coastal Dynamic Scavenger hunt geological features of the ocean sheets and follow the steps. You can skip shore zone (beaches, barrier steps if you are crunched for time. islands). 5-3.5 Compare the movement of water by waves, currents and tides. 5-3.6 Explain how human activity (including conservation efforts and 79 Myrtle Beach State Park: Post-Site learned during the Coastal Dynamics Content Area: program at Myrtle Beach State Park with the use of a power point jeopardy game. Science Coastal Jeopardy reiterates many important points on the processes that make our coast Grade Level: what it is today. The categories include 5 topics on waves, currents, tides, storms, Myrtle Beach State Park habitats, and human impacts. Time to Complete: Myrtle Beach: Post-Site 1 class period Materials Provided • DVD- Coastal Jeopardy plus Title of Program: instructions- you do not need to return the DVD. Coastal Jeopardy Materials Needed to be Provided by School • Computer South Carolina State Standards Addressed • LCD projector Standard 5-3: • Dry erase board or chalk board- if you The student will demonstrate want to keep score an understanding of features, processes, and changes in Earth’s land and oceans. Procedures Indicators: See Coastal Jeopardy Instructions. 5-3.1 Explain how natural processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition and floods) affect the Earth’s oceans and land in constructive and destructive ways. 5-3.4 Explain how waves, currents, tides, and storms affect the geological features of the ocean shore zone (beaches, barrier islands). 5-3.5 Compare the movement of water by waves, currents and tides. 5-3.6 Explain how human activity (including conservation efforts and pollution) has affected the land and the oceans of Earth. Program Description Students will be quizzed on what they 80 Y Coastal Jeopardy Game COP ! ME Open the Coastal Jeopardy power point file located on the provided DVD. Start the power point slide show. Announce the categories to your class: “Myrtle Beach State Park Habitats”- All topics relating to the different habitats found at Myrtle Beach State Park. “Tides”- All topics relate to tidal action and how tides are formed. “Waves and Currents”- This is a general category dealing with the waves and currents in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. “Human Activity”- All topics in this category deal with the impacts of humans on the Myrtle Beach: Post-Site South Carolina coastline. “Storms”- This category is about storms and the effects along the coast. The class should be divided into two teams. Choose one student from each team to be the captain. The team captain will listen to their teammates and announce the team’s final answer out loud. Only take answers from the captain! Team captains can change throughout the game in order to give everyone an opportunity to talk and give answers. Choose one student to be the score keeper, if keeping score is desired. Have one student from the first team choose a topic and a point value. Allow a different student to choose the next question each turn. Click on the yellow numbers to get to the question. You must click the number, not just the box the number is in. This is so the yellow changes to black once that question is completed. Hit the enter key once to get from the question page to the answer page. Click on the picture of the house at the bottom/right corner of the answer page to get back to the jeopardy game board. Do not click enter on the answer page; it will automatically go to the next question without turning the numbers black! If the first team gets the answer wrong, the second team gets a chance to answer that same question. If the second team gets the answer right, they get the points, and it is now their turn to pick the next question. If the second team gets it wrong then neither team gets the points, however, it is still the second team’s turn to pick the next question. Continue to go back and forth between teams until all questions are answered. Feel free to expand on the questions and have class discussions. There is no final jeopardy in this game, no buzz in, no answering in the form of a question, and no negative points for the wrong answer. The team with the highest amount of points at the end of the game is the most knowledgeable about Coastal Dynamics! 81
"MYRTLE BEACH - Discover Carolina"