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MYRTLE BEACH - Discover Carolina

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					                   MYRTLE BEACH
                                       STATE PARK

                              4401 South Kings Highway
                               Myrtle Beach, SC 29575
                                   (843) 238-5325
                                                miles north of Highway 544 on U.S. 17
                                                Business. The park is 4.5 miles south of
                                                the intersection of Highway 501 and U.S.
                                                17 Business. The park is located on the
                                                beachfront side of Highway 17.


                                                Facilities




                                                                                                Myrtle Beach
                                                Myrtle Beach State Park is located in the
                                                heart of the Grand Strand. This 312-
                                                acre park is a piece of green paradise
                                                in the middle of vast development. The
                                                maritime forests of the Grand Strand have
We invite you and your students to visit        virtually disappeared, but the state park
our park and participate in an educational      protects over 100 acres of this rare and
program. Located in the heart of the Grand      unique forest. The park also offers 1-
Strand, Myrtle Beach State Park is one of       mile of undeveloped beachfront that is
the most popular public beaches along           characterized by beautiful sand dunes and
the South Carolina coast. This 312-acre         sea oats.
oceanfront park plays a major role in
preserving and maintaining a portion of         This park offers bathroom facilities, picnic
the natural heritage of South Carolina’s        areas, picnic shelters, 1-mile of beachfront,
coastline. This traditional state park was      fishing pier, nature center, 1.5-mile nature
built by the Civilian Conservation Corps        trail through the maritime forest, camping,
in the 1930s and has the distinction of         cabins, playground equipment, and fishing
being the first state park open to the public   pier gift store with drinks, microwave
in South Carolina. The park includes a          sandwiches, and gifts. The park is open
campground, cabins, nearly a mile of            7 days a week from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m.
beach, picnic areas, a fishing pier and         During the months of December, January
nature center. In addition, a nature trail      and February, the park is open until 8 p.m.
provides a rare opportunity to see one of
the last stands of maritime forest on the       Reservations and Program Information
northern coast of South Carolina. Because       Ann Malys Wilson, Interpretive Ranger
of this distinction, the forest has been        Nature Center- 843-238-0874
declared a Heritage Trust Site.                 Email- awilson@scprt.com
                                                The nature center hours are varied, so
                                                please call for current hours. The nature
Location
                                                center does have an answering machine-
Myrtle Beach State Park is about 2
                                                                                                        57
               please leave your name, phone number,            September- November and March- May.
               reason of call, and the best time to be          The maximum amount of students for this
               reached during the day. The best times           program is 28 or one class. This program
               to call for information or to make a             can accommodate two classes in one day.
               reservation are 7:30 a.m. to 9 a.m. and          A teacher led activity is provided for the
               2 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. The nature center is         time frame when a class is not with the
               closed on Sundays and Mondays.                   Interpretive Ranger.

               The park begins booking reservations for         Before the Trip to Myrtle Beach State Park
               the school year on the second Monday of          Students should be divided into 3 groups
               August.                                          that will work well together while on the
                                                                beach. They will be teamed to construct a
               Meeting Spot                                     house made out of assorted pieces of wood
               The Discover Carolina program will meet          to see if their house will survive a pass by a
               at Shelter B1. Show park admission               “hurricane.”
               your confirmation letter and follow the
               road straight until you come to a sharp T        The three groups will be divided into three
               intersection near the fishing pier. Take a       beach habitats: Upper Beach, Sand Dune,
Myrtle Beach




               left hand turn. Shelter B1 will be the first     and Primary Sand Dune. Students should
               shelter on the right.                            know the name of their group.

               Meeting Time                                     What to Wear at Myrtle Beach State Park
               School groups should arrive at the park 15       Students should wear clothes and shoes
               minutes prior to the time of the program.        that will get sandy from digging while on
               This will give groups time to gather their       the beach, and be prepared to be on the
               items and go to the restroom. Students           beach the entire time. It may be windy,
               should be allowed to go the restroom             chilly or hot!
               before they meet with the interpreter and
               start the program. The location of the           Participants need to wear shoes at all times.
               restroom facilities are listed on the enclosed   Give all students name tags that are legible
               map.                                             from 6 feet away. This will help us to
                                                                interact better with your students. A piece
               Coastal Dynamics Program and Lesson              of masking tape works well. Keep in mind,
                                                                the name tags need to be durable, since
               Description                                      the students will be down on the beach.
               Through hands on activities and visuals,
                                                                We don’t want to create more litter on the
               students will learn how the beach
                                                                beach!
               environment is constantly forming and
               changing. While on the beach, students
               will learn, simulate and observe the             Things to Bring to Myrtle Beach State Park
               major processes that occur along the             • Plenty of drinks- it can get quite hot on
               coast: erosion, deposition, wave action,           the beach!
               rip currents, longshore currents, tides,         • A garbage bag to collect waste when
               and storms. They will also learn how the           everyone is done eating. There are
               natural processes of coastal ecosystems            garbage dumpsters nearby; please help
               change as development along the coast              keep our park clean when done eating.
               increases.                                         We will provide either a bin or bag for
                                                                  recyclables only- beverage containers
               This 1.5-hour program is offered                   and any plastic 1-7. Please help keep
58
  trash out!
• Hand Soap                                     Big Blue Ocean- Bill Nye (Wonderful
• First Aid Kit                                 activities about tides, salt in the oceans,
                                                currents, and much more)
Driving to Myrtle Beach State Park
To better prepare the students for the          Make it Work! Oceans- Andrew Haslam
program at Myrtle Beach State Park,             and Barbara Taylor (Great ideas and
teachers should have the students observe       activities about currents, seawater, marine
their surroundings as they are driving to the   life, tides, changing sea levels, etc.)
park. Whether the route takes them down
Highway 501, Highway 544, or Highway            Oceans for Every Kid- Janice Van Cleave
17, students should notice the roads,           (More great ideas and activities about
cars, restaurants, gas stations, hotels, golf   currents, seawater, marine life, tides,
courses, stores, and houses, etc. The           changing sea levels, etc.)
Grand Strand is an area experiencing rapid
growth and development. As you enter            Awesome Ocean Science!- Cindy A.
Myrtle Beach State Park, have the students      Littlefield (Even more great ideas and
take note of the lack of major development.     activities about currents, seawater, marine
                                                life, tides, changing sea levels, etc.)




                                                                                                Myrtle Beach
They should notice the maritime forest,
birds, squirrels, sand dunes, etc. Even
though the state park is small in acreage,      Of Sand and Sea: Teachings from the
it is still an important refuge for animals,    Southeastern Shoreline- Paula Keener-
plants and even humans. Students will           Chavis and Leslie Reynolds Sautter
learn how important habitat preservation is     (Incredible reference manual to discuss
as they learn about coastal habitats during     many different shoreline processes)
their field experience at Myrtle Beach State
Park.                                           Good Sources of Information About Our
                                                Coast:
Coastal Dynamics Bibliography                   Living with the South Carolina Coast-
Student Reading Books:
                                                Gered Lennon- (Excellent resource for
                                                photos of the South Carolina coast- both
Waves and Tides- Patricia Armentrout
                                                developed and undeveloped areas)
(Discusses what causes waves and tides
and how they affect people and the earth)
                                                How to Read a North Carolina Beach-
Tracking Trash- Flotsam, Jetsam and the
                                                Orrin H. Pilkey (Wonderful resource that
Science of Ocean Motion- Loree Griffin
                                                identifies many mysteries that we see
Burns (Great photos and information about
                                                everyday at the beach)
currents, waves, tides and how they affect
humans)
                                                Atlantic Coast Beaches- William J. Neal
                                                (Book similar to How to Read a NC Beach,
Educational Books:
                                                but covers the Atlantic coast)
Oceans for Everyday- Easy Activities That
                                                Web Sites:
Make Learning Fun! Janice Van Cleave
(Great activity ideas for students to do.
                                                Project Oceanica
Topics include: waves, tides, pollution,
                                                http://oceanica.cofc.edu/
producers and consumers, currents, and
                                                Coastal geology- 10 years of beach survey
various marine animals)
                                                data, aerial photos of the barrier islands of
                                                                                                        59
               SC, beach activities that focus on geology,
               and much more!

               Waves and Currents Movie
               http://www3.interscience.wiley.com:8100/
               legacy/college/strahler/0471238007/
               animations/ch19_animations/animation1.
               html

               Coastal Wave Mechanics
                http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/
               visualization/collections/coastal_wave_
               mechanics.html

               COSEE- Centers for Ocean Science
               Education Excellence
               http://www.scseagrant.org/se-cosee/
               teacher/posters.htm#wave
               Order free posters on waves, currents,
Myrtle Beach




               hurricanes. Excellent web site.
               http://www.scseagrant.org/se-cosee/
               teacher.htm
               Excellent teacher resource.

               Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth
               http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/
               Hurricanes/

               When is low tide on a particular beach in
               SC?
               http://www.saltwatertides.com/dynamic.
               dir/scarolinasites.html




60
Teacher Review                                                              Y
                                                                         COP !
                                                                          ME

I, Angela Collins, have reviewed Coastal Dynamics at Myrtle Beach State Park
for fifth grade and the activities are appropriate for fifth grade.

Name of Reviewer: Angela Collins

School Name: Myrtle Beach Intermediate School

School Phone Number: 626-5831

Email: acollins001@horrycountyschools.net

Date program is finalized and totally complete: November 27, 2007




                                                                                   Myrtle Beach
Standards Met:
The standards indicated for each lesson and/or activity have been met.

   Standard 5-3:
      The student will demonstrate an understanding of features, processes,
      and changes in Earth’s land and oceans.

   Indicators:
      5-3.1 Explain how natural processes (including weathering, erosion,
      deposition, and floods) affect the Earth’s oceans and land in constructive
      and destructive ways.
      5-3.4 Explain how waves, currents, tides, and storms affect the geological
      features of the ocean shore zone (beaches, barrier islands).
      5-3.5 Compare the movement of water by waves, currents and tides.
      5-3.6 Explain how human activity (including conservation efforts and
      pollution has affected the land and the oceans of Earth.


Any additional comments:
This a great program! I think the pre- and post- activities are very beneficial
to the students and allow for students to be actively engaged and also address
inquiry standards that are so important. The Jeopardy game was wonderful.




                                                                                           61
               Chaperone Letter                                                              Y
                                                                                          COP !
                                                                                           ME
               Dear Chaperone,

               You will be accompanying students to Myrtle Beach State Park for our Discover
               Carolina program called Coastal Dynamics.

               During this program, students will learn how the beach environment is constantly
               forming and changing due to wind and water. The students and the Interpretive
               Rangers will need your active participation during this program.

               While at the beach, students will learn about the various coastal habitats found at
               Myrtle Beach State Park, the importance of sand dunes and sea oats, longshore
               transport and how it transports sand (and you!) down the beach, rip currents, the




                                                                                                       Musgrove Mill
               effects of development and groins, and the best places and ways to build along
Myrtle Beach




               the coast.

               Throughout the program, please:
               • Keep your students focused and on task.
               • Feel free to help out during the Development along the Beach Activity, but do
                  not give the students all the correct answers! Let them come up with their own
                  answers, or help lead them in the right direction. For this activity, the students
                  will be divided into three groups:
               • Upper Beach, Sand Dune, and Primary Sand Dunes.
               • Be sure that all the students in your group are involved and that all ideas are
                  being heard.
               • Remind students not to throw sand.
               • Help round up the students when the Interpretive Ranger needs them in a
                  group.
               During lunch:
               • After the students are done eating, please help the students clean up the
                  shelter or picnic area. Garbage dumpsters are provided. We will provide
                  either a bin or bag for recyclables only- beverage containers, and any plastic
                  1-7. Please help keep trash out!

               During past field programs, the students who had the most active and helpful
               chaperones learned the most. Please do not distract from the learning process
               by talking with other adults. As an additional courtesy, turn off cell phones. Help
               make this a positive and engaging learning environment for all involved! You
               never know what you may learn!

               Keep in mind, we will be conducting all activities at the beach. Please dress
               according to the day’s weather- it may be chilly, hot, or windy! You will get
               sandy!

62
Myrtle Beach State Park

                                               Park as they do a Beach Profile activity.
              Content Area:                    They will also learn how sand moves in the
                                               ocean via the Longshore Current/Transport.
                Science                        Students will understand how the coastal
                                               environment undergoes natural and human
               Grade Level:                    caused erosion and deposition changes
                    5                          through waves, currents, tides, storms,
                                               wind, and development.

            Time to Complete:                  Focus Questions For Students




                                                                                             Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site
             1-2 class periods                 • List some factors that change the beach
                                                 daily and seasonally.
            Title of Program:                  • What is the importance of sand dunes?
                                               • Name some coastal habitats found at
  Beach Profile and Longshore Transport          Myrtle Beach State Park.
                                               • What are some factors that move sand?
                                               • Name a way human development
South Carolina State Standards Addressed         may interfere with the natural flow of
   Standard 5-3:                                 longshore current/transport?
      The student will demonstrate
      an understanding of features,            Culminating Assessment
      processes, and changes in Earth’s        • List two factors that change the beach
      land and oceans.                           daily and seasonally.
   Indicators:                                 • List two reasons why sand dunes are
      5-3.1 Explain how natural processes        important.
      (including weathering, erosion,          • List at least four coastal habitats found
      deposition and floods) affect              at Myrtle Beach State Park.
      the Earth’s oceans and land in           • List two ways sand moves.
      constructive and destructive ways.       • Name one way human development
       5-3.4 Explain how waves, currents,        may interfere with the natural flow of
      tides, and storms affect the               longshore current/transport.
      geological features of the ocean
      shore zone (beaches, barrier
      islands).                                Materials and Resources
      5-3.5 Compare the movement of            • Beach Profile with Velcro labels and
      water by waves, currents and tides.        visuals
      5-3.6 Explain how human activity         • Procedures for Beach Profile, Seasonal
      (including conservation efforts and        Summer/Winter Beach Profile,
      pollution) has affected the land and       Longshore Current/Transport
      the oceans of Earth.                     • Wrack/Scarp and Groin photos


Program Description                            Background
Students will learn about the different        The provided Beach Profile is indicative of
coastal habitats found at Myrtle Beach State   the diverse habitat zones found at Myrtle
                                                                                                             63
                         Beach State Park. The coastal environment        that will work well together while on the
                         extends from the offshore sand bars to           beach. They will be tasked to construct a
                         the maritime forest. Students will become        house made out of assorted pieces of wood
                         acquainted with the different zones they         to see if their house will survive a pass by
                         will encounter during the field experience.      a “hurricane.” The three groups will be
                         These habitats are constantly altered by         called: Upper Beach, Sand Dune, and
                         wind and water. A description of each            Primary Sand Dune. Students should know
                         habitat is provided in the laminated Beach       the name of their group.
                         Profile Procedure.
                                                                          Have students wear name tags- this helps
                         As the students do the Beach Profile activity,   to make our teaching more effective.
                         they will gain a better understanding of
                         the dynamic changes that take place              Students should dress for the day’s weather.
                         at the beach every day and throughout            We will be outside on the beach the entire
                         the seasons. Sand is constantly on the           time- it may be chilly, windy or hot.
Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site




                         move due to water and wind. Erosion
                         and deposition are natural occurrences           Have students wear clothes that can get
                         in the beach environment. These daily            sandy while on the beach.
                         and seasonal changes are not normally
                         problems until humans develop too close to       You may want to bring soap so the students
                         the shore. Coastal systems can be severely       can wash their hands after the program.
                         altered as development, such as homes
                         and groins, along the beach continues.           Bring a garbage bag to help clean up after
                         Students will learn how development along        lunch.
                         the coast can interfere with these natural
                         processes and can lead to problems during
                         this pre-site activity.

                         Procedure
                         See included procedure sheets:
                         • Beach Profile Procedure
                         • Seasonal- Summer/Winter Beach Profile
                            Photo Procedure
                         • Wrack Line and Scarp Photo
                         • Longshore Current/Transport Procedure
                         • Longshore Current/Transport Photo
                            Procedure
                         • Groin Photo

                         Day of the Program at Myrtle Beach State
                         Park
                         Please bring back all the materials in the
                         mailing tube on the day of your program.
                         Please attach all Velcro labels and visuals
                         to the poster. Any unattached labels should
                         be placed in the provided envelope.

                         Students should be divided into 3 groups
64
                                                                                  Y
Procedure for Beach Profile Poster and                                         COP !
                                                                                ME
Seasonal Summer/Winter Beach Profile
The Beach Profile will arrive with 16 Velcro labels attached. Take off all the Velcro
labels. There will be three more labels in an envelope. Notice the labels are marked
on the back to correspond with the correct piece of Velcro. This should help avoid
any confusion. The laminated Beach Profile sheets will also help guide you.

The bold type, colored words mark each different step. The COLORED WORDS
that are in CAPITOL LETTERS refer to the Velcro labels and visuals that need to be
attached as you do the activity. As the Velcro labels and visuals are put on by the




                                                                                           Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site
students, the teacher should ask the students what each label or visual means. The
Beach Profile should be hung up on the wall by clips or tape so that all the students
can see it.

Prior to the activity with the students, you may want to lay out the labels on a desk in
the order that the students attach them.

Divide the students into 5 groups. Hand out the Laminated Summer/Winter Beach
Activity, and Bag of Chips to each group. Each individual chip represents a grain of
sand as it is transported by wind and water.

For this activity, students will NOT be doing the activity sheet labeled Longshore
Transport.

1. Wind (1)- Wind affects the entire coastal environment. It helps to move sand
around, creates waves, and also affects the growth of plants. The salt spray carried
by the wind affects plants by dehydrating and often killing the exposed buds and
leaves. This leads to the bushy, slanting effect on plants known as salt spray pruning.
Students will see this effect during their field experience at Myrtle Beach State Park.
Have a student put up the WIND (1) label.

Have the students put up the names of the nine different coastal zones or habitats.
Velcro each name on, and use the vocabulary list to describe each habitat. Students
will see all of these zones/ habitats during the program at Myrtle Beach State Park.

2. Maritime Forest (2)- A forest by the sea. This habitat is further back from the sand
dunes and the trees become less affected by the salt spray. However, this forest
will not be as diverse as a forest further inland that feels no effects from salt spray.
Myrtle Beach State Park has one of the few remaining maritime forests left in the
Grand Strand. Once the bus drives into the park, the students will be in a maritime
forest. Have a student put up the MARITIME FOREST (2) label.

3. Shrub Forest (3)- Sand dunes, to some degree, block some of the wind and salt
spray and enables shrubby plants to grow behind the dunes. Some of these plants
                                                                                                          65
                         may also grow in the maritime forest, but they will not grow as tall or healthy in this harsh,
                         salty environment. Have a student put up the SHRUB FOREST (3) label.

                         4. Maritime Grassland(4)- The area of land directly behind the sand dunes is less impacted
                         by salt spray and storm overwash than the sand dunes. Grasses, flowers and small
                         shrubs can withstand the harsh elements, but their growth will be stunted by the salt spray
                         that does reach their leaves. Plants that inhabit this area may include: seaside pennywort,
                         yucca, gaillardia, camphorweed and sea oats. One way these plants survive is to have
                         thick, waxy, and small leaves that help to reduce salt intake and water loss. This habitat
                         is quite rare in Horry County due to development. Have a student put up the MARITIME
                         GRASSLAND (4) label.

                         5. Secondary Dune (5)- A second row of sand dunes behind the first row of sand dunes
                         (primary sand dunes). Secondary dunes tend to have more diverse types of plants than
                         the primary dunes and do not erode as readily. Myrtle Beach State Park has secondary
Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site




                         sand dunes that were created after Hurricane Hugo in 1989. Have a student put up the
                         SECONDARY DUNE (5) label.

                         6. Primary Dune (6)- A hill of sand that protects the area from storm surges and high
                         tides. Primary dunes are constantly eroding and accreting. Sand dunes are held in place
                         primarily by the roots of sea oats. Sea turtles need primary dunes for successful nesting.
                         Sand dunes can not handle the constant impact of foot traffic, so people need to always
                         use the boardwalks to reach the beach. Have a student put up the PRIMARY DUNE (6)
                         label.

                         7. Upper Beach (7)- The area of dry sand between the intertidal beach and primary dunes.
                         This area is often eroded during storms or major high tides. Some plants are adapted to
                         quickly grow in this area. Ghost crabs and an array of insects may inhabit this area. Have
                         a student put up the UPPER BEACH (7) label.

                         8. Wrack Line (8)- This is the line left along the high tide mark. It often consists of dead
                         salt marsh grass, insects, and other microorganisms. This area, often times, provides the
                         best beachcombing. The debris in the wrack line can trap wind blown sand and seeds.
                         Over time, a wrack line, if left undisturbed, can develop into primary sand dunes. Have
                         a student put up the WRACK LINE (8) label, and the WRACK LINE VISUAL (W). Show the
                         students the provided laminated picture of the wrack line.

                         9. Intertidal Beach (9)- The portion of beach that is covered during high tide and exposed
                         during low tide. Many types of invertebrate marine animals may live here. Have a student
                         put up the INTERTIDAL BEACH (9) label.

                         10. Offshore Sandbar (10)- Offshore sandbars occur year round, depending on wave
                         energy and currents. We are focusing on seasonal sandbar changes for this activity. Have
                         a student put up the OFFSHORE SANDBAR (10) label.

                         11. High and Low Tides (T)- Tides are created by the gravitational force of the moon and
                         sun. In South Carolina, we have two high and two low tides each day. Have a student put
                         up the HIGH TIDE (T) label, and the HIGH TIDE VISUAL (H). Notice how much beach is
                         covered. Take off the HIGH TIDE (T) label, and the HIGH TIDE VISUAL (H). Now, have a
66
student put up the LOW TIDE (T) label. Notice how much beach is exposed at low tide. As
stated earlier, when it blows, wind can move lots of sand, but water is constantly moving
sand.

**To help understand this seasonal movement of sand better, have the students do the
Seasonal Summer/Winter Beach Profile activity and follow the photo directions. As students
do numbers 12 and 14, they can do their own “seasonal sand movement” with the chips.
Each individual chip represents a grain of sand as it is transported by wind and water.

12. Have a student put up the WINTER (S) (for seasonal) and LOW TIDE (T) labels. Put on
the PRIMARY SAND DUNE VISUAL (D). This visual shows a Primary Sand Dune that has
not been eroded. During the winter, strong winds and storms, especially northeasterners,
tend to erode the beaches. This natural occurrence does create erosion along the beaches
and sand dunes. **Take off the PRIMARY SAND DUNE VISUAL (D). Notice how the Primary
Sand Dune looks to be cut in half. A single northeast storm can move as much sand in a




                                                                                             Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site
few hours as it takes normal speed winds and waves to do all year. As the waves surge up
the beach, they can flatten the beach out and tear up the Primary Sand Dunes or the Upper
Beach. These larger waves and stronger winds carve sand away and create a steep slope
on the beach. Beach walkers may notice a small cliff or “scarp” in the Upper Beach section
and a narrower beach. Ask the students if they have ever walked the beach during the
winter and noticed a drop off along the beach. Show the students the provided laminated
picture of the wrack line and scarp. This sand can be washed back into the ocean where it
travels just offshore to begin buildup of an Offshore Sand Bar. Have a student put up the
WINTER OFFSHORE SAND BAR VISUAL (B). At low tide, you may see the actual sandbars,
or where the waves are breaking over the sandbars.

13. Have a student put up the WINTER (S) and HIGH TIDE (T) labels. Northeast storms can
create even more damage if they occur at high tide. Have a student put on the HIGH TIDE
VISUAL (H).

14. Have a student put up the SUMMER (S) and HIGH TIDE (T) labels. Have a student put
up the PRIMARY SAND DUNE VISUAL (D). During the summer, there are normally mild,
southerly winds that allow the Upper Beaches and Primary Sand Dunes to build back
up. The accreted sand from the winter that occurred on the sand bar will gradually flow
back up to the Upper Beach and Primary Sand Dune. This tends to create a wider beach.
**Have a student take off the WINTER OFFSHORE SAND BAR VISUAL (B) and put up the
SUMMER OFFSHORE SAND BAR VISUAL (B) to show the movement of sand and how the
offshore sand bar is decreasing in size.

15. Have a student put up the SUMMER (S) and LOW TIDE (T) labels. Have a student take
off the HIGH TIDE VISUAL (H) to show how much beach is exposed a low tide.

The coastal environment is a very dynamic place every day of the year. Erosion and
deposition are natural occurrences that are supposed to happen. The coastal environment
is designed to withstand change. The processes described here make the beach look
different every season of the year.

During the program at Myrtle Beach State Park, students, through hands-on activities, will
gain a better understanding how these processes work and how development along the
                                                                                                             67
                         coast can disrupt these processes.

                         Cleaning Up:

                         Put all 16 Velcro labels back on the Beach Profile activity, just like when you received it. Put
                         the 3 extra Velcro labels back in the envelope.

                         Put the laminated directions and photos back in the envelope.

                         Take off any tape, etc. that you attached to hang the Beach Profile.
                         Remember, other teachers will be using the activity after you!

                         The chips should be put back in the Ziploc bags and the bags should be securely sealed.

                         Roll the Beach Profile up and put it in the mailing tube in which it came.
Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site




68
                                                                                    Y
Procedure for Longshore Current                                                  COP !
                                                                                  ME
or Transport
Divide the class into five groups- each group will get the following:
• Longshore Current/Transport Posterboard
• 1 Groin (Rectangular Pieces of Laminated Black and White Construction Paper)
• Ziploc Bag of Chips
• Teachers- Use the photo instructions to help explain this activity to students

This activity will introduce you and your students to Longshore Current/Transport
on a beach and the effects that people have when the beach is developed and the




                                                                                               Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site
longshore transport is interrupted. This concept will be explored in further detail
during the field experience, but this will help students to gain a little familiarity before
they come to the state park. The Longshore Current or Transport (flow of sand along
the beach due to currents and waves) is caused by waves that arrive at an angle to
the shore. Because the waves hit the shore at an angle, they move up and along the
shore, carrying sand with them. This helps to transport huge amounts of sand along
the coast. It generally moves from north to south, although it can change directions!
Think about when you walk into the ocean and go swimming. Often times, when you
come out, you are pretty far from your original start or your beach towel. Sand is
always moving like a big river and this changes the shape, profile, and width of our
beaches.

Sprinkle the chips over the brown beach to represent individual grains of sand on
the beach. Remember that real beaches are never flat, so it is OK if your grains of
sand (chips) pile over each other. Students’ hands will act as waves of water going
north to south, down the beach. Remind the students to move only a few grains of
sand (chips) at a time. These waves push the sand onto and away from the beach at
an angle, normally in a southern direction. On an actual beach, new sand is being
added from the north while the sand from our beach would continue south. For this
demonstration, students will move the sand back to the beginning at point A when
their wave moves the sand, or chips, off the end of the beach, or poster board, at
point D.

A natural beach has a constant flow of the sand. The sand can move freely from
point A, past points B and C, and onto point D. The natural movement of sand over
time tends to get interrupted once a beach becomes developed. When this happens,
erosion may occur at a faster rate and create a problem for the homes and hotels
that occur along the beach front.

To counteract against erosion, people have built groins and other features which
interrupt this river of sand. Groins are projections that jut out at right angles to the
beach. Their purpose is to block the longshore current/transport of sand. Keep
in mind, a jetty helps to keep a channel of water open for navigation- they have a
different purpose than a groin. Groins may help build up sand on the updrift side
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                         of the groin, but the beaches on the downdrift side erode or “starve” from lack of sand.
                         Also, since the longshore current/transport tends to hook around the groin, this also tends
                         to accelerate the erosion rate. Some groins may be 6 feet tall, 400 feet long and 10 to 30
                         feet wide. Depending on the beach and when they were built, groins are built of rocks,
                         wood or metal. Add the groin between points B and C, perpendicular to the beach. This
                         groin will interrupt that continuous flow of sand. Begin moving the sand again from point
                         A to point D.

                         How does the groin affect the flow of sand? The sand can still move from point A to point B
                         and from point C to point D, but the groin stops the B to C sand flow.
                         What begins to happen on the northern side of the groin where the sand meets the groin?
                         The sand builds up!

                         What happens on the southern side of the groin? The sand begins to erode away because
                         the groin has essentially blocked the flow of sand from the north.
Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site




                         When this happens, coastal residents and officials in the past have added another groin
                         below the erosion point to help build the sand back up. This may help to solve the erosion
                         problem in that immediate area, but it tends to cause an erosion problem further down the
                         beach. Another groin is added and the problem persists and the erosion cycle continues.
                         This cycle will be explored further during the program at Myrtle Beach State Park.


                         Cleaning Up:
                         • Put all the chips back in their individual Ziploc bags and securely seal them.
                         • All the chip bags should be put back in the larger Ziploc bag.
                         • Put the groins back in the white envelope with the Velcro labels.
                         • Put the directions back in the large folder.
                         • Put all materials back in the mailing tube and secure the lid of the tube.

                         The River of Sand – Optional Class Activity:
                         Line everyone in a straight, single-file line. Each person in the line is now a grain of sand
                         on the beach. Longshore transport begins moving the grains of sand down a beach, so
                         everyone in the line start taking tiny baby steps to their right. A groin is added on the
                         beach between two grains of sand. Use a chair or length of rope between two students to
                         represent this groin. This stops part of the line behind the groin from moving any more,
                         but the grains of sand beyond the groin can still travel. Even though a groin has been
                         added, longshore transport is still moving sand. Continue taking small steps to the right.
                         What starts to happen to the groin as everyone keeps moving to the right? What happens
                         beyond the groin where the sand can still be transported?




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     Myrtle Beach: Pre-Site
Myrtle Beach State Park: On-Site (Ranger Led)

                                             students will learn how the beach
              Content Area:                  environment is constantly forming and
                                             changing. While on the beach, students
                Science
                                             will learn, simulate and observe the
                                             major processes that occur along the
               Grade Level:                  coast: erosion, deposition, wave action,
                    5                        rip currents, longshore currents, tides,
                                             and storms. They will also learn how the
                                             natural processes of coastal ecosystems
            Time to Complete:                change as development along the coast




                                                                                            Myrtle Beach: On-Site
                1.5 hours                    increases.

                                             This 1.5-hour program is offered
             Title of Program:
                                             September- November and March- April.
             Coastal Dynamics                The maximum amount of students for this
                                             program is 28 or one class. This program
                                             can accommodate two classes in one day.
                                             A teacher led activity is provided for the
South Carolina State Standards Addressed
                                             time frame when a class is not with the
   Standard 5-3:
                                             Interpretive Ranger.
      The student will demonstrate
      an understanding of features,
      processes, and changes in Earth’s      Focus Questions For Students
      land and oceans.                       • List some factors that change the beach
   Indicators:                                 every day.
      5-3.1 Explain how natural processes    • What causes tides?
      (including weathering, erosion,        • What is the importance of sand dunes?
      deposition and floods) affect          • Name ways humans have impacted the
      the Earth’s oceans and land in           South Carolina coastline.
      constructive and destructive ways.     • Name some coastal habitats found at
       5-3.4 Explain how waves, currents,      Myrtle Beach State Park.
      tides, and storms affect the           • Name some differences between rip
      geological features of the ocean         currents and longshore currents.
      shore zone (beaches, barrier
      islands).                              Culminating Assessment
      5-3.5 Compare the movement of          • List two factors that change the beach
      water by waves, currents and tides.      every day.
      5-3.6 Explain how human activity       • List the two main forces that cause tides.
      (including conservation efforts and    • List three reasons why sand dunes are
      pollution) has affected the land and     important.
      the oceans of Earth.                   • List three ways human activity affects the
                                               beach and dune habitats.
                                             • List four coastal habitats found at Myrtle
Program Description
                                               Beach State Park.
Through hands-on activities and visuals,
                                                                                                          77
                        • Name two differences between rip               their area of beachfront. Students should
                          currents and longshore currents.               be divided into 3 groups before they arrive
                        Materials and Resources                          at the park: Upper Beach, Sand Dune, and
                        •   Lincoln Log House on Stilts                  Primary Sand Dune. Students should know
                        •   5 Groins                                     the name of their group.
                        •   Various Beach Photos
                        •   Sheets
                        •   Hose
                        •   Buckets of Water
                        •   Various Pieces of Wood

                        Teacher Preparation
                        Read the lesson and activities completely
                        and contact Myrtle Beach State Park with
                        any concerns or modifications. Implement
Myrtle Beach: On-Site




                        pre-site activities before the scheduled
                        program. Please plan adequate classroom
                        time for post-site activities in order to help
                        reinforce the topics discussed during the
                        program at Myrtle Beach State Park.


                        Procedures

                        Coastal Habitats at Myrtle Beach State Park
                        Students will learn about the different
                        coastal habitats found at Myrtle Beach
                        State Park and how they are affected by
                        wind and water from the ocean.

                        Importance of Sand Dunes
                        Students will learn how important sand
                        dunes are and how erosion and deposition
                        occur everyday through wind and water.

                        Longshore Transport and Rip Currents
                        Students will learn how Longshore Transport
                        (River of Sand) moves sand along our
                        beaches and how development and groins
                        affect the flow. They will also learn how to
                        avoid the dangers of rip currents and how
                        they are formed.

                        Development Along the Beach
                        Students will “build” their house on some
                        “beachfront property” and learn how their
                        architecture and piece of property fares
                        when a hurricane (buckets of water!) hits

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Myrtle Beach State Park: On-Site (Teacher Led)

                                                       pollution) has affected the land and
               Content Area:                           the oceans of Earth.
                 Science
                                                Program Description
                                                Students will learn about the many habitats
                Grade Level:
                                                at Myrtle Beach State Park with the use
                     5                          of a teacher led scavenger hunt. The
                                                scavenger hunt will teach them about the
             Time to Complete:                  upper beach, the intertidal zone, primary
                                                and secondary sand dunes, swashes,
                  1 hour




                                                                                               Myrtle Beach: On-Site
                                                maritime forest, maritime grassland, and
                                                the ocean. Most importantly students will
              Title of Program:                 learn how to read a beach from what the
               Scavenger Hunt                   tides are doing, how the waves and wind
                                                are affecting the beach, where potential
                                                rip currents are located, what the sand is
                                                comprised of, etc. It is important to know
This activity is to be completed while the      how to read a beach when you go for both
other group is with the interpretive ranger.    safety and for fun- you do not want your
This activity is OPTIONAL! It is up to you if   beach towels and shoes to be taken away
you wish to do the activity.                    with the tide!

South Carolina State Standards Addressed        Materials
   Standard 5-3:                                Materials will be given to you on the day of
      The student will demonstrate              your field program.
      an understanding of features,             • One scavenger hunt
      processes, and changes in Earth’s         • Two sets of labeled photos
      land and oceans.                          • One stop watch
   Indicators:                                  • One bag of Magnolia leaves
      5-3.1 Explain how natural processes       • Quartz
      (including weathering, erosion,           • One magnifying box
      deposition and floods) affect             • One tide table
      the Earth’s oceans and land in            • One trash bag
      constructive and destructive ways.
       5-3.4 Explain how waves, currents,
      tides, and storms affect the
                                                Procedures
                                                See the Coastal Dynamic Scavenger hunt
      geological features of the ocean
                                                sheets and follow the steps. You can skip
      shore zone (beaches, barrier
                                                steps if you are crunched for time.
      islands).
      5-3.5 Compare the movement of
      water by waves, currents and tides.
      5-3.6 Explain how human activity
      (including conservation efforts and
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                          Myrtle Beach State Park: Post-Site

                                                                       learned during the Coastal Dynamics
                                        Content Area:                  program at Myrtle Beach State Park with
                                                                       the use of a power point jeopardy game.
                                          Science
                                                                       Coastal Jeopardy reiterates many important
                                                                       points on the processes that make our coast
                                         Grade Level:                  what it is today. The categories include
                                              5                        topics on waves, currents, tides, storms,
                                                                       Myrtle Beach State Park habitats, and
                                                                       human impacts.
                                      Time to Complete:
Myrtle Beach: Post-Site




                                        1 class period                 Materials Provided
                                                                       • DVD- Coastal Jeopardy plus
                                       Title of Program:                 instructions- you do not need to return
                                                                         the DVD.
                                       Coastal Jeopardy
                                                                       Materials Needed to be Provided by School
                                                                       • Computer
                          South Carolina State Standards Addressed     • LCD projector
                             Standard 5-3:                             • Dry erase board or chalk board- if you
                                The student will demonstrate             want to keep score
                                an understanding of features,
                                processes, and changes in Earth’s
                                land and oceans.                       Procedures
                             Indicators:                               See Coastal Jeopardy Instructions.
                                5-3.1 Explain how natural processes
                                (including weathering, erosion,
                                deposition and floods) affect
                                the Earth’s oceans and land in
                                constructive and destructive ways.
                                 5-3.4 Explain how waves, currents,
                                tides, and storms affect the
                                geological features of the ocean
                                shore zone (beaches, barrier
                                islands).
                                5-3.5 Compare the movement of
                                water by waves, currents and tides.
                                5-3.6 Explain how human activity
                                (including conservation efforts and
                                pollution) has affected the land and
                                the oceans of Earth.


                          Program Description
                          Students will be quizzed on what they
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Open the Coastal Jeopardy power point file located on the provided DVD. Start the
power point slide show. Announce the categories to your class:

“Myrtle Beach State Park Habitats”- All topics relating to the different habitats found
at Myrtle Beach State Park.
“Tides”- All topics relate to tidal action and how tides are formed.
“Waves and Currents”- This is a general category dealing with the waves and currents
in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.
“Human Activity”- All topics in this category deal with the impacts of humans on the




                                                                                             Myrtle Beach: Post-Site
South Carolina coastline.
“Storms”- This category is about storms and the effects along the coast.

The class should be divided into two teams. Choose one student from each team to
be the captain. The team captain will listen to their teammates and announce the
team’s final answer out loud. Only take answers from the captain! Team captains can
change throughout the game in order to give everyone an opportunity to talk and
give answers.

Choose one student to be the score keeper, if keeping score is desired.

Have one student from the first team choose a topic and a point value. Allow a
different student to choose the next question each turn.

Click on the yellow numbers to get to the question. You must click the number, not just
the box the number is in. This is so the yellow changes to black once that question is
completed. Hit the enter key once to get from the question page to the answer page.

Click on the picture of the house at the bottom/right corner of the answer page to
get back to the jeopardy game board. Do not click enter on the answer page; it will
automatically go to the next question without turning the numbers black!

If the first team gets the answer wrong, the second team gets a chance to answer
that same question. If the second team gets the answer right, they get the points,
and it is now their turn to pick the next question. If the second team gets it wrong
then neither team gets the points, however, it is still the second team’s turn to pick the
next question. Continue to go back and forth between teams until all questions are
answered.
Feel free to expand on the questions and have class discussions.

There is no final jeopardy in this game, no buzz in, no answering in the form of a
question, and no negative points for the wrong answer. The team with the highest
amount of points at the end of the game is the most knowledgeable about Coastal
Dynamics!
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