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					 PowerLecture:
  Chapter 22
“Protists” – The Simplest
       Eukaryotes
Section 22.0: Weblinks and InfoTrac
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   click highlighted articles below (articles subject to change)

   Section 22.0: UC—Sudden Oak Death
               Videos: CNN
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 Biology,   2002, Vol. 6, Sudden Oak Death
 (1:56)
        How Would You Vote?
The following is the question for this chapter. See
  the "Polls and ArtJoinIn" for this chapter if your
  campus uses a Personal Response System,or
  have your students vote online. See national
  results below.

 Should states refuse to accept plants from
  others with sudden oak death?
     Impacts, Issues: Tiny Critters,
              Big Impacts
   Protists – structurally the simplest of all eukaryotes

   Foraminiferans and coccolithophores have shells or plates hardened with
    calcium carbonate

   Dover, England’s white chalk cliffs are the remains of coccolithophores that
    died and became compressed over millions of years

   Hagar Qim temple built from foraminiferan-rich limestone
Tiny Critters, Big Impacts




                             Fig. 22-1, p.350
Tiny Critters, Big Impacts




                             p.351a
Tiny Critters, Big Impacts




                             p.351b
     Impacts, Issues: Tiny Critters,
              Big Impacts
   P. ramorum started an epidemic of sudden oak death in California costing
    the lives of tens of thousands of oaks

   The pathogen has now jumped to madrone, redwoods, and other novel
    hosts
Impacts, Issues Video




     Tiny Critters, Big Impacts
Section 22.1: Weblinks and InfoTrac
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   Section 22.1: Droplet—Amateur Microscopy of Protozoa
    Protistans are Unlike
         Prokaryotes

 Have   a nucleus and organelles
 Have proteins associated with DNA
 Use microtubules in a cytoskeleton,
  spindle apparatus, and cilia and
  flagella
 May contain chloroplasts
 May divide by mitosis and meiosis
Prokaryotes Vs Eukaryotes
          Difficult to Classify
 Historically a catch-all kingdom
 Differ enormously from one another in
  morphology and life-styles
 Molecular and biochemical comparisons
  are clarifying the evolutionary picture
 Protistans are not a monophyletic group
                         Evolutionary Tree
       branch leading                                     branch leading      branch leading
          to plants                                          to fungi           to animals
                        charophytes


Stramenopiles                green algae          amoeboid                                     Alveolates
                                                  protozoans
       brown algae                         red
                                          algae                                         ciliates
  chrysophytes
                                                                                            sporozoans
     oomycotes
                                                      ?                                     dinoflagellates
                                            “crown” of eukaryotes
                     slime molds            (rapid divergences)
                                                                            euglenoids
                                  parabasalids                             kinetoplastids
                              (e.g., Trichomonas)
                         diplomonads
                        (e.g., Giardia)


                            Endosymbiotic origins
                              from prokaryotic
                                 ancestors
Evolutionary Tree




                    Fig. 22-2, p.352
Section 22.2: Weblinks and InfoTrac
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   Section 22.2: You Want To Bring THOSE Into The House? Termite
    Symbionts

   Section 22.2: Cell Biology of the Primitive Eukaryote Giardia lamblia.
    Frances Gillin et al. Annual Review of Microbiology, Annual 1996.
Trichomonads (Parabasalids)




       Trichomonas vaginalis causes
   trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted
                  disease
Trichomonads (Parabasalids)




                        Fig. 22-3a, p.353
      Giardia (a Diplomonad)
 Internal   parasite of humans, animals

 Survives    outside of body as cysts

 Ingested  cysts release trophozoites that
  attach to intestinal lining

 Causes     giardiasis
        Giardia
(a Diplomonad)




         Fig. 22-3b, p.353
Giardia (a Diplomonad)




                         Fig. 22-3c, p.353
Section 22.3: Weblinks and InfoTrac
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   Section 22.3: The Euglenoid Project

   Section 22.3: Scrutinizing Sleeping Sickness. Gina Kolata. Science, Nov. 23,
    1984.
            Euglenoids:
         Evolutionary Puzzle
 Some   heterotrophs
 Mosthave chloroplasts like green algae
 and plants
 Have   flagella like flagellated protozoans
 Related   to flagellated protozoans
 Acquired   chloroplasts by endosymbiosis
      Euglenoid Body Plan
  long flagellum

  contractile vacuole          chloroplast




                        Figure 22.4a
                         Page 354


eyespot
             nucleus
            nucleus

                        ER

                         Golgi body          mitochondrion pellicle
Euglenoid Body Plan




                      Fig. 22-4a, p.354
Euglenoid
Body Plan




   Fig. 22-4b, p.354
Euglenoid Body Plan

              long, rod-stiffened flagellum


              second flagellum




              photoreceptor


              eyespot




                              Fig. 22-4a1, p.354
                 Euglenoid Body Plan




long flagellum

                       nucleus
                                 chloroplast
           mitochondrion




                                          Fig. 22-4a2, p.354
Euglenoid Body Plan




     Body plan of Euglena
       Euglenoids Are a
      Monophyletic Group

 Members  share a common
 ancestor and derived traits that
 are present in no other group

 Unique   traits
     A storage carbohydrate
     Type of eyespot
Trypanosomes (Kinetoplastids)
                  undulating
                  membrane      mitochondrion
                                                basal body
                                                of flagellum

 free flagellum

                               nucleus




  Trypanosoma   brucei causes African
   sleeping sickness
  T.   cruzi causes Chagas disease
Trypanosomes (Kinetoplastids)

                                         single, long
                                         mitochondrion


                                                   Golgi body
long flagellum attached
to undulating membrane




                          ER   nucleus   vacuole


                                                         Fig. 22-5a, p.355
Trypanosomes (Kinetoplastids)
                    undulating membrane
   red blood cell   attached to flagellum




                                            Fig. 22-5b, p.355
Section 22.4: Weblinks and InfoTrac
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   Section 22.4: Radiolaria.org3

   Section 22.4: Living Sands. John Lee. BioScience, Apr. 1995.
     Amoeboid Protozoans
         (Sarcodina)
 Move by means of cytoplasmic
 streaming and pseudopods
 Naked   amoebas
 Foraminiferans
                    Rhizopods

 Heliozoans

 Radiolarians      Actinopods
         Naked Amoebas

 Change    shape constantly
 Most   are free-living cells that engulf
 their prey
 Some    are symbionts in animal guts
A   few are opportunistic pathogens
      Other Amoeboid Protozoans
                          A living heliozoan
 Foraminiferans

     Calcium carbonate
      shell

 Radiolarians     and
 Heliozoans
     Shells of silica
Other Amoeboid Protozoans




                       Fig. 22-6, p.355
Section 22.5: Weblinks and InfoTrac
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   Section 22.5: The Ciliate Resource Archive

   Section 22.5: Cilioprotists (photosynthesizing ciliates). Billy Goodman.
    BioScience, May 1993.
              Alveolates
 Have  tiny, membrane-bound sacs
  (alveoli) underneath their outer
  membranes
 Ciliates

 Sporozoans

 Dinoflagellates
             Ciliates (Ciliphora)
   All heterotrophs
   Arrays of cilia allow
    movement and direct
    food into oral cavity
   Diverse life-styles


                             Paramecium


         Hypotrich
      Body Plan of Paramecium

 food    food residues
 vacuole being ejected   gullet      cilia   trichocysts (“harpoons”)




contractile                                       contractile
vacuole emptied                   micronucleus    vacuole filled
                         macronucleus


                                                            Fig. 22-7a, p. 356
           Ciliate Conjugation
 Most   ciliates have two different nuclei
     Large macronucleus
     Smaller micronucleus
 Micronucleus participates in sexual
 reproduction (conjugation)
     Partners exchange micronuclei
Ciliate Conjugation




    Paramecium body plan
Ciliate Conjugation




     Ciliate conjugation
Paramecium




             Fig. 22-7a1, p.356
           Paramecium
                   contractile vacuole




pellicle




                                   Fig. 22-7a2, p.356
           Paramecium




Didinium

                        Fig. 22-7b
                             p.356
Paramecium
                 cilium




      pellicle




     alveolus

                    basal body
                    of cilium


                             Fig. 22-7d, p.356
 Protozoan
Conjugation




    Fig. 22-8, p.357
a Prospective partners meet.



                               Fig. 22-8a, p.357
b Partners physically join up, most often at their oral depression.

                                                            Fig. 22-8b, p.357
c The two cells undergo cytoplasmic fusion.
The micronucleus of each enters meiosis I.

                                              Fig. 22-8c, p.357
d Meiosis II follows and results in four haploid micronuclei.
The macronucleus of each cell starts to degenerate.


                                                           Fig. 22-8d, p.357
e In each cell, one haploid micronucleus
stays intact; the other three degenerate.

                                            Fig. 22-8e, p.357
f Each haploid micronucleus divides. Each cell will
swap a daughter micronucleus with its partner.

                                                      Fig. 22-8f, p.357
g Two micronuclei in each cell fuse, forming a diploid micronucleus.
Each cell now contains genetic material from the other.
                                                             Fig. 22-8g, p.357
h The conjugating cells disengage. The micronucleus of each divides.

                                                              Fig. 22-8h, p.357
i Micronuclei in each cell divide. Then the
original macronucleus degenerates.
                                              Fig. 22-8i, p.357
j Each cell now has four micronuclei.
                                        Fig. 22-8j, p.357
k Of the four micronuclei, two develop into macronuclei.

                                                           Fig. 22-8k, p.357
l Cytoplasmic division now begins, and two cells form.
                                                         Fig. 22-8l, p.357
m Each daughter cell contains one micronucleus and one macronucleus.
                                                             Fig. 22-8m, p.357
Fig. 22-8n, p.357
Section 22.6: Weblinks and InfoTrac
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   Section 22.6: Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates

   Section 22.6: Red Menace in the World’s Oceans (red tide). Elizabeth
    Culotta. Science, Sept. 11, 1992.
               Videos: CNN
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 Biology,   2003, Vol. 7, How Pfiesteria Kills
 (2:30)
        Flagellated Protozoans
 Have    one or more flagella
 All   are heterotrophs
 Euglenoids
 Kinetoplastids   (include trypanosomes)
 Parabasalids    (include trichomonads)
 Diplomonads     (include Giardia)
Flagellated
Protozoans




      Fig. 22-9a, p.358
Flagellated
Protozoans




      Fig. 22-9b, p.358
              Dinoflagellates
 Most    are single photosynthetic cells

 Important   component of phytoplankton

 Each    has two flagella

 Algalbloom is population explosion of
 dinoflagellates
      Pfiesteria piscicida

 Associated with large fish kills
 Complicated life cycle
 Population explosions tied to water
  pollution
Fig. 22-10, p.358
              Apicomplexans
 Parasitic
 Complete  part of the life cycle inside
 specific cells of a host organism
 Many have elaborate life cycles that
 require different hosts
 Many   cause serious human disease
Section 22.7: Weblinks and InfoTrac
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   Section 22.7: Malaria Foundation International

   Section 22.7: Malaria Kills One Child Every 30 Seconds. Donovan Webster.
    Smithsonian, Sept. 2000.
               Videos: CNN
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 these volumes on CD or VHS

 Biology,   2003, Vol. 7, Deadly Animals
 (1:48)
                   Malaria
 Most prevalent in tropical and
  subtropical parts of Africa
 Kills   a million Africans each year
 Caused     by four species of Plasmodium
 Transmitted    by Anopheles mosquitoes
Plasmodium Life Cycle
  sporozoite
                                          sporozoites




                                          merozoite




      male gametocyte in red blood cell     Fig. 22-11, p.359
p.359a
p.359b
Plasmodium Life Cycle




     Apicomplexan life cycle
      Cryptosporidium

 Motile   infective stage (sporozoite)
 invades intestinal epithelium
 Causes    cramps, watery diarrhea
 Commonly     transmitted by water
 contaminated with cysts
             Toxoplasma
 Cysts  may be ingested with raw or
  undercooked meat
 Exposure to cysts from cat feces
 Symptoms are usually mild in people with
  normal immune function
 Infection during pregnancy can kill or
  damage the embryo
Section 22.8: Weblinks and InfoTrac
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   Section 22.8: Kelp Forests

   Section 22.8: Sequoia Forest Beneath the Sea. Cheryl Lyn Dybas. Sea
    Frontiers, Summer 1995.
              Stramenopiles
 Unique   trait is one of their two flagella has
  thin filaments projecting from it
 Cells have four outer membranes
 Include
     Oomycotes
     Chrysophytes
     Brown algae
Chrysophytes (Chrysophyta)

 Mainly   free-living photosynthetic cells
 Contain   chlorophylls a, c1, and c2
 Four   groups:
  - Golden algae          - Diatoms
  - Yellow-green algae    - Coccolithophores
Chrysophytes (Chrysophyta)




                        Fig. 22-12a, p.360
Chrysophytes (Chrysophyta)




                        Fig. 22-12b, p.360
                    Diatoms

   Major component of
    the phytoplankton

   Silica shell of two
    overlapping parts

   Sediments rich in
    diatom remains
    quarried for many
    uses

                              Fig. 22-12, p. 360
           Coccolithophores

   Major component of
    the phytoplankton

   Calcium carbonate
    shell

   Remains in chalk
    and limestone
    deposits
                         Coccolithophore shell



                                          Fig. 22-12, p. 360
Brown Algae (Phaeophyta)

               1,500 species
               Most abundant in temperate
                seas
               Contain chlorophylls a and c,
                and fucoxanthin
               Range in size from tiny
                filaments to giant kelps
Macrocystis


                                        Fig. 22-13, p. 361
Brown Algae (Phaeophyta)




                      Fig. 22-13a, p.361
 Brown Algae
(Phaeophyta)




     Fig. 22-13b, p.361
            Brown Algae
bladder    (Phaeophyta)

blade


stipe




holdfast


                Fig. 22-13c, p.361
Section 22.9: Weblinks and InfoTrac
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   Section 22.9: Resurgence of the Irish Potato Famine Fungus. William Fry et
    al. BioScience, June 1997.
                     Phytophthora

   Plant pathogens
   Phytophthora infestans
       Late blight of potatoes



   Phytophtora ramorum
       Sudden oak death




                                    Fig. 22-15, p.362
Phytophthora




   Phytophthora
              Oomycotes
 Large egg cell forms inside oogonium
 Saprobic decomposers, parasites,
  pathogens
  • Water molds
  • Downy mildews
  • White rusts
  • Phytophthora
             Saprolegnia



female
gamete
inside egg
chamber
(cognium)



absorptive
filament



                           Fig. 22-14, p.362
Saprolegnia




              Fig. 22-15a, p.362
Section 22.10: Weblinks and InfoTrac
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   Section 22.10: The Algae Home Page

   Section 22.10: Tumbleweeds of the Sea. Cheryl Lyn Dybas. Sea Frontiers,
    Winter 1995.
   Red Algae (Rhodophyta)

 4,100   species

 Most   abundant in tropical seas

 Can   grow at great depths (phycobilins)

 Complex   life cycles may include very
 different forms
                                                            Porphyra
                                        sporophyte (2n)    Life Cycle
     zygote
 a                                                     b
                        Diploid Stage
fertilization                                meiosis
                        Haploid Stage

                                        germinating
                                        spore (n)
        d


              male
              gametes

  female
  gametes                                        c



                               gametophyte (n)


                                                               Fig. 22-17, p.363
Red Algae




            Fig. 22-18, p.363
Red Algae




Red algae life cycle
Section 22.11: Weblinks and InfoTrac
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   Section 22.11: Red Snow, Green Snow (snow algae). Susan Milius.
    Science News, May 20, 2000.
      Green Algae (Chlorophyta)

 7,000    species
 Resemble      plants
     Chlorophylls a and b
     Starch grains in chloroplasts
     Cell walls of cellulose,
      pectins
                                      Ulva
Green Algae (Chlorophyta)




                       Fig. 22-19b, p.364
Green Algae (Chlorophyta)




                       Fig. 22-19c, p.364
Green Algae (Chlorophyta)




                       Fig. 22-19d, p.364
Green Algae (Chlorophyta)




                       Fig. 22-19e, p.364
            Chlamydomonas Life Cycle

                               Zygote


                Diploid
  Nuclear                                               Meiosis,
  fusion        Haploid                                 germination




                                              Mitosis
  Cytoplasmic                                               Asexual
  fusion                         Asexual
                               reproduction               reproduction




                   Sexual
                reproduction

Gametes meet
                                                                         Fig. 22-19, p.364
Chlamydomonas Life Cycle




       Green algae life cycle
Section 22.12: Weblinks and InfoTrac
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   Section 22.12: Culturing Amoebae
Amoeba




         Fig. 22-21, p.366
Amoeba




Amoeboid motion
Amoeba




         Fig. 22-22a, p.366
Amoeba




         Fig. 22-22b, p.366
                                           Spores
    Cellular                                             Mitotic
                                                           Cell
     Slime                                               Division


     Mold                             Mature
                                      Fruiting       Aggregation
                                       Body
   Acrasiomycota    Culmination

   Amoeboid cells                  Life cycle of
                                   Dictyostelium
    aggregate to                    discodeum
    form migrating
    mass, fruiting
                                          either
    body                                        or
                         Migrating
                         Slug Stage



                                                      Fig. 22-23, p. 381
Cellular Slime Mold




   Cellular slime mold life cycle
Plasmodial Slime Molds
 Myxomycota

 Cell   walls break down during
 aggregation
 Plasmodium     migrates, then
 differentiates to form spore-
 bearing structures
midwife amoeba attracted to two
stuck-together daughter cells




                                  p.367
Fig. 22-23b, p.367
Fig. 22-23c, p.367
Fig. 22-23d, p.367
Fig. 22-23e, p.367
Fig. 22-23f, p.367
Fig. 22-24, p.369
Fig. 22-25, p.369

				
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