November | December 2009 Feature title: Feed Management On-farm feed manufacture and application in small-scale aquaculture
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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
Table 1: Commonly used feed types in small-scale aquaculture
Feeds of plant origin
Feeds of animal origin
Soybean, barley flour, corn, cereals, groundnut cake, ground maize, ground rice, sorgum, rice bran broken rice, deoiled cakes and meals of peanut, sesame, cashew, cocoa, coconut, oil palm linseed, mustard, sunflower, cotton seed, rapeseed, cannabis, Oil palm cake, barley bran, wheat flour, wheat bran, red bean, pea cowpea, broad bean Manioc leaves, manioc flakes, rye grass, Sudan grass Irish potato, banana leaves, hybrid grass, Lucerne, clover, Manioc rind, manioc flour, Napier grass, elephant grass, Chinese cabbage, water hyacinth, water lettuce, duckweed, giant duckweed, water egg, aquatic fern, Pond weed, water spinach, alligator weed, salvinia, Reed-mace, tape grass, Hydrilla, Guinea grass, para grass, lalang grass, star grass, barnyard grass, sweet potato, sorgam, ramie leaves, canna leaves, pumpkin vines, velvet bean vines, cassava leaves and tuber, bean stalk leaves and seeds, vegetables, leaves and stems of leguminous plants
Daphnid, mysis, Clams, locust (dried), silkworm pupae (fresh & dried), chironomids, prawn and shrimp, fish flour, meat flour, dried blood powder, fishmeal, bone/meat meal, feather meal, food yeast Earth worms (fresh), snail flesh (dried), housefly maggots, locust (fresh), liver spleen, fresh meat, freshwater fish, fresh sea fish -
On-farm feed manufacture and application in small-scale aquaculture
Krishen J rana1,2 and Sunil N Siriwardena1 1Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling 2University of Stellenbosch
Source: Tacon (1988); Yang and Yakupitiyage (2000)
FAO suggests that farm-made feeds be defined as feeds in pellet or other forms, consisting of one or more artificial and/ or natural feedstuffs, produced for the exclusive use of a particular farming activity and not for commercial sale or profit. De Silva (2007) regards mixtures of ingredients subjected to some form of processing (simple mixing, grinding and cooking) done on-farm or in small processing plants are generally regarded as farmmade aqua-feeds and are often the mainstay in small-scale semi-intensive aquaculture practices (De Silva and Hassan, 2007). This is not true across Asia. According to an analysis by Rola and Hassan (2007) based on case studies carried out in six leading aquaculture producing countries in Asia, number of semi-intensive farms depend on industrial (commercial) feed and this is highest in India (74 percent) followed by China (46 percent), indicat-
here is no clear definition for what is farm-made aquafeeds and non-farm made aqua-feeds.
ing mainstay of semi-intensive farms is industrial feeds as oppose to on-farm made feeds. Semi-intensive farms in Viet Nam, the Philippines and Bangladesh depend less on industrial feeds at four percent, 28 percent and zero percent, respectively.
and brans) and animal-processing by-products (blood and feather meal, bone meal etc.). Kitchen waste may also be considered as one of the types of farm-made aqua-feeds as per FAO definition as it contains one or more natural feedstuffs in non-pellet form.
Ingredients are used for on-farm feeds
A very wide range of ingredients is used to prepare farm-made aqua-feeds (Table 1). Feeds range from single component feeds available on-farm such as grass or rice bran to farm-made formulated feeds and commercial feeds.They include aquatic and terrestrial plants (duckweeds, azolla, water hyacinth etc), aquatic animals (snails, clams etc) and terrestrial-based live feeds (silkworm larvae, maggots etc.), plant processing products (de-oiled cakes and meals, beans, grains
On-farm feed manufacturing can be of very simple form of single ingredient directly uses as feed to simple mixtures
of powdered ingredients or ingredients compounded into a dough or pellet form. Plant origin ingredients are used singly or in combination with other plant or animal origin feeds as feeds with no or little processing in small-scale aquaculture at the lower end of semi-intensive practice while animal origin material such as trash fish is used singly or in combination with other ingredients with no or little processing at the upper end of semi-intensive practices (De Silva and Hassan, 2007). The full extent of the usage of farmmade aqua-feeds is unknown and literature is scarce. It is note worthy that use of farm-made aqua-feeds is not restricted to small-scale aquaculture practices. According to the recent analysis based on case studies carried out in six leading aquaculture producing Asian countries 70 percent to 50 percent of farms dependent on farm-made aqua-feeds with the exception of China depending only on 25 percent (Rola and Hassan, 2007). However, there are reasons to believe that farm-made aqua-feeds would make a significant contribution to small-scale aquaculture production, particularly in freshwater aquaculture. Approximately 80 percent of global aquaculture production in the past is believed to be produced without using for-
mulated compounded commercial feeds but relying on organic and inorganic fertilisers manures to increase natural food (Akiyama, 1991; Chong, 1995). This trend may continue, but with application of farm-made aqua-feeds to increase productivity, as freshwater omnivorous and herbivorous fish, particularly common carp, Chinese major carps and tilapia, are the most frequently used species in freshwater aquaculture. These low value species maintained a contribution of around 90 percent to the global total freshwater aquaculture production (Table 2). In order to increase productivity in small-scale aquaculture of low-value species use of farm-made aqua-feeds is likely to be on the increase.
of farm-made aqua-feeds varies between 507,000kg/ha/yr (Viet Nam) and 2313kg/ ha/yr (India) in semi-intensive farms while it varies between 270,189kg/ha/yr (Viet Nam) to 1500kg/ha/yr (China) in traditional farms
Growth is expected – in Asia and Africa
According to a recent estimate, based on seven leading aquaculture producing countries in Asia, this trend is seen as 19.3 million tonnes of farm-made aquafeeds were used against 10.3 million tonnes industrial feeds during 2003-2004 in Asia alone (De Silva and Hassan, 2007). On average, annual feeding usage rates
(Rola and Hassan, 2007). These feeding rates are against feeding rates of industrial feeds between 64,903kg/ha/yr (Thailand) and 391kg/ha/yr (the Philippines) in semiintensive farms. It is also predicted that the usage of farm-made aqua-feeds may go up to 31 million tonnes over the next five years against industrially manufactured feeds, representing a growth of 60 percent increase from current levels (De Silva and Hassan, 2007).
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therefore, important for the longer-term sustainability. Cost of fish production using on farm feeds may not be lowered unless locally available non-fishmeal ingredients are carefully selected and blended based on the nutritional requirements of the target species.
Rola, W.R. and Hassan, M.R. 2007. Economics of aquaculture feeding practices: A synthesis of six Asian countries. pp 1-32. In: M.R. Hassan and R. Banks, Economics of aquaculture feeding practices in selected Asian countries, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 505. Tacon A.G.J. 1988. The nutrition and feeding of farmed fish and shrimp. A training manual. 3. Feeding Methods. FAO Field Document, Project GCP/RLA/075/ITA, Field Document No. 7, pp 208, Brasilia, Brazil Tacon A.G.J., Hassan M.R. 2007. Global synthesis of feeds and nutrients for sustainable aquaculture development. pp 3-18. In: M.R. Hassan, T. Hect, S.S. De Silva and A.G.J, Tacon
(eds.), Study and analysis of feeds and fertilisers for sustainable aquaculture development. FAO Fisheries technical Paper No. 497, FAO, Rome pp 510. Yang, Yi. and Yakupitiyage, A. 2001. Feeds in small-scale aquaculture. pp 263-268. In: IIRR, IDRC, FAO, NACA and ICLARM eds, Utilising Different Aquatic Resources for Livelihoods in Asia: A Resource Book, International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, International Development Research Centre, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific and International Centre for Living Aquatic resources Management, 2001.
Akiyama, D.M. 1991.Future considerations for the aquaculture feed industry. In: D.M. Akiyama and R.K.H. Tan (eds), Proceedings of the aquacuture processing and nutrition workshop, Thailand and Indonesia, September 19-25, 1991. American Soybean Association, Singapore. Chong, K.C. 1995. Economics of on-farm aquafeed preparation and use. pp 434. In: M.B. New, A.G.J. Tacon and I. Csavas (eds.), Farm-made aquafeeds, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 343, FAO, Rome. De Silva, S.S. 1995. Supplementary feeding in semi-intensive aquaculture systems. In: M.B. New, A.G.J. Tacon and I. Csavas (eds.), Farm-made aquafeeds, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 343, FAO, Rome pp 434. De Silva, S.S. 2007. Reducing feed cost in aquaculture: Is the use of mixed feeding schedules the answer for semiintensive practices? NACA, available online http://www.enaca.org/modules/ news/article.php?storyid=905 De Silva, S.S. and Hassan, M.R. 2007. Feeds and fertilisers: The key to long-term sustainability of Asian aquaculture. pp 19-48. In: M.R. Hassan, T. Hect, S.S. De Silva and A.G.J, Tacon (eds.), Study and analysis of feeds and fertilisers for sustainable aquaculture development. FAO Fisheries technical Paper No. 497, FAO, Rome pp 510. (in press). FAO 2007. Study and analysis of feeds and fertilisers for sustainable aquaculture development. M.R. Hassan, T. Hect, S.S. De Silva and A.G.J, Tacon (eds.), FAO Fisheries technical Paper No. 497, FAO, Rome pp 510. FishStat Plus, 2008. FISHSTAT PLUS (online). Universal software for fishery statistical time series (Version 200511-02). Available at: http://www.fao. org/fi/statist/FISOFT/FISHPLUS.asp Hecht, T and de Moor I. 2007. Smallscale aquaculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Available online: http:// cdserver2.ru.ac.za/cd/011120_1/Aqua/ SSA/main.htm
However, what proportion from this increase would be utilised in small-scale aquaculture is not known. There is no accurate information on the usage of farm-made aqua-feeds in SubSaharan Africa except for Nigeria (Tacon and Hassan, 2007), which is estimated at approximately 70 percent of the 35,750 aqua-feeds used in Nigeria (Hecht, 2007). In Sub-Saharan Africa 80 percent of farmers fall into small-scale category even though they contribute to 30 percent of the total production (FAO, 2007). This indicates the level of contribution of farm-made aqua-feeds in Sub-Saharan Africa in terms of number of small-scale farmers involved in aquaculture production using such feeds. Several countries in Sub Saharan Africa produced around 98,500 tonnes of farm-made aqua-feeds in small- and medium-scale aquaculture farms.
This may be attributed to the observation made by Tacon and Hassan (2007) that with the possible exception of Brazil (in the case of freshwater aquaculture) the bulk of aquaculture species produced in Latin America, especially Chile, are high value species destined for export, which are dependent of complete formulated feeds. Therefore, significant proportion of the predicted increase in farm-made aqua-feeds is most likely to happen in Asia and Africa. There is a question of effectiveness of farm-made aqua-feeds to increase aquaculture productivity and this is yet to be addressed. The choice of supplemental feed largely depends on the availability and cost. In most small-scale farms, on farm feeds, like industrial feeds, also accounts for 40 percent to
75 percent of production costs. Most of the farm-made supplemental feeds use agricultural by-products since selection and utilisation of supplementary feeds is linked to other agricultural activities (De Silva, 1995). Capacity of farm-made aqua-feeds to increase productivity of small-scale aquaculture is not only dependent on the cost of production but also the ability of feed to provide a nutritionally balance regime, especially as production trends shifts towards semi-intensive production. Therefore, a cost effective balanced nutritional regime is more appropriate than one just based on one or two individual ingredient based food items aimed at cost reduction. Reducing costs of a feed whilst ensuring a balanced nutritional regime in such small-scale aquaculture systems is,
23-26 May 2010
‘keeping pace with change’
Table 2: Contribution of low value species to world freshwater aquaculture production
Growth is expected – in Latin America
In contrast, in Latin America farm-made aquafeeds are seldom used in aquaculture and confined to the use of agricultural by products in some smallscale farms to replace or complement formulated complete diets (FAO, 2007). Year
Species contribution (million tonnes) Carps & other cyprinids Miscellaneous freshwater/ diadromous fish Tilapia & other cichlids Total production % Contribution to total freshwater production
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Adapted from FishStat Plus, 2008
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Photo courtesy of CSIRO
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