Key Words: HIV/AIDS, Condoms use, pre and post Conclusion: Based on this study the risk of HIV/AIDS is very
intervention. high among the hotel based sex workers of Dhaka city.
Appropriate initiative is needed to increase the level of
37. RISK ON HIV/AIDS AMONG HOTEL BASED knowledge about safer sex among HBSWs.
SEX WORKERS IN DHAKA METRIPOLITAN
Keywords: HIV/AIDS, STI, HBSW, Bangladesh
Karim Md. R, Haque Md. M 38. PATCH IN THE GUT: DOES IT POINT
Department of Population Dynamics,
National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine Gurung B, Gurung S., Yegneswaran P. P., Pai G., Bairy I,
Department of Microbiology, Department of Gastroentrology,
Mohakhali, Dhaka1212. Bangladesh
Kasturba Medical College,
33/7 Tajmahal Road, Block-C,
Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India
Mohammadpur, Dhaka -1207, Bangladesh.
Introduction: Esophageal Candidiasis (EC) is infection of the
esophagus, the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
Fax: 880-2-9898798 It is caused by the overgrowth of Candida, the normal flora of
E-mail: email@example.com human body in the mouth, gastrointestinal tract and vagina
as well as in skin. Candidal esophagitis has received special
Introduction: The commonest risk behavior for HIV/AIDS
attention ever since beginning of the HIV epidemic. The
across Asia is the trading of sex for money. In the context of a
incidence of overall rate of esophagitis among patients infected
conservative society such as Bangladesh, the issues
with HIV has been reported to be as high as 15-20%.
surrounding sexuality and STDs are stifled, stigmatized and
Esophageal candidasis is one of the diagnostic criteria for
hence hidden. This study aimed to assess the risk of HIV/
AIDS and a lowered CD4 lymphocytes count <200mm3 is major
AIDS among the hotel based sex workers (HBSWs) which
predisposing factor for the development of candidiasis in HIV
may help the policy makes in implementing programs to
prevent spread of HIV/AIDS.
Objective: To understand the dynamic relationship between
Objectives: To assess the risk of HIV/AIDS among hotel based
CD4 count and the occurrence of esophageal candidiasis a
sex workers in Dhaka Metropolitan area.
retrospective cohort study was carried out in our tertiary care
Methodology: Data was collected from seven residential set up in Coastal Karnataka State, Manipal.
hotels and three NGO clinics (Drop in centre for hotel based
Study: From September 2006 to September 20008.
sex workers) at old Dhaka, Motijheel and Mohakhali. Face to
Retropositive patients with symptoms of odynophagia,
face interview of 120 hotel based sex workers were done using
dysphagia or retrosternal burning pain with presumptive
a pre-tested semi structured questionnaire.
diagnosis of EC later confirmed with mycological findings were
Results: Average age of the respondents was 17 years. included in the study. All the patients were hospitalized and
57.50% received foreign clients and 80.83% had non the upper digestive tract was examined endoscopically and
commercial sexual relation. 51.67% were infected with sexual esophageal scraping was sent to the mycology laboratory for
transmission infection (STI). Around 97% sought treatment KOH mount and culture. The diagnosis was confirmed by
for last STI but 37.77% of them selected wrong professionals 10% KOH calcoflor microscopy and CD4 counts established
for treatment. About HIV transmission 79.17% said of sexual by Flowcytometry.
act, 39.17% unscreened blood, 15% sharing of needle syringe, Result and Conclusion: The predominant species involved
6.67% mother to child and 20.74% do not know about HIV were Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida
transmission. About knowledge on HIV prevention 81.67% guilluermondi. The risk factors, therapeutic management and
know about use of condom, 38.33% blood screening, 14.17% prognosis of esophageal candidiasis in the study group will
use new needle syringe and 3.33% know avoid commercial be discussed in the light of their utility as a marker in HIV
sex as a HIV prevention method and 18.33% hotel based sex Infected Patient.
workers do not know any prevention method. Nobody said of
using condom constantly.
34 ---------------------------------- Abstracts-SAARC Second Conference on TB, HIV/AIDS and Respiratory Diseases – 2008, Kathmandu, Nepal
39. A REVIEW OF THE USE OF NATIONAL HIV to disclose is embedded within an emotional, social and
OCCUPATIONAL POST EXPOSURE economic context.
MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES AT A Objectives: To ensure proper treatment
PERIPHERAL STD CLINIC, SRI LANKA
Methodology: Two in depth interviews were undertaken with
Jayawardena K. A. S1., Yapa N. M. A. S1., Weerakoon A. P.2
thirty patients enrolling an ART program, the first at the onset
STD Clinic, Kandy, Sri Lanka of treatment, the second after four months. To explore the
Deputy Provincial Director of Health Services, Nuwara- community context to participant experiences interview were
eliya, Sri Lanka taken with nine lay people reported to be providing support to
each of these participants in order. For an understanding of
Introduction: Health care workers are at higher risk of HIV the institutional context within which treatment occur, two
infection through accidental exposure to infected blood and health care providers were interviewed about attitudes of
other material. Thus appropriate management of occupational health staff towards patients seeking ART.
exposures and regular monitoring of such procedures become
important elements of work place safety. Ministry of Health Results: factors associated with disclosure and support echo
has introduced a standard exposure report to record the those previously reported; positive state of mind, sense of
incidents of occupational exposures. personal responsibility and agency, belief in treatment efficacy,
and lower AIDS-related stigma. This study suggests that these
Objectives: To describe types of occupational exposures and
determinants are inextricably linked to deep-seated social
categories of health care workers who sought post exposure
care. To evaluate the use of National HIV occupational post inequalities. Patientsí marital status, gender and age shape
exposure management guidelines at the STD Clinic. their support needs and navigate around social and economic
barriers. Strategies include for example using a confidante to
Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted at the STD negotiate on the patientís behalf without explicit disclosure.
Clinic Kandy. Exposure reports of all health care workers who However, patients were more likely to disclose to personal
sought occupational post exposure care at the STD Clinic careers in order to secure continued support.
between 1st of January and 31st of December 2007 were
analyzed. Conclusion: we know about disclosure and adherence in
government ART programs in Nepal comes from early
Results: Of the total (60) there were 11 males and 49 females. initiators. Such people are expected to have strong materials
Majority of them were nurses (31) followed by labourers (12),
or social capital, or be skillful in securing support and avoiding
medical students (8), doctors (6), and others (3). The largest
social approbation. Programs and policies need to be
exposure type was percutaneous injuries (52). All Source
persons (49) and exposed persons (57) who underwent HIV cognizant of and responsive to the pervasive social inequalities
testing at the time of initial consultation were HIV negative. that strongly restrict the lives of the majority of people who
Exposure cord was not marked in 43 (72%) and incorrectly have not yet sought treatment and those having difficulty with
marked in 9 (15%) exposure reports. None of the exposed adherence.
individuals had been received post exposure prophylaxis and
undergone HIV testing after 6 months of exposure. Keywords: Getting around Disclosure and Adherence
Conclusion: Nurses are the largest category of health care 41. TREATMENT ADHERENCE - INVOLVEMENT
workers who seek occupational post exposure care. Exposed
persons should be motivated to attend follow up HIV testing. OF PLHIV
Doctors should be encouraged for proper documentation of
exposure reports and follow up exposed persons.
Population Foundation of India,
40. GETTING AROUND DISCLOSURE AND B-28, Qutab Institutional Area, Tara Crescent
ADHERENCE New Delhi ñ 110016, India
Pun H K
Naulo Ghumti Nepal-Shrp E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Pokhara, Kaski, Nepal Introduction: ART is life long treatment PLHIV who have
Tel: 977 061 5 21962 started taking ART might stop it abruptly because of the
Fax: 061 539675 challenges associated with it. Hence a through monitoring
E-mail: email@example.com mechanism is needed so that PLHIVs taking ART strictly
adhere to the medicines. PLHAs on ART in particular need
Introduction Disclosure is strongly associated with the uptake continuous counseling at various stages and social support in
of ART, Adherence and HIV prevention. The ability of individual order to adhere to the life long treatment.
Abstracts-SAARC Second Conference on TB, HIV/AIDS and Respiratory Diseases – 2008, Kathmandu, Nepal ---------------------------------------------- 35
Objectives: To strengthen free ART distribution program by other services for their need0(need provide by other agencies
promoting treatment adherence along with other care and and defined as more critical in increasing quality of life).
support services through treatment counseling centers.
Objectives: The study seeks to examine whether a volunteer/
Methodology To supplement and strengthen the counseling peer driven social support is as, or more effective, than
and other services provided at the government ART centers, traditional professional support service in improving an HIV
establishment of Treatment Counseling Centers at the public positive clientís ability to live more independently, non-
ART centers was envisaged. A team of three counselors- two stigmatized, and receive satisfactory service with better quality
professional counselors and one peer counselor motivate and of life. As the number of those living with the disease and
prepare clients to accept their status, build social support and corresponding mental health and/or drug and alcohol problems
refer them to the respective District Level Networks of people grow, and government money and availability of staff becomes
critically scarce, there is, and will continue to exist, an emergent
living with HIV/AIDS (DLNs).
need to find an alternative intervention for effective social
Results: Under the program ìAccess to Care and Treatment- support for people living with HIV.
ACTî 50 Treatment counseling centers (TCC) are being
Methodology: Drawing on the convenience sample of PLWA
established. TCCs are promoting treatment adherence, (N= 143) methodology, extensive field research was conducted
psychosocial and family support to PLWHAs, healthy lifestyle in eight NGOs facilities and one government facility. Structured
and safe sex practices among the PLWHAs. TCC act as the questionnaires were administered to elicit information on the
vital link between the ART Centers and the District Level demographic, quality of life, client satisfaction from service,
Networks of people living with HIV/AIDS (DLNs) so that and social support between September 2008 and October
PLWHAs can remain in the larger care and support system. 2008. Besides interviews, group and informal discussions were
Availability of professional counselors and a peer counselor held to cross-check and verify the reliability of the data.
to share burden of work of the ART counselors through ACT
project enhanced acceptance of TCCs. Results: The multivariate analysis of data focused primarily
to test the correlation between two types of intervantions: time
Conclusion: TCC helped in improving treatment adherence, expent by volunteer with client, and satisfaction level from
reducing defaulters, stigma to HIV and influencing peer norms. service and quality of life. The study has found that
However, an operational guideline is required for the respondents getting support service through HIV infected
implementation uniformity. volunter were less stigmatized, more satisfied from the service
and had better quality of life than the PLHA getting support
Keywords: HIV/AIDS, PLHIV, Treatment Adherence, survice through professional or non infected volunteer.
Conclusion: Recommendations were made for agencies to
consider utilizing HIV infected volunteers in a professional
42. SOCIAL SUPPORT FOR PERSON LIVING capacity to meet need of PLHA. Future research could focus
WITH HIV: A COMPARISON OF THE on further role of HIV infected volunteer in terms of providing
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROFESSIONAL home based care.
VERSUS HIV INFECTED VOLUNTEER
DRIVEN SERVICE 43. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN HIV
POSITIVE AND AIDS CASES IN NEPAL AND
Yadav S ITS CORRELATION WITH CD4+ T
Graduate School of International Development LYMPHOCYTE COUNT
Department of International Development,
Nagoya Univerity, Nagoya, Japan Lamichhane G, Gamage W, Shah D. N., Sharma S,
Kanaya Moto Machi 2-16 -Toyokawa city 442-0066 Aichi Japan
Tel: +818051042049, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Department of ophthalmology
B. P. Koirala Lions Center for Ophthalmic Studies
Introduction: The HIV/Aids epidemic has placed an
increasing burden on public health facilities in developing Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
countries that are already functioning with limited resources. Maharajgunj, Kathmandu,
There are many NGOs and community based organizations Nepal.
in Nepal that are active in providing social support to people Email: email@example.com
living with HIV. This study is a cross-sectional exploratory
research to evaluate and compare effectiveness of HIV Background- AIDS is a multi systemic disease caused by
infected volunteer support and non-HIV infected volunteer Human Immuno-deficiency Virus. Ocular manifestations have
(professional) support for those living with HIV in terms of been reported in approximately 70-80% of HIV cases. HIV
helping them handle the stigma which, in turn, is linked to has the capability to affect every organ and system in our
36 ---------------------------------- Abstracts-SAARC Second Conference on TB, HIV/AIDS and Respiratory Diseases – 2008, Kathmandu, Nepal