Docstoc

Animal Behavior

Document Sample
Animal Behavior Powered By Docstoc
					Animal Behavior




    Chapter 34
           Stimulus & Response
• Behavior is the way
  an organism reacts to
  a change in its internal
  condition or external
  environment.
• A stimulus is any kind
  of signal that carries
  information and can
  be detected.
• A response is a
  single, specific
  reaction to a stimulus.
                Types of Stimuli
• External stimuli
  can include light,
  sound, odors,
  and heat.
• Senses can
  detect stimuli
  (sight, smell,
  touch, taste,
  hearing).
• Some animals
  can detect stimuli
  that others
  cannot.
          How Animals Respond
• When an animal
  responds to a stimulus,
  body systems –
  including sense
  organs, nervous
  system, and muscles –
  interact to produce the
  resultant behavior.
• The brain and other
  parts of the nervous
  system process the
  information and direct
  the body’s response.
          Behavior and Evolution
• Behavior is important
  to survival.
• Many behaviors are
  influenced by genes.
• Some behaviors can
  be inherited.
• A behavior that is
  directed by genes
  may help an
  individual survive and
  reproduce.
                Innate Behavior
• Innate behavior is also
  called an instinct, or
  inborn behavior.
• They appear in fully
  functional form the first
  time they are performed
  even though the animal
  may have had no
  previous experience with
  the stimuli to which it
  responds.
• Examples include
  suckling by newborns,
  weaving spider webs,
  and building nests.
              Learned Behavior
• Also called acquired
  behavior
• Behavior that is the
  result of an experience;
  they develop over time.
• There are four major
  types of learning.
     1. Habituation
     2. Classical
        Conditioning
     3. Operant
        Conditioning
     4. Insight Learning
                        Habituation
• The simplest type of
  learning is habituation
• A process by which an
  animal decreases or stops
  its response to a repetitive
  stimulus that neither
  rewards nor harms the
  animal.
• Animals can spend time
  and energy more                You may notice how
  efficiently.                   someone’s house smells
• For example, a short           inside but not notice the
  amount of time after           smell in your own house!
  dressing, the stimulus the
  weight of clothes creates is
  'ignored' by the nervous
  system and we become
  unaware of it.
          Classical Conditioning
• In classical
  conditioning, an animal
  makes a mental
  connection between a
  stimulus and some kind of
  reward or punishment
• Famous work of Ivan
  Pavlov
              Operant Conditioning
• Operant conditioning occurs
  when an animal learns to
  behave in a certain way through
  repeated practice, in order to
  receive a reward or avoid a
  punishment.
• Also called trial-and-error
  learning.
• B.F. Skinner and the “Skinner
  Box”
                Insight Learning
• Insight learning is the
  most complicated form of
  learning, or reasoning.
• Occurs when an animal
  applies something it has
  already learned to a new
  situation, without a period
  of trial-and-error.
   Instinct and Learning Combined
• Most behaviors result
  from a combination of
  innate ability and
  learning.
• Some very young
  animals learn to
  recognize and follow the
  first moving object that
  they see during a critical
  time early in their lives
  (usually their mother).
• This behavior is called
  imprinting.
               Behavioral Cycles
• Many animals respond to
  periodic changes in the
  environment with daily or
  seasonal cycles of behavior.
• Hibernation allows an
  animal to survive periods
  when food and other
  resources may not be
  available.
• Migration is the periodic
  movement from one place to
  another and then back again.
• Behavioral cycles that occur
  in daily patterns are called
  circadian rhythms.
  (sleeping)
   Courtship Behavior
• In courtship behavior, an
  animal sends out stimuli in
  order to attract a member
  of the opposite sex.
• Stimuli include sounds,
  visual displays, or
  chemicals.
• In some species, it involves
  an elaborate series of
  behaviors called rituals.
• A ritual is a series of
  behaviors performed the
  same way by all members
  of a population for the
  purpose of communicating.
                    Social Behavior
• Whenever animals interact with
  members of their own species,
  they are exhibiting social
  behavior.
• An animal society is a group of
  related animals of the same
  species that interact closely
  and often cooperate with one
  another.
• Often, members of a society are
  closely related to one another.
  Related individuals share a
  large proportion of each other’s
  genes.
• This helps a relative survive and
  increases the chance that the
  genes will be passed along to
  offspring.
       Competition and Aggression
• Some animals have
  behaviors that help
  prevent others using
  limited resources.
• Territoriality is the
  protection of a specific
  area.
• Competition for resources
  can lead to aggressive
  behaviors.
• Territoriality can involve
  smells, sounds, urination,
  aggression, and even
  leaving feces behind.
                   Communication
• Communication among animals
  involves the passing of information
  from one organism to another.
• Animals may use visual, sound,
  touch, or chemical signals to
  communicate.
• Pheromones are chemical
  messengers that affect the behavior
  of other individuals of the same
  species to mark a territory or to
  signal readiness to mate.
• Language is a system of
  communications that combines
  sounds, symbols, or gestures to a
  set of rules about word order and
  meaning (grammar and syntax).
• Language is unique to humans.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:3/6/2013
language:Unknown
pages:17