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									Kennedy Intensifies the
      Cold War
    Kennedy Intensifies the Cold War
    ■Addressing U.S. foreign policy &
      containing Communism was
      JFK’s top priority as president:
       –JFK believed Ike compromised
        with the USSR when the Cold
 “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us
        War could have been won
  well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear
       –JFK meet any hardship, support any
  any burden, aimed to close the “missile
        gap” any foe to assure the survival &
friend, oppose& increase U.S. defenses
                                        & more.”
the success of liberty. We will do thisin Berlin,
       –Looked to solve issues
                       —JFK’s inaugural address
        Vietnam, & Cuba
             Flexible Response
  ■JFK shifted from Ike’s “mutually
    assured destruction” to a “flexible
    response” capable of responding
    to a variety of future problems:
     –Increased that the arsenal more
JFK was convincednuclearUSSR had to
     To but really the U.S. had to lead
missiles, combat Communism & thehelp with
                       & 32 Polaris subs
       1,000 ICBMssubs, 2,000 warheads
 600 B-52s, 2 Polaris
   underdeveloped countries, JFK created
       to create a “first-strike” capability
the Peace Corps & the Alliance for Progress
     –Increased the army & air force
     –Expanded covert operations &
       created the Green Berets
        The Space Race
      The Apollo Program
■JFK hoped to avoid another
 Sputnik & hoped to beat the
 Soviets to the moon:
 –JFK greatly expanded NASA &
  announced that the U.S. would
  get to the moon by 1970
 –The U.S. landed a man on the
  moon in 1969
         Crisis over Berlin
■JFK’s 1st confrontation with the
 Soviet Union came in Berlin:
 –Khrushchev was upset with the
  exodus of skilled workers from
  East Germany to West Berlin
 –The USSR threatened to
  remove all U.S. influence from
  West Berlin, but settled on
  building the Berlin Wall in 1961
“Ich bin ein Berliner”
          —JFK, 1963
                  The Berlin Crisis
 Berlin’s Significance                The Berlin Wall
■ Khrushchev demanded that       ■ On August 13, 1961,
  the United States recognize      Khrushchev closed the
  East Germany as an               crossing points between
  independent Communist            East and West Berlin.
                                 ■ A high concrete wall was
■ West Berlin was an island        built to prevent further
  of freedom.                      escapes to freedom.
■ Many East Germans fled to      ■ Kennedy sent more troops,
  West Germany through             and Vice President Lyndon
  Berlin.                          B. Johnson visited West
■ Kennedy refused to be
  bullied, sent troops into      ■ Kennedy said “A wall is a …
  West Germany, built              lot better than a war.”
  nuclear shelters, and waited
  for Khrushchev’s next          ■ Over time, the wall was
  move.                            extended and fortified.
       Containment in Vietnam
 ■Vietnam proved tough test:
    –Since 1954, Communist leader
     Ho Chi Minh gained popularity
     in North Vietnam; By 1961, he
“Strongly in our mind is what happened in
     gained a foothold in the South
 China at the end of World War 2, where
    –The U.S. gave aid to unpopular
   China was lost. We don’t want that.”
     South leader Ngo Dihn Diem —JFK
    –When Diem lost control of the
     South, JFK gave the OK for a
     coup against Diem in 1963
Monk Quang Duc protested Diem’s
     treatment of Buddhists
  Containing Castro: Bay of Pigs
■Fidel Castro took over Cuba in
 1959 & developed ties with Russia
 –The Eisenhower administration
      JFK blamed the CIA) had for
   (directed by the Republicansbeen
      allowing a “communist for an
   training Cuban exiles satellite”
       to arise on “our very doorstep”
   invasion & overthrow of Castro
 –In 1961, JFK gave the OK for
   the CIA to initiate the Bay of
   Pigs invasion
    The invasion called for U.S. air support
   but JFK canceled the air strike; without air
     support, Castro squashed the invasion

Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure
of Bay of Pigs, but did not apologize for coup
             Bay of Pigs Invasion
  Background               Kennedy             The Invasion
• Fidel Castro        • Kennedy learned      • Bay of Pigs
  was in power in       that the CIA was       invasion failed.
  Cuba.                 training troops to
                        invade Cuba and      • Information was
• Came to power         topple Castro.         leaked early.
  after a guerrilla
  war, promised to    • His advisors were    • Air strikes failed.
  restore people’s      mixed.               • Castro prepared
  rights and                                   for a land attack.
  freedoms            • Kennedy was
                        worried about        • Invaders were
• Once in power,        Communism              captured and
  he seized             spreading to           ransomed back
  private               Latin America.         to United States.
  businesses and
  made overtures      • Kennedy gave         • Strengthened
  to Soviet Union.      the go-ahead.          Castro’s ties to
                                               the Soviet Union
            Cuban Missile range
   24 medium-range & 18 shortCrisisICBMs
    ■To protect Cuba from another
     U.S. invasion, the USSR began a
     secret build-up of nuclear missiles
    ■On Oct 14, 1962 a U-2 spy plane
     discovered Cuban missile camps
    ■How would the U.S. respond?
Immediate air strike?
     Kennedy chose to “quarantine” Cuba to
                          Full-scale invasion?
     keep new missiles out & an
Diplomacy: trade nukes in Naval invasion of
   Cuba if the in Turkey?        blockade to
Cuba for nukes USSR did not remove its nukes
                          keep warheads out?
Kennedy announced a quarantine (blockade) to
        The Cuban Missile Crisis
            are eyeball & demanded that
       "We missiles outto eyeball, and the the
 keep more
                  fellow just already
           otherthe missilesblinked."in Cuba
 Soviets remove
                 —Sec of State, Dean Rusk
            And…U.S. removal of
          Cuban Missile Crisis
                 weapons in Turkey
         nuclear ended when Russia
  ■The standoff
    removed its Cuban missiles & the
    USA vowed to never invade Cuba
“Our most basic common link is the fact that
  ■The impact planet. We all
 we all inhabit this of the crisis:breathe the
      air. We as a political victory future.
same–Seen all cherish our children’sfor JFK
              We are all mortal.”
     –Installed a “hot line” to improve
       US-Soviet communications
     –This near-nuclear war convinced
       both sides to move from
       confrontation to negotiation
          The Cuban Missile Crises
          ■ U.S. actions in the Bay of Pigs and Berlin crises
            encouraged hard-line leaders in the Soviet Union.
          ■ The Soviets were worried about another invasion of
            Cuba and U.S. nuclear missiles placed in Turkey.
          ■ Kennedy was worried about accusations of being
            “soft on communism.”

          ■ A U.S. U-2 spy plane detected Soviet surface-to-air
Crisis      missiles (SAMs) in Cuba.
          ■ The Soviets argued that the SAMs were defensive
            missiles and swore that they didn’t have offensive
            missiles in Cuba.
          ■ Later U-2 flights showed that the Soviets had lied.
           The Cuban Missile Crisis
           ■   Kennedy assembled a group of advisors, known as the ExComm,
               to help him plan a response.
                – ExComm military members favored an air strike, perhaps
Managing          followed by a land invasion of Cuba.
  the           – Others argued for a naval blockade. Kennedy agreed with this
 Crisis           plan.
           ■   The world watched as Soviet ships carrying missile parts
               approached the naval blockade. They turned back.

           ■   Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missiles if the United States
               pledged to never invade Cuba.
           ■   Both Kennedy and Khrushchev took steps to ease tensions
 Effects       between their countries.
  of the
           ■   They set up a hotline to allow direct communication during times
               of crisis.
           ■   The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed, ending
               atmospheric and underwater testing of nuclear weapons.
   How did Kennedy’s foreign policy reflect his
             views of the world?
            ■ Believed in peace that did not have to be enforced with
              weapons of war
            ■ Believed in peace for Americans and for all men and
              women around the world

            ■ Trained and sent volunteers to Africa, Asia, and Latin
              America to serve for two years
 Corps      ■ Most volunteers were young college graduates
            ■ Increased goodwill toward the United States

            ■ Offered billions of dollars in aid to Latin America to build
              schools, hospitals, roads, power plants, and low-cost
            ■ Intended to counter communism’s influence
 Kennedy Foreign Policy and the Cold War
■ Kennedy also followed the Cold War policies of
  his predecessors.
■ He continued the nuclear arms buildup begun
  by Eisenhower.
■ He continued to follow Truman’s practice of
■ He developed the strategy of flexible
  – Strengthening conventional American forces
    so the nation would have other options than
    nuclear weapons in times of crisis
To what degree was the USA
 winning the Cold War from
     The Cold War: 1948-1975
The Cold War under Truman: 1945-1952
     The Cold War: 1948-1975
The Cold War under Eisenhower: 1953-1960
     The Cold War: 1948-1975
The Cold War under Kennedy: 1961-1963

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