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					CONSERVATION BANKING
Macroteaching lesson PowerPoint delivered to BIOL 375 class (Conservation Biology) November 2005. Original had a photo of an endangered species here.

A Tool for Conserving Listed Species Through Section 7 and Section 10 of the ESA

OVERVIEW
Species Act (ESA) Baseline & Species Trends Mitigation Conservation Banking Case Study
Endangered

ESA Administered by:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Department of the Interior)
National Marine Fisheries Service (Department of Commerce)

Endangered Species Act
Section 2 - Purposes Section 4 - Listing *Section 7 - Consultations and Interagency Cooperation Section 9 - Prohibited Acts *Section 10 - Permits, HCPs

ESA Section 2 – Purposes
To provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved, to provide a program for the conservation of these listed species

ESA Section 4 – Listing Criteria
Any one of these 5 factors results in listing: A. present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; B. over utilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or education purposes; C. disease or predation; D. inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; E. other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence.

ESA Section 9 – Prohibited Acts
It is unlawful to “take” listed species. Take means to harass, harm pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or attempt to engage in any such conduct.

Examples (photos) of federally listed endangered and threatened species were shown on several slides during the lecture.

Vernal Pool Tadpole Shrimp

Incidental Take Authorization
Only 2 ways to get Incidental Take Authorization:
7 – Consultation Section 10 – Habitat Conservation Plan
Section

ESA
Development Projects (Federal Nexus) Development Projects (No Federal Nexus)

Formal Consultations (Section 7)

RECOVERY

Habitat Consv. Plans (Section 10)

On-Site Minimization Measures

Off-Site Minimization Measures

Off-Site Mitigation Measures

On-Site Mitigation Measures

CONSERVATION BANKS

Avoidance, Minimization, Mitigation
 Mitigation

is compensation for impacts to listed species that could not be avoided or minimized.

 Mitigation

often refers to the restoration, enhancement, creation, or preservation of habitat for the listed species impacted.

Baseline and Species Trends
Recovery

BAS E LI NE

Survival

0

TIME

Baseline and Species Trends
Recovery

BAS E LI NE

Survival

0

TIME

Baseline and Species Trends
Recovery

BAS E LI NE

Survival

0

TIME

Species Trends and Extinction
Recovery

BAS E LI NE

Survival

EXTINCT
0

TIME

Baseline and Species Trends
Recovery

BAS E LI NE

Stable Species Trend

Survival

0

TIME

Species Trends and Recovery
Recovery

BAS E LI NE

Survival

0

TIME

ESA
Development Projects (Federal Nexus) Development Projects (No Federal Nexus)

Formal Consultations (Section 7)

RECOVERY

Habitat Consv. Plans (Section 10)

On-Site Minimization Measures

Off-Site Minimization Measures

Off-Site Mitigation Measures

On-Site Mitigation Measures

CONSERVATION BANKS

Conservation Bank
Definition:

A parcel of land containing natural resource values that are conserved and managed in perpetuity for specified listed species and used to offset impacts occurring elsewhere to the same resource values on nonbank lands.

Unplanned Development

KEY
Developed Preserved

Unplanned Development Continued

KEY
Developed Preserved

Unplanned Development Completed

KEY
Developed Preserved

Planned Development

KEY
Developed Preserved

Example shown here.

Small, On-site Mitigation – “Hostage Lot”

Example shown here.

Conservation / Mitigation Bank

How it works
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (or NMFS) approves habitat or species credits based on the natural resource values on the bank lands Developers buy these credits from the bank owner
The

Conservation Bank Design
Size and Shape Habitat Quality/Condition Habitat Diversity Species Diversity Potential for Restoration Edge
Preserve

Protection in Perpetuity
Easement Management Plan Monitoring Plan
–Compliance –Effectiveness
Endowment Conservation

(non-wasting)

Management and Monitoring
Plan for Perpetual Monitoring and Management
 Specify

Goals and Objectives Success Criteria

 Develop

 Establish  Plan  Use

“Trigger Points” for Management Intervention

for Exotic/Alien Species
an adaptive management approach

Reporting Requirements
Inventory (establish baseline)  Results of Monitoring Efforts  Management Actions Taken  Management Actions Recommended  Credit Sales Receipts and Annual Reports
 Biological

Case Study Fitzgerald Ranch Conservation Bank
in San Joaquin County, CA  Approximately 800 acres  Habitat: grassland (vernal pools), oak savanna  Species: vernal pool fairy shrimp, California tiger salamander, Legenera, western spadefoot toad  Approved to sell credits  Service areas approved
 Located

Photo from Conservation Bank’s website shown here.

Fitzgerald Ranch Conservation Bank

Establishing a Conservation Bank
Strategy  Goals and Objectives  Eligible Lands  Biological Inventory  Is there a market?  Is the property (bank site) encumbered?
 Conservation

Establishing a Conservation Bank
w/other Federal, State, and Local Agencies  Develop Credit System  Determine Service Area  Can the Bank be Phased?  Role of Habitat Restoration/Creation
 Coordination

Establishing a Conservation Bank
Plan  Monitoring for Compliance  Monitoring for Effectiveness  Remedial Actions/Remedies  Funding Assurances  Planning for Contingencies  Bank Closure
 Management

Examples of urban development project shown here.

Example of agricultural development project shown here.

How many are there?
45 banks nationwide Protecting over 35,000 acres Habitat for over 30 species Program is growing Some controversy, but widely excepted
About


				
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posted:11/4/2009
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