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CONTACT INFORMATION To talk with a P&G scientist or to learn about ongoing research at P&G Beauty, contact: Lauren Thaman Hodges P&G Beauty Science 513-626-1370 Heather Cunningham P&G Beauty Science 513-626-2606

Introduction 1 Biological Facts
Getting to the Root of the Problem 1 Growing Concerns 2

For a substance that is technically dead, hair has a remarkable life of its own. From the biblical Samson, whose hair was a source of mythical strength, to the fairy-tale tresses of Rapunzel, hair is firmly rooted in the histories of all cultures as a statement, a style and a sign of the times. Beyond its biological function of keeping the head protected and warm — as much as 30 percent1 of a person’s body heat leaves through the head — hair’s true value lies in its ability to act as a highly personal, highly visual statement about one’s self. Hair can reflect culture, socioeconomic status, political views, marital status, even emotions. The lack of hair can also tell a story of health, genetics and even fashion sense. Today, sales of hair care and styling products add up to a multi-billion dollar industry. From braids to extensions, perms to highlights, 24-hour styling aids to hot combs, constantly improving technology is giving people more control over their hair — and its health — than ever before.

Biological Facts
Getting to the Root of the Problem
Hair is comprised of two distinct parts: the hair follicle, the point from which the hair grows, and the hair shaft, the visible hair strands. Hair is composed mainly of dead cells that have turned into keratin and binding material, along with water. Keratin, a complex protein made up of amino acid chains, is found primarily in the cortex, the inner layer of the hair, and its strength allows it to withstand damage caused by daily manipulation from hair dryers, chemical treatments, brushes and combs.

Advances In Science
It Started With Shampoo 3 Deposition Technology Delivers 4

Lab Notes
Stranded 5 Repaired 5

Emotional Attitudes & Behaviors
Hair Hurts and Heals 5

New Beauty Intelligence
Amino Acid Technology Rebuilds Hair From the Inside 6 Chroma Technology Intensifies Color Perception 7 Complete Regimes Improve Efficacy 8

medulla cortex hair cuticle cuticle of inner root sheath huxley’s layer henle’s layer connective tissue layer

Did You Know?
Weighing-in On Hair, and Its Care 9

Promising New Areas
Scientists Connect With Consumers With New Research in China 10 Research Into the True Cause of Ethnic Scarring Alopecia 10

A cross-section of the hair shaft reveals the hair layers, the most fundamental of which are the cortex, which provides the hair’s strength, and the cuticle, which protects the cortex fibers from mechanical damage and is responsible for surface properties of hair such as shine and smoothness.

The color of hair is due to the presence in the cortex of granules of pigment called melanin. Melanin is found in two forms. Eumelanin is the dark pigment that predominates in black and brunette hair. Phaeomelanin is a lighter pigment, found in red and blond hair. Most people have a unique mixture of the two, determined by genetics, with the mixtures also varying across one person’s head.


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The inner cortex is protected by the cuticle, the outer layer made 4-8 overlapping layers, arranged like shingles on a roof. The “f-layer”, (or 18- methyleicosanoic acid) is covalently bound to the cuticle surface of virgin hair and is hydrophobic in nature. The hydrophobicity protects the hair shaft against water and friction. When healthy, the cuticle reflects light on its surface, resulting in a visual shine band. However, environmental, chemical and mechanical manipulation can cause uplifting of the cuticle scale edges, which makes hair feel rough and look dull or, worse, can completely remove the entire cuticular layer, leading to breakage and splits in the shaft.

treatments, have to alter the structure of the hair to produce their cosmetic effect and if done repeatedly can rough up the cuticle while also leaving it more fragile so that future heat styling can quickly tear off areas of cuticle, leaving the cortex exposed. If a high conditioning rinse-off conditioner is used after every shampoo, chemical treaters can help shield the fragile cuticle from the damaging effects of heat styling.

(the intermediate phase) and telogen (the shedding phase). Ultimately, growth depends on genetics — one person’s hair may stay in the anagen phase longer than another before it reaches the telogen phase — producing longer hair over the same period of time. Each of the scalp’s 100,000 plus follicles will generally produce 20 new hairs across a lifetime and shed at random times. Follicles start to slow down production with age, as seen with hair thinning in elderly men and women, or due to genetic balding when follicles produce only very fine, pigment-free hairs. Hair thickness is also genetic — cutting it won’t result in denser hair, and scientists still don’t know what signals individual hair follicles to initiate the different phases of growth and shedding.2

It Started With Shampoo
The word shampoo, derived from words meaning “massaging,” did not appear in the English language as a “soap formulated for washing the hair,” until the mid1800s. Since then, scientists have developed products that can improve hair quality in as little as 30 seconds, or the amount of time most shampoos stay on hair. Shampoos consist primarily of three agents — surfactants, silicones and cationic polymers — along with preservatives, perfumes, and, sometimes, dyes and anti-dandruff ingredients.3 • Surfactants contain both hydrophobic ingredients, those attracted to oil, and hydrophilic ingredients, those attracted to water, allowing shampoo to bind to and emulsify dirt, sebum and styling products in the hair and then remove them when rinsing. • Silicones are responsible for lubricating the hair, allowing for easier brushing and a smoother look and feel to the hair when dried. • Cationic polymers provide unique wet-conditioning and delivery benefits, allowing many consumers to forgo a separate conditioner if their hair is already in good condition. Conditioners contain many of the same ingredients found in shampoos but in concentrations and amounts to provide different benefits. In conditioners, cationic polymers are attracted to damaged areas on the hair’s cuticle surface and fortify weak areas while adding structure and body to the hair.4 Higher levels of conditioning are found in conditioners designed to

Hair that has never been styled with heat displays little damage, as shown in the photo of an Asian woman who lets her hair air dry after washing.

Damage to the hair cuticle due to repeated chemical treatments (left), backcombing or teasing (middle) and excessive heat and brushing (right).

Growing Concerns
Hair growth is of particular interest to people — how to make hair grow faster, slower, or to grow at all. Even though growth can be influenced by external and internal factors (e.g. hormones, medication, severe nutritional deficiencies), it is very difficult to permanently, or even temporarily, stop a follicle from growing a new hair. On average, hair grows at a rate of 1 centimeter (~1/2 inch) per month. The hair growth cycle consists of three phases: anagen (the growing phase), catagen

Environmental damage occurs slowly over time through exposure to UV light, which works in a similar way to bleach, oxidizing the melanin pigments in hair, changing its color and breaking down the keratin protein in the cortex of the hair, making it significantly weaker. The most serious mechanical damage occurs from backcombing (“teasing”), where the hair is combed in a reverse direction, thus lifting the cuticle scale edges up and back, permanently damaging the cuticle. Chemical treatments, such as perms and color-



smooth, reduce frizz or provide higher moisture. Another form of conditioner is the leave-in treatment, which is designed to stay in the hair and be focused in areas (i.e. ends) that need additional hydration and protection. Some styling products such as creams, lotions/milks and pomades not only provide style achievement benefits with their polymer holding ingredients, but also provide moisture and shine enhancement through the addition of conditioning ingredients such as dimethicone.
This illustration shows the cleaning stage, whereby: • Surfactant molecules are attracted to the oil and dirt particles on the hair surface • The conditioning agents are suspended in a crystalline matrix during the lathering process

Lab Notes

Emotional Attitudes & Behaviors
Hair Hurts and Heals
Healthy-looking hair is the key to confidence. Research has shown that personal performance is measurably affected by consumers having a bad hair day, and 88 percent of women agree that it is important that their hair looks good so they can feel good about themselves.6

When hair is damaged, the cuticle layers are uplifted, diffusing light and causing a dull, broad shine band and overall diminished shine on the hair’s surface.

Having a “bad hair day” is all in your head. A study conducted in 2000 by Marianne LaFrance at Yale University found that experiencing a “bad hair day” leads to reduced self-esteem, increased selfconsciousness and increased social insecurity.7

This illustration shows the wet conditioning phase of the shampoo process whereby:
Untreated Shampoo, Conditioner, Calming Masque

• The surfactants have surrounded the oil and dirt particles and carry them away in the rinse water • Conditioning agents are released from suspension. The positively charged polymers form coacervates with anionic surfactants; coacervates and dimethicone droplets deposit on hair

The same hair, treated and untreated, highlights the benefits that conditioning agents can provide.

Trends in recent years have moved towards a wide range of shampoos and conditioners specifically targeted for individual types of hair, from color-treated to dry, fine or curly.

After hair is treated with conditioner, the cuticle cells lay flat, reflecting light and causing hair to have a bright, sharp shine band and maximum shine. When hair is damaged due to excess coloring, perming and brushing, it can become dry and frizzy, leading to a tell-tale “bad hair day” (left). Hair that is in optimal condition can help boost self-esteem (right).

Deposition Technology Delivers
Science has transformed shampoos from simple soaps to complex chemical products employing deposition technology that allows agents within the shampoo to perform independently at different stages. Formulators have reengineered ingredients to consist of smaller particles, allowing for better coverage, a lighter-feeling shampoo and higher ingredient concentrations to provide maximum efficacy.5
The third photo demonstrates the dry conditioning stage, whereby: • The majority of the water-rich coacervate evaporates and the dimethicone droplets spread out and form a thin film on the hair as the hair dries

Finding the solution is exciting for consumers. Hair problems are a source of anxiety for many people, driving them to spend hundreds of dollars each year on improving the look and style of their hair. In fact, increasing hair volume by only 1/2" to 1" is perceived as a very exciting change by consumers.8

With coacervate-aided deposition technology, the coacervate can trap other active ingredients and deposit them onto the hair. This allows for the addition of ingredients to shampoos and conditioners, such as pyrithione zinc, pro-vitamin B5, amino acids or botanicals.



New Beauty Intelligence
Amino Acid Technology Rebuilds Hair From the Inside
Basic biology teaches that amino acids are the building blocks of all proteins in the human body, from skin and nails to the heart and organs. Keratin, the primary protein in hair, is made up of 21 different amino acid building blocks that support the structure of the hair fibers. In fact, up to 90 percent of the hair shaft is composed of amino acids, with the remaining 10 percent containing water, trace minerals, lipids and pigment.

In an effort to rebuild hair from the inside, P&G Beauty scientists examined hair fibers down to their genetic foundation and discovered a difference in the chemical composition of the roots and the ends. Amino acids are lost in a particular combination and not in uniform quantities when hair is “weathered” through damage from mechanical, environmental and chemical factors, over time. Out of the 21 amino acids present in the hair, they identified six specific acids — lysine, histidine, tyrosine, cystine, methionine and tryptophan — that are diminished in different percentages from root to tip when the hair structure is damaged.
This illustration represents a model that shows how amino acids can escape from the inner cortex of the hair strand through pores and holes in the cuticle surface.

of a shampoo and conditioner system containing the tri-amino complex have demonstrated an increase in relative hair strength by 95 percent versus the nonconditioning shampoo control. Hair is also able to retain moisture in a greater quantity, leading to less tangling caused by dry hair.

Every time the hair is rewetted and the hydrogen bonds are broken apart, the HTL amino acids penetrate the cortex of the hair, strengthening the fragile hair structure. The relative concentration of amino acids delivered to the hair shaft depends on the amount of damage, the number of product treatment cycles and the combination of multiple delivery systems, such as shampoo and conditioner used together in one washing. Upon drying, the HTL formula bonds to the individual hair fibers to improve hair’s tensile strength.

Chroma Technology Intensifies Color Perception
Globally, an estimated 50 percent of women color-treat their hair, with the highest rates in Australia and Mexico.9 Bottle blondes have always turned heads, but today’s wide-ranging color palette of hair dyes gives women unlimited choices. The one thing that hasn’t changed over time is that color-treated hair needs special treatment, and that many women tend to forgo specialized products that can help improve the health of color-treated hair.

Damage to the hair occurs over time. These pictures demonstrate a fairly healthy root (left); slightly damaged middle of the hair, where the layers of the cuticle have been ruffled (middle); and very damaged tip of the hair, which contains no cuticle at all (right).
Histodine Lysine Tyrosine

Scanning Focused Ion Beam Analysis was used to prove that the amino acids penetrate into the inner cortex of the hair strand. Additional damage protection tests

The bonds formed when amino acid blocks combine to form the helical keratin protein rods inside the cortex, provide a strong structure to the hair fibers and guard against breakage. In fact, human hair is so strong that a single strand can support 100 grams of weight — with up to 150,000 strands on a human head, a whole head of hair could support the weight of an African elephant! However, everyday hair care practices, such as heat, brushing, coloring, perming, relaxing and styling, lead to the loss of amino acid levels in hair, particularly in the older tip region of the hair.

Scientists were challenged to develop a mechanism for replenishing the hair cortex with the essential amino acids lost when hair is damaged and in the specific places where they are needed. Three amino acids — histidine, tyrosine and lysine (HTL complex) — were identified as those most suitable for use in cosmetic products which also provide a measurable benefit in the reparation of the hair. P&G Beauty scientists developed a new HTL amino acid technology in a ratio of 1:2:3 that mimics the HTL ratio in healthy, undamaged human hair.
Scanning Focused Ion Beam Nuclear Reaction Analysis of a cross section of a hair strand treated with the HTL amino complex indicates with the red/orange color that the amino acid complex has penetrated into the center or cortex of the strand. Images of the cuticles of color-treated hair reveal a fairly healthy cuticle after a dark brown color treatment (left), a damaged cuticle with red/dark blond color treatment (middle), and a completely exposed cortex from intense and repeated bleaching to obtain light blond hair (right).

Color Influences Care
There are over 45 shades in a typical retail color brand of hair dye, with five distinct subgroups of hair color: light blondes, dark blondes, light browns, dark browns and reds.10 Research shows that color choice can



determine the degree of damage, so each color, to some degree, demands personalized post-salon treatment from a hair care line. Repeated light-blond color treatments, especially in longer hair, can lead to the eventual stripping of the outer cuticle down to the cortex, leading to rough feeling, parched ends that lack shine. Blondes therefore demand a regimen of conditioners and treatment to provide protection of the fragile cuticle post-treatment. Color-treated redheads can also experience damaging effects, especially if moving to a red color that is significantly lighter in shade to their natural color. Color-treated redheads tend to experience shifting of their color to copper and brown shades, “brown out”, and significant fading as the small red color molecule escapes from the hair strand. Redheads typically require a conditioning formulation that can help maintain color vibrancy and protect and smooth the cuticle to ensure optimal shine reflection.

hydrophobic and returns the treated hair to its more virgin hair state in both look and feel. In addition, protected hydrophobic hair with a restored lipid F-layer results in less damaged hair. Healthier hair takes color more evenly during future color treatments and keeps the color richer for a longer period of time.

Hair with optimum shine has a wide, intense shine band on the surface of the hair due to parallel fibers with smooth, intact cuticles. Healthy hair also displays a chroma band, which shows color saturation and purity against a base color on the rest of the hair. Hair that has been damaged does not display distinct chroma and shine bands, and therefore the quality of the reparation of colored hair can be measured by the appearance of these two bands.

Weighing-in on Hair, and Its Care
• P&G sells about 300 million 200 ml bottles of conditioner per year – enough bottles to circle the entire circumference of the world! • P&G Beauty researchers use up to 200 pounds of hair every year for critical studies, more than any other hair care company. • The average diameter of a single strand of fine hair is as small as half the thickness of a sheet of paper (56 microns).11 • If all the hairs on a single 12-inch-long head of hair were laid end-to-end, they would stretch 26 miles.12 • The total surface area of a 12-inch-long head of hair is equal to the square footage of a small kitchen!13 • The Japanese buy more hair conditioners than shampoo and invest more in hair care annually ($32.30) than the British or Americans, who were tied at $30 per year in 1998.14 • More than half of those who shampoo in the UK, the US and Japan use conditioner as well.

Complete Regimens Improve Efficacy
Recent research into the development of new hair care lines has led scientists to discover that for maximum
Untreated hair (left) vs. hair treated with a color conditioner containing the new BAPDMA cationic surfactant (right).

improvement in hair quality, a complete hair regimen should be used. Complete hair regimens include “in bath” products – shampoos and conditioners – and “out of bath” products – leave in treatments, styling crèmes, milks and stylers containing product ingredients.

The new conditioning technology improves hair cuticle smoothness and alignment, resulting in increased light for shine and improved chroma bloom for color richness and vibrancy. These customized formulas for blondes, brunettes and redheads help protect against damage and reduce color fade by up to 70 percent. However, scientists sought additional ways to quantify improvement for the consumer beyond reparation of the cortex, which cannot be seen by the naked eye. Thus chroma band imaging was born.

Un-Conditional Color
Since cuticle integrity is critical to maximizing color uptake and retention, and providing ultimate prismatic shine, P&G Beauty science product developers have utilized a new breakthrough conditioning agent ideal for color treaters. This new cationic surfactant has a longer hydrophobic (water repelling) chain to help provide chemically processed hair with a surrogate lipid-rich Flayer. The microscopically thin F-layer provides natural weatherproofing while helping to seal in moisture and help prevent damage. Hair’s natural F-layer is lost when it is color-treated. Color-treated hair that has been treated with the new conditioning technology becomes more

Chroma Band
(color, chroma, saturation, purity, hue)

Shine Band
(shine, gloss, sheen, reflectance)

Base Color



WHAT’S COMING Promising New Areas
Scientists Connect With Consumers With New Research in China
While products are tested thoroughly in the lab to ensure safety and efficacy, the most important test is with the consumer — whether the product performs well in a real-world application. Scientists at P&G harvested over 7,000 samples of hair from women in Guangzhou and Chengdu, China, to determine how well silicone technology performed on their hair after they used a P&G Beauty shampoo and conditioner technology (in vivo) versus hair swatches washed in the laboratory (in vitro). The scientists found that in vivo, silicone deposition was much lower than in vitro. The scientists administered a questionnaire to study participants to determine which consumer habits and practices impacted silicone deposition, and drew several conclusions: • Consumers who wash more frequently have higher silicone deposition. • Increasing the levels of large particle silicone increases the amount of deposition on the hair. • Conditioner usage decreases the amount of silicone on the hair. Scientists used this data to modify the in vitro deposition method to more closely match the method used in vivo, when testing silicone distribution. This data is important for future product development,

because the method for testing hair samples in the lab will more closely reflect the hair care behaviors of consumers, leading to more efficacious products. P&G scientists are planning additional studies of women in other areas of China and in Mexico City to draw comparisons between the two countries.

P&G Beauty recently provided the North American Hair Research Society (NAHRS) a research grant to begin investigations into better understanding the incidence and levels of severity of CCCA across the U.S., with the ultimate goal of identifying the causes of this problem and finding solutions. Top dermatologists and hair researchers from North America and South Africa met in September, 2004, at Duke University Medical Center, to begin development of the first-ever visual, standardized grading scale to measure the amount of hair loss caused by CCCA. Currently, there is no consistent assessment tool that can help dermatologists quantify this unique type of hair loss or enable them to consistently communicate

biopsies for biological analysis. Doctors and scientists hope that this research will lead to improved early recognition of this disease by women, their stylists and their doctors so that the bald patches can perhaps be reversed before they become permanent. Eventually the hope is that this research will help determine causal factors so that preventive therapy can be communicated and new treatment protocols can be developed.

New technology can repair damaged hair from the inside, leading to visible improvements on the outside.
New technology has led to the development of products that can alter hair structure and strengthen it from the inside rather than just smoothing over the problem. Hair care has also become increasingly specialized, with products that target every hair type and problem in the world.

Scientists test hair samples in the lab to determine the amount of silicone deposition in vivo versus in vitro.

the level of hair loss to their patients and other professionals. The team is hoping that this visual severity scale can also be used by women and their stylists to help identify this disease in its earliest stages.

Research Into the True Cause of Ethnic Scarring Alopecia
Ethnic scarring alopecia, medically known as Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia (CCCA), is a common type of scarring alopecia (hair loss) that affects thousands of women of African descent in varying degrees. It typically affects the central scalp. Although various hair grooming techniques, including hot combing and chemical relaxers, have been blamed for this condition, the dermatology research community is still working on discovering its cause. There may even be a genetic component involved in who tends to be at risk. However, many women and their stylists do not identify the early stages of this disease and get treatment. If left untreated, this disease can lead to a significant level of visual, permanent hair loss.

Typical Ethnic Scarring Alopecia (CCCA) on the central scalp.

Once the scale has been established, researchers plan to use it in a larger national study to determine the incidence and severity of CCCA among the African American female community. Doctors and researchers will also conduct interviews to determine personal health histories and styling habits, and examine scalp



1. Beers, Mark H., M.D., and Berkow, Robert, M.D., Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Merck & Co, 2004. 2. Gray, John, M.D. The World of Hair. Available through Procter & Gamble. 3. Procter & Gamble Beauty Science. Shampoo Technology Overview. Data on file. 4. Procter & Gamble Beauty Science. Hair Habits, Needs & Solutions: Common Cosmetic Hair Disorders and Therapies. Data on file. 5. Procter & Gamble Beauty Science. Hair Habits, Needs & Solutions: Common Cosmetic Hair Disorders and Therapies. Data on file. 6. Procter & Gamble Beauty Science. Hair Habits, Needs & Solutions. Data on file. 7. LaFrance, Marianne. An Experimental Investigation into the Effects of Bad Hair. Yale University, 2000. 8. Gray, John, M.D. The World of Hair. Available through Procter & Gamble. 9. Procter & Gamble Beauty Science. Pantene Pro-V ColorExpressions. Data on file. 10. Procter & Gamble Beauty Science. Pantene Pro-V Color Expressions. Data on file. 11. Gray, John, M.D. The World of Hair. Available through Procter & Gamble. 12. Gray, John, M.D. The World of Hair. Available through Procter & Gamble. 13. Gray, John, M.D. The World of Hair. Available through Procter & Gamble. 14. Smith, Susan, Walsh, Kelly. Classified, Condition Critical. Euromonitor, 1999.


The Hair Care Research Update CD holds a PowerPoint presentation of the charts and illustrations in this toolkit. Feel free to use these images. Please credit P&G Beauty.