Course of the Chinese Civil War

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					Course of the Chinese Civil War Or should I say…

Background: -When the Japanese surrendered, the Nationalists and the Communists began a mad scramble to seize territory that had been occupied by the Japanese. - Communists were at an advantage since the bulk of the occupied territories were in the north of China. -The Americans, however, intervened, and sent 50,000 American troops to occupy key ports and urban centers and to wait for occupying Nationalist forces - Although the Nationalists won the first round, the communists controlled all the countryside in north China and Manchuria. - many attempts at negotiations, many of them brokered by the United States, but the Communists and the Nationalists could not come to agreements about troop size or the autonomy of communist controlled areas. In July, Chiang attacked communist territories head-on and the civil war began. In mid-1946, Chiang decided to solve the problem militarily. He met with swift and easy victories—from July to December, 1946, Chiang's army seized over a hundred thousand square miles of communist territory. … YAN-AN March 1947 – the communist capital is seized by the nationalists March 18th – Mao is evacuated By June 1947 the Communists had lost control of 191, 000 km2 and 18 million people But these losses were not so disastrous, as they were mainly symbols of CCP control but not the source of their fighting strength! National Assembly -Confident that the GMD would win over the CCP, Chiang convened the National Assembly to produce a constitution, ratified on January 1, 1947. -Reaffirms Three People's Principles as the foundation of government, established the government on a five yüan system, and based the entire system on the "four powers of the people": vote, recall, initiative, referendum. -The Nationalists held a national election for the National Assembly and on April 19, 1948, the National Assembly elected Chiang K'ai-shek as President of China. Manchuria Communist army had grown to 1.95 million soldiers March 1948: 150,000 nationalists die by Pin Pao … it was the ―beginning of the end‖ for the nationalists. Nationalists were spread think because they held posts at re-conquered areas Northern and Central China Lin Pao’s 800 000 army (now free of their commitment to Manchuria) formed a pincer against Peiping-Tientsin in December 1948 !! But a communist agent stole the nationalists’ plans and strategy! As a result, the Nationalist were defeated and then Nationalist garrison fell in January … they lost 1.5 million men. This was a momentous nationalist collapse… South of the Yangzi Li Tsung Jen tried to negotiate with communists but they said no! On April 21-24th the CCP occupied Nanking The main problem was in dealing with defected GMD troops

Although not all of China was conquered by the CCP…On October 1st 1949 Mao Zedong declared the People’s Republic! Marking the end of the communist’s 28 years of struggle… Role of the USA The USA would not fund a civil war and so gave limited aid and advice 27.7 million dollars of aid in October 1947 from US and a US advisory group was set up to help Chiang Kai-Shek US gave 400 million dollars to GMD in the summer of 1948 but it was ―too little, too late‖ The GMD had expected a Republican victory and so were courting the republicans for aid, but Truman (a democrat) won and so aid was even less than expected CCP Conduct of Civil War -conducted political re-education for captured GMD soldiers because… Unlike Stalin, Mao believed that ―A re-educated person is better than a dead person‖ (at least, at this point he did) -cared well for soldiers - Definition of Guerrilla warfare: Organization depends on local circumstance, equipment is whatever available on site, many small units acting independently, little interference or cooperation between units, attack key aspects in offensive (infrastructure, for instance the CCP attacked Chiang supply line), mobile, flexible and agile… Like ―a fleet of gnats biting from behind‖ --1948 shifted to conventional battles in the country -they linked with peasant resistance movement and mobilized peasants to provide support: 2 million peasants helped! -never harmed civilians -they had the support of the masses, and ―won the peasants’ hearts‖ -by the spring of 1947 they had most of North China (their expansion moved from North to South throughout course of war) -within army: promotion was based on merit, not loyalty to Mao… this meant that strong leaders were promoted

GMD Conduct of Civil War -used conscription -had control of air, used for transport of supplies -held cities without holding surrounding countryside, over confident -sent large bodies of troops to Manchuria -orders were often impractical as they were personally issued by Chiang -had 4 strategic corridors and railway -there was HUGE inflation and an impoverished populace -student rebellions -the GMD lost the respect and confidence of the people

Why did the Communists Win the Civil War? -the 8 year war with Japan had exhausted the GMD -the GMD was tired and weary despite great training and equipment from war with Japan (Sino-Japanese War) -the GMD strategy wasn’t effective, they didn’t defend the Great Wall and sent too many troops to Manchuria -the CCP mix of guerrilla and conventional warfare strategies were more effective than GMD conventional -The CCP had the people’s support….. Many, many more reasons…

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