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					Preparatory meeting for the implementation of the PCCP courses in Latin America and the Caribbean
(Montevideo, Uruguay, 2-4 May 2005)

FINAL REPORT

1. Opening ceremony 2. Introduction 3. The African experience 4. Preliminary discussion 5. Course organization 6. Logistic issues 7. Closure Annex 1. List of participants Annex 2. Agenda Annex 3. Approved Course Book Contents Annex 4. Course Material Regionalization Considerations Annex 5. Approved Reader Contents Annex 6. Approved Handouts Contents Annex 7. Recommended Reference materials Annex 8 Suggested Case Studies Annex 9. Chronology of Activities Annex 10. Regionalization Coordinators Annex 11. Welcoming remarks by Mr. Van Hooff

1. OPENING CEREMONY
nd

On May the 2

2005, at 9:30 a.m. the first Meeting for the UNESCO from Potential Conflict to Co-

operation Potential (PccP) programme in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) was opened.

Ms. María Concepción Donoso, UNESCO Regional Hydrologist for Latin America and the Caribbean, welcomed the participants and introduced Mr. Hermann Van Hooff, Officer in Charge of the UNESCO Montevideo office. Mr. Van Hoof expressed his pleasure to the meeting for the implementation of the “Potential conflict to co-operation Potential” project in Latin America and the Caribbean. He affirmed the importance to develop new policy strategies in order to sustainable manage water resources and to come close to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) related to water. Finally Mr. Van Hoof reiterated that education is one of the best human development tools, and expressed the hope that the participants would be able to take back to their countries, institutions, and organizations the experience gained with this new work team (see annex 11).

2. INTRODUCTION

The participants (see annex 1) presented themselves, their background, and the projects in which they are involved.

Ms. Donoso presented the International Hydrological Programme (IHP), and the work camed out with the IHP National Committees and the IHP Focal Points (where a National Committee is not present) in LAC. Ms. Donoso referred to the projects managed by or in which IHP is involved in LAC. She also described that the VI Phase of the IHP (2002-07), entitled “Water interactions: Systems at Risk and Social Challenges”, and the main lines of actions of the biennium 2004-05 which are the followings:

   

Global change and water: advancing hydrological sciences for improved assessment Water for human needs Water education and capacity-building for sustainable development and security Land-water interactions: towards sustainable development

Moreover, she explained that there are some programmes managed directly by IHP, and other

programmes managed as joint initiatives with other agencies/organizations (e.g.: HELP, FRIEND, ISARM). Finally, the actions being discussed for the biennium 2006-07 and the VII Phase (20082012) were cited. To conclude Ms. Donoso indicted that the Meeting of the National IHP-LAC Committees in October 2005 in Kingston (Jamaica) is described as a most important meeting in the year in course.

Following, Ms. Léna Salamé, International Hydrological Programme of the Division of the Water Sciences of the UNESCO, Paris, introduced the UNESCO-PccP project at a global level. She explained that the main purpose of the project is “strengthening the capacity of Member States and other key players in the management of shared water resources, to anticipate, prevent and resolve water conflicts”. Ms. Salamé referred to the following concrete goals to be achieved by PccP, namely:

- Development of educational material - Development of the appropriate institutional frameworks - Contribution to the improvement of legal tools - Development of a comprehensive information system - Dissemination of results

Further, Ms. Salamé noted that the second phase, started in 2004, on the base of the first phase achievements, has four main outputs: Research, Education, Technical Assistance, and Public Awareness and Outreach. In relation to the educational field, the following activities are planned:

a. One-year programme at UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education b. Adaptation of 4 short courses to different regions of the World c. Improvement of an electronic game

In relation to the point b, the courses have already been implemented as pilot courses in Southern Africa countries and is now expected to translate/regionalize and implement the courses in other regions of the World, the first of them will be Latin America.

In turn, Mr. Antonio Graziano, IHP/LAC, presented the following objectives of the meeting.

- Integrate the different backgrounds of the working team - Focus on regional issues concerning water management and conflict prevention in LAC

- Focus on the contents for a short post graduate course in LAC Region - Prepare a work plan for the adaptation/regionalization of the PccP short course to the LAC region

He also presented the working agenda for the meeting (see annex 2).

3. THE AFRICAN EXPERIENCE

Mr. Pieter van der Zaag, UNESCO-IHE institute for Water Education, described the PccP African Experience. The course was developed for UNESCO as a joint effort of different partners: Centre of Conflict Resolution (South Africa), High Institute of International Relations (Mozambique), CATALIC, WaterNet, UNESCO-IHE (The Netherlands). Mr. van der Zaag, after the description of the course objectives and structure, explained the general evaluation of the course, and stressed the following points: - The importance to focus on integrated water resource management, taking into account technical issues, together with economic, legal, and social issues - The non water experts were provided with a good understanding of the complexities of water resources management, and water experts acquired basic, but essential, negotiation and conflict resolution skills. - Twenty years ago, it was not possible to find this kind of course in Africa. It is something new, which is really disseminating new tools in the continent - The simulation games developed for the course are very useful to learn. They constitute a very exciting instrument to develop new skills.

4. PRELIMINARY DISCUSSION

After the presentation of a proposal for the chronology of activities to be carried out, a brain storming session took place in order to focus on the main issues related to the course. The participants expressed their opinions/ideas/suggestions about the most relevant themes. In relation to the course participants, it was recommended that each country could propose a professional with physical science background (Water Expert) and a professional with background in humanities or with present managerial duties (Non-water Expert), as in the case of the African course. Moreover, it emerged the possibility to invite, besides the two categories of Water Experts and Non-Water Experts, a third category of participants, the Journalists, as a category of professionals involved in describing conflicts to the public. It was also suggested to

start thinking about other categories of participants to be included in the future editions of the course.

Further, it was underlined that the present work team is composed by members coming from different countries of LA in order to cover a wide range of regions: Central America, Caribbean, Andean Region, Brazil, Southern Cone. This regional coverage will be very useful, in the future, to disseminate future editions of the course in LAC. In particular, the long term vision has to be based on 3 kinds of dissemination: 1. Universities, 2. Professionals, 3. others (Indigenous people, Decision makers, etc…). In addition, it was suggested that the instructors of the first course will be, mostly, the same members of the work team. The debate then focused on some main issues which should be contemplated in the LA version of the course. It was stressed the importance to include internal countries conflicts (e.g. from Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and Bolivia) and to think about Micro- Meso- Macro- conflicts. In many cases in this field it is not possible to really distinguish between National and International conflicts. In relation to the course organization, there was a general agreement that this first edition has to be used as a laboratory, to present a Methodology and to cover, with the case studies, all the main issues related to Water and Conflict in LAC. Mr. van der Zaag added that it makes sense to find regional case studies for the course discussions, because the participants are “sentimentally” involved. It means that they take their role seriously, and can increase their knowledge and awareness in a protected environment. It was also discussed the possibility of having a distance course. Ms. Salamé explained that it represents a big modality change and it is in course of evaluation, at the moment, to give place to an electronic version of the African course. Some concepts to eventually integrate the course in future development were presented. 1. Civil society can have a big role in Conflict Resolution 2. Military personnel involved in the management of water resources during crisis situations and, in some cases of LAC, the army is involved in the territory administration 3. In relation to the legislation regarding internal conflict, it is possible to find, in the different countries that already faced with the issue, similar sets of laws. Ms. Donoso explained that the IHP/LAC National Committees meeting, that will be held in next October in Jamaica, could give more inputs at the regionalization/translation process in progress.

5. COURSE ORGANIZATION The material of the course “Conflict prevention and Cooperation in International Water Resources”, consists of 3 publications, namely “Course book”, “Reader”, and “Handouts”. The “Course book” is the text book of the course and constitutes the basic reading material. The “Reader” contains additional reference materials and articles to complement the concepts and teaching of the Course book. The “Handouts” contains role plays, simulation games, and exercises to support the didactic process. The discussion was focused on the organization of the 3 books, the general framework of the course material, and the identification of the theoretical material to be changed/added/eliminated. During the discussion, the Course book content was revised, with the subsequent product of the document of the annex 3, in which the approved Course content is presented. A series of considerations where made in relation to each chapter of the Course Book, which can be found in the annex 4. Moreover, the name of the course was changed in “Prevención de conflictos y cooperación en el manejo del Agua en America Latina”. It was agreed to keep the General structure of the course so that the “Road Map”, which describes the sequence of the arguments to be covered (Water – Issues – Conflict – Practice – Strategy) will remain the same. Also the general framework of the course, in relation to the International water issues, will remain the same, Conflicts, will be introduced. The discussion produced, as well, an agreement in relation to the addition /elimination/ translation/ regionalization of papers in the reading book (annex 5). but some elements, related to National

Consensus was reached among the participants on not to change, basically, the handouts book contents. Moreover, for Part 4 (Practice) and Part 6 (Role-play) of the handouts book it was recommended that care should be taken for the contents to follow the course book. For Part 6, it was recommended to provide two facilitators to present the practice related to this part. The role plays will be developed only on two levels: International level, that already exists and will be complemented; the National level that will be created. There is a 3 level, the Community level, that could be developed in the next editions of the course. In developing further case studies/practices it is important to take into account two elements: 1. The International Perspective 2. The Comparative Perspective. It has been suggested the possibility to develop case studies by the members of the PccP working group, using graduate students to compile the existing bibliography and documents and help put together the exercise. It was suggested to have 3 kinds of case studies:1. Readers 2. Handouts 3. Suggested Bibliography. Finally, it was recommended that one case study should take into account international/national negotiations
rd

involving civil society at a grassroots level. In this case, a resource person to develop this issue should be found.

Additionally, bibliographic references were given during the discussion, and the participants were encouraged to consider the reference indications (annex 7) both as potential material for the Course Book, as well as complementary material for the Reader. Some of the documents listed will be provided, as indicated in annex 7, by the members of the teamwork. Moreover, a shortlist of case studies, in relation to each chapter, was produced (annex 8).

In relation to the pilot course organization, it was decided that the course trainers will be the members of the working group, although some other experts can be invited. The number of participants to the course will be between 15 and 23 and they will be of 3 categories, namely Water Managers, Non-Water Managers, and Journalists. The selection criteria will be decided by UNESCO in coordination with the working group. The pilot course will be carried out in one university and, in relation to eventual extra budgetary funds, other universities will be added. The UNESCO will send a tentative budget of the cost of the pilot course in the different countries. Each country will search other extra budgetary funds.

Finally, the chronology presented at the beginning of the meeting was revised with all the participants’ consensus and the final version is presented in the annex 9.

6. LOGISTIC ISSUES

During the meeting, it was stressed the importance to pay special attention to all the issues regarding the coordination and the logistic during the entire period following the meeting till the evaluation phase. The coordination of the regionalization of each chapter of the course book has been assigned to a member of the group (annex 10). Mr. Gilberto Canali will act as the general coordinator of the regionalization process. Both for the Course Book and for the Reader, the general orientation will be to find documents, in Spanish, which can replace the ones in English and/or which cover the regionalization issues discussed. At the same time, it was decided to use as much as possible the written material that already exists. The translation of the remaining documents, will be managed by UNESCO. Documents in Portuguese will not need to be translated to be included in the course materials.

The suggested bibliography and the references material in English will not be translated into Spanish. A very special attention will be paid at the communication between the members of the group. There will be different levels of communication: - Communication between the experts, to share suggestions, ideas, etc… - Communication between the chapter coordinator and the other experts helping to search/write papers for that chapter - Communication between the general coordinator of the regionalization, Mr. Canali, and one or more chapter coordinators - It was agreed to have a conference call, once a month, in which will participate, at least, Mr. Canali, Mr. Graziano, Ms. Donoso and/or Ms. Salamé. The call will be useful to see the advance of the work - Weekly news will be sent by Mr. Graziano, to inform the group about the short term steps and new publications identified.

All the communications among members of the group will be copied to Mr. Graziano, in order to have a centralized file.

A web page dedicated to the UNESCO-PccP course in Latin America, will be created. This page will be used to: - Put general documents related to the project (English version of the course and other PccP already existing documents) - Put files with specific issues documents (Water, Law, Economy, etc…). All the new articles will be sent to Mr. Graziano, who will put them in the page. - Download the documents needed by the members of the group. The page will have totally/partially restricted access, and the use will be regulated by a password. The original working material is established to be the English version of the course, on the PccPUNESCO Compact Disc.

7. CLOSURE

At the end of this technical/logistic session, Mr. van der Zaag explained, on behalf of the UNESCO-IHE, that they are keen to be involved and to follow this phase of the project, and they will enjoy the participation in the work of the group.

Following, Ms. Salamé thanked all the participants and explained that the IHP Secretariat in UNESCO, Paris, is looking in a very positive way to the Latin American work related to the PccP.

Finally, Ms. Donoso thanked all the participants who have traveled to Montevideo in order to face this new challenge, and thanked, in addition, all the Unesco personnel from the Montevideo office who helped in the realization of the PccP meeting for the LAC region.
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The meeting concluded May the 4 , 2005, at 12.00 a.m.

Annex. 1 Preparatory meeting for the implementation of the PCCP courses in Latin America and the Caribbean Place UNESCO ROSLAC, Edificio Mercosur, Montevideo, Uruguay nd Dr. Luis Piera 1992, 2 floor
nd

May the 2

Date rd th ,3 and 4 2005

List of Participants Argentina Claudia E. Natenzon Profesora Instituto de Geografía Facultad de Filosofía y Letras Universidad de Buenos Aires Puán 480 – 4º piso 1406 Buenos Aires Postal address: Cucha Cucha 2478 1416 Buenos Aires Argentina Tel.: (54 11) 4432-0606, ext. 169 Fax: 4432-0121. natenzon@filo.uba.ar Brasil Gilberto Valente Canali Av. Rubens Arruda Ramos 1496/1001 88015.700 Florianópolis SC Brasil Tel.: (55 48) 225 0064 (55 41) 9963 1686 Fax: (55 41) 225 0338 gvcanali@br.inter.net Ecuador Jorge Duque Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Ciencias de la Producción ESPOL Campus Gustavo Galindo KM 30.5 Via Perimetral P.O.BOX 09-01-5863 Guayaquil Ecuador Tel.:(593 4) 226 9372 jduque@espol.edu.ec México Beatriz Campillo PAPCN-CEIICH-UNAM Insurgentes Sur # 3000, Torre II de Humanidades, Piso 4°, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510, Mexico, Distrito Federal México Tel.: (52 55) 5623.0263 Fax. 5623.0197 bcampilloc@yahoo.com.mx Adalberto Saviñón Centro Lindavista Insurgentes Norte #1579, Colonia Guadalupe Tepeyac, 07020, Mexico, Distrito Federal México Tel.: (52 55) 5781 Fax. 5781 paz@centrolindavista.org.mx as55@georgetown.edu

C.P.

5940 9346

Uruguay Luis Silveira Profesor Titular Departamento de Mecánica de los Fluídos IMFIA, Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de la República Julio Herrera y Reissig 565 Montevideo Uruguay Tel.: (598 2) 711 5276 ext. 126 Fax. 711 5277 lesy@fing.edu.uy

Venezuela Jose Ochoa Iturbe

Director Escuela de Ingenieria Civil Universidad Católica Andrés Bello Montalban Apartado Postal 20332 Caracas 1020 Venezuela Tel: (58 212) 407 4361/159 Fax: 407 4416 jochoa@ucab.edu.ve

phi@unesco.org.uy mcdonoso@unesco.org.uy Antonio Graziano Programa Hidrológico Internacional para América Latina y el Caribe UNESCO Montevideo agraziano@unesco.org.uy Zelmira May Secretaria Programa Hidrológico Internacional para América Latina y el Caribe UNESCO Montevideo phi@unesco.org.uy Oficina de UNESCO en Montevideo Luis Piera 1992 piso 2 11300 Montevideo Uruguay Tel.: (598 2) 413 2075 Fax: 413 2094

UNESCO Léna Salamé UNESCO - Division of Water Sciences 1, rue Miollis 75015 Paris, Francia Tel: (33 1) 4568 4180 Fax: 4568 5811 l.salame@unesco.org Pieter van der Zaag UNESCO-IHE Westvest 7 2611 AX Delft The Netherlands Tel.: (31 15) 215 1829 Fax: 212 2921 p.vanderzaag@unesco-ihe.org Manuel E. Bernales-Alvarado Especialista de Programa Ciencias Sociales y Humanas UNESCO Montevideo Postal adress: Bvd. Artigas 280 apto. 503 Punta Carretas Montevideo Uruguay Tel.: (598 2) 710 2798 Fax: 710 2798 shs@unesco.org.uy mbernales@unesco.org.uy meba@adinet.com.uy María Concepción Donoso Hidróloga Regional María Concepción Donoso Hidróloga Regional para América Latina y el Caribe UNESCO Montevideo

Annex 2 Preparatory meeting for the implementation of the PCCP courses in Latin America and the Caribbean

Place UNESCO ROSLAC, Edificio Mercosur, Montevideo, Uruguay nd Dr. Luis Piera 1992, 2 floor
nd

May the 2

Date rd th ,3 and 4 2005

Agenda
nd

May, the 2 09:30

2005 Welcoming Remark Herman van Hooff – Officer in Charge, UNESCO Montevideo Opening session – Introducing IHP-LAC María Concepción Donoso General presentation of the PccP project and of the African PccP course outputs Lena Salamé Objective and meeting agenda presentation Antonio Graziano

11:00 11:30

Coffee-break Draft one year time table proposal presentation Brainstorming session: objectives, focus and length of the course

13:00 14:00

Lunch Course documents regionalization: Course book (which part will be useful to keep, to take out, to modify, to add) Coffee-break Course documents regionalization: Reading (which part will be useful to keep, to take out, to modify, to add) End of session

16:00 16:30

18:00

May, the 3 2005 9:00 Course documents regionalization: Handouts (which part will be useful to keep, to take out, to modify, to add) Coffee-break Course implementation: participants, institutions, trainers Lunch Identification of new theoretical material, case studies and role plays Coffee break Division of the roles: coordination, translation, documents writing and documents research, editing End of session
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rd

10:30 11:00 12:30 14:00 16:00 16:30

18:00

May, the 4 2005 09:00 10:30 Time table revision, budgetary issues Coffee-break

11:00 Future communications 12:30 Greetings Lena Salame, María Concepción Donoso

Annex 3 Preparatory meeting for the implementation of the PCCP courses in Latin America and the Caribbean “Prevención de Conflictos y Cooperación en el Manejo del Agua en America Latina” Approved Course Book Contents Introduction It was agreed that this part will be written at the end of the regionalization process, preferably by the coordinator of the regionalization Part 1: Water B.1.1. Introduction to IWRM B.1.2. Water Allocation B.1.3. Water quality issues in river basins B.1.4. Water-related Disasters Part 2: Issues 2.1 Human Rights and Conflict /Water Management 2.2. Water Security and Peace /sustainable development 2.3 Public policies as cause of conflict 2.4. International Water Law Regimes 2.5. Internal Water Regimes 2.6. Integration and co-operation in LA 2.7. Implementing Conventions and Protocols 2.8. Institutional and critical perspectives on Shared rivers 2.9. Personal Lessons by senior negotiators Part 3: Conflict 3.1 Understanding conflict 3.2 Conflict analysis 3.3 Conflict prevention, transformation resolution and follow up 3.4 Approaches to conflict resolution Part 4: Practice 4.1 Trust-building 4.2 Communication skills 4.3 Information systems and policy oriented research 4.4 Interest-based processes: negotiation and mediation 4.5 Collaborative decision-making, incorporating diversities 4.6 Team building / role clarification 4.7 Negotiation preparation 4.8 Use of technical systems for decision making Part 5: Strategy 5.1 Public participation 5.2 Networking 5.3 Lobbying 5.4 Shared vision development Part 6: Role-play General instruction and game rules

Annex 4 Preparatory meeting for the implementation of the PCCP courses in Latin America and the Caribbean “Prevención de Conflictos y Cooperación en el Manejo del Agua en America Latina” Course Material Regionalization Considerations Although the list of chapters and sections represents the approved new list of contents, the figures and page numbers in the specific considerations relate to the original course book content. Introduction It has been proposed to add a successful story of a water-related negotiation process in a box of about 300 words. It could represent a concrete presentation of the course, and a mean by which the participants could envision what should really be de final output of a negotiation process in the field of water resources management. Part 1: Water - General considerations         Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) should include Integrated Basin Management IWRN analysis should introduce principles of Equity, Participation, Human Rights etc… SADC (Africa) experience has to be replaced by similar LAC experiences Special attention should be paid to he concepts of “private” and “public” in relation to water resources in LAC. These terms should be well specified and a clear indicator of what they refer to and include should be given. The concept of Renewable Water should be better analyzed The concept of sustainability should be addressed in the sense of the value of water as an environmental, cultural, and socio-economic good Special attention to be paid to poverty, water allocation, inequality, and health Some basic concepts of economics related to water management should be introduced

Part 1: Water - Specific considerations by section 1.1 Introduction to IWRM  Fig. 1. The representation of the water cycle should be adapted to Latin America characteristics  Fig. 2 The water balance scheme and the percentage indications should be changed in relation to Latin America  Fig 3. The hydrological cycle representation, in relation to the Rainbow of Water, should be changed, in relation to Latin America or eliminated if the decision to take off the Rainbow of water is reached.  Fig.4 The water use percentages should be changed to reflect the values for the Latin American region  Pag.1-5 The Rainbow of water does not present a correspondence in Spanish language, where this kind of representation of the different types of water is not generally used.  Pag. 1-11. The “Virtual Water” concept should be better explained.  Pag. 1-15 Refer to a specific document (e.g. Santa Cruz Summit)  Pag. 1-14 Dublin Principles in a box, as information from an historical perspective  Pag. 1-15 Verify bibliography about the “Crucial role of women” in decision making in LAC

1.2 Water Allocation  Pag. 1-20 It is suggested to insert a box with an explication of the word privatization  Pag. 1-20: Box. The definition of water as a public or a private good, is an economic definition, and needs to be complemented with social and environmental concepts  Pag .1-21 table 1 and box 1 describe the amount of water in each economic sector in Namibia and the “value of water for maize” in Zimbabwe. This examples should be replaced, by Latin American examples.  Fig. 1-22 The description, by a graph, of the relationship between water use and yield for maize in Zimbabwe, should be replaced by a Latin American example  Pag. 1-23 A National perspective in the river basin management issue should be included  Pag. 1-24 The South African Water Act should be replaced by an equivalent agreement in LA 1.3 Water quality issues in river basins  Pag 1-36: Danube River Agreement should be substituted with the La Plata or Amazonian or other Treaties in LA  Pag 1-39: Add, to the river Rhine example related to water pollution management, other examples 1.4 Water-related Disasters  Risk analysis could be introduced in this chapter, and could be eventually inserted in a box  Pag. 1-47 The framework used in the text to describe food and drought, called DPSIR, should be replaced by another kind of framework, more clearly explicated

Part 2. Issues - General considerations (there are no specific considerations by section in this chapter)

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
   

Special attention should be paid to issues such as poverty and its eradication, water allocation, inequality, health, and resources capture by elites (in relation to the sections 2.1 and 2.2) The Governance issue should be introduced (sections 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3) The International water law regimes (section 2.4) could incorporate Latin America The Personal Lessons by senior negotiators (section 2.9) should contemplate field experiences It is suggested to make an analysis of the reasons why conventions and protocols have not been signed or ratified in LAC countries The Internal Water Regimes (section) issue should take into account the State and/or provincial level It is strongly suggested to find examples of integrations in Latin America (like SADC in Africa) It is suggested the introduction of a methodology chapter on how to analyze case studies. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) issue should be introduced

Part 3: Conflict - General considerations The conflict theory and analysis should be on the micro- meso- and macro- level Particular relevance should be given to the Latin American ways of resolving conflict (e.g. indigenous approach) Conflict resolution should always be presented from the perspective of justice and fairness It is recommended to highlight the importance of the participatory process



It is recommended to present case studies on conflict theory and analysis

Part 3: Conflict - Specific considerations by section 3.1 Understanding conflict  Pag. 3-8. The Circle of conflict needs to be better explained  The document by R.J.Fisher is a reference material only  It is recommended to use Latin American literature on conflict analysis, preferably related to the water or natural resources sectors. 3.2 Conflict analysis  It is decided that the section will be rewritten  It is recommended to use Fig.1 in the new text  It is recommended to use the existing text as reference in the reader book or in the suggested bibliography  Game theory to understand conflict should be introduced  It is recommended to write an introduction about different approaches/theories/conceptualization related to conflict analysis, specially applied to LA  It is recommended to use Latin America literature on conflict analysis/practical applications (preferably related to the water or natural resources sector)  It is recommended to take into account the interrelation between water and ethnic, economic, and social actors 3.3 Conflict prevention, transformation, resolution and follow up  It is decided that the section will be rewritten  It is recommended to Include an introduction approaches/theories/conceptualization applied to LA Part 4: Practice - General considerations

about

different

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

It recommended to describe Public Policy Making tools It is suggested to add Informations on mapping actors/stakeholders in a conflict situation (4.4 and/or 4.6) It is recommended to make an accurate research of the case studies related to the thematic of this chapter It is suggested to present the methodology for preparing case studies by the students It is suggested to introduce public policy making tools

Part 4: Practice - Specific considerations by section 4.1 Trust-building

▪ ▪ ▪

It is decided that the section will be rewritten

4.2 Communication skills The “elephant and blinds” story has to be written

4.3 Interest-based processes: negotiation and mediation Pag 4-24 the 3 paragraph of the subsection “What is a negotiation” has to be revised because of writing errors
rd

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Some examples about the agenda preparation for an event and the agreements procedure should be cited It is recommended to introduce/map actors in a conflict situation.

4.4 Collaborative decision-making, incorporating diversities It is decided that the section will be rewritten The “diversities issue” should include a wide range of diversities: gender, ethnic, religious, age, etc…

4.5 Team building / role clarification 4.6 Negotiation preparation

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Pag. 4-74 the example of negotiation in SADC countries should be changed with an equivalent example in LA The negotiation preparation has to be intended at National/Regional level It is recommended to talk about negotiation referred to NGOs and Natural Resources It is recommended some text about regional/internal negotiations

4.7 Information systems and policy oriented research It is decided that the section will be rewritten

4.8 Use of technical systems for decision making It is decided that the section will be rewritten It is recommended to make an overview of existing models (+, –, and constraints of different models)

Part 5: Strategy - Specific considerations by section (there are no general considerations in this chapter) 5.1 Public participation

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

It is decided that the section will be rewritten It is decided to keep the exercise “Diplomatic practice in a negotiation context: overview elements and items for plenary discussion”, related to the section

5.2 Networking It is decided that the section will be rewritten It is recommended to describe networking as a tool for negotiation/trust building

5.3 Lobbying The text for this section needs to be written It is recommended to translate the word lobbying with the word Cabildeo (in the social sector the word advocacia is used) It is recommended to give a good definition to the concept of lobbying, taking into account that the lobbying activity need to be organized and institutionalized in LA

5.4 Shared vision development

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

It is agreed between the participants that the aim of the Chapter is to describe the shared vision of all actors as an essential element to ensure success in the negotiation process It is decided to keep the Nile case as a reference It is decided to replace the contents with regional case studies (Paraná, Uruguay, San Juan, etc…) following the Nile example process It is recommended to take into account the need to show the different visions, by the different actors, in a negotiation process It is recommended to present the shared vision as a commitment, a continuous process before, during, and after negotiation

Part 6: Role-play - General considerations (there are no specific considerations by section in this chapter)

▪ ▪ ▪

It is agreed to describe the general instructions to participate in a simulation game/role-play and game rules. It is agreed that the games are useful to increase the exchange of experiences and knowledge on the base of an historical perspective It is agreed that the games are useful to develop knowledge, with specific methodologies and conceptualization techniques

Annex 5 Preparatory meeting for the implementation of the PCCP courses in Latin America and the Caribbean “Prevención de Conflictos y Cooperación en el Manejo del Agua en America Latina” Approved Reader contents Part 1: Water – Articles to be revised

▪

Jaspers, F.W.G., “Principles of Water Allocation in Historical Perspective; From traditional customary water distribution to modern sustainable and economic water allocation systems”. IHE Delft

It is agreed that the author will be asked to revise this article, in order to include indigenous tradition descriptions if possible. Otherwise, a similar article will be introduced, probably from CEPAL (Comisión economica para America Latina y el Caribe). Part 2: Issues – Articles to be kept

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

P. Gleick, 1998, The Human Right to Water. Water Policy 1(5) K. Asmal, 2000, Water is a catalyst of peace. Opening Session, Stockholm Water Symposium, Laureate Lecture M. Parlevliet, 2002, Bridging the divide: exploring the relationship between human rights and conflict management. Track Two 11(1), CCR. Cape Town G.W. Sherk, G.W., P. Wouters and S. Rochford, 2000, Water Wars in the Near Future? Reconciling Competing Claims for the World's Diminishing Freshwater Resources The Helsinki Rules on the Uses of the Waters of International Rivers (1966) 2-84 The UN Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses (1997)

Part 2: Issues – Articles still under consideration (to be kept or to be taken out) Revised Protocol on Shared Watercourses in SADC (2000) 2-103 P. Vale: “Water and Sovereign compromise in Southern Africa" Ashton, P., 2000, Southern African water conflicts: are they inevitable or preventable? In: Green Cross International,. 2000, Water for peace in the Middle East and Southern Africa. Green Cross International, Geneva; pp.94-98

Part 3: Conflict – Articles to be kept

▪

W.L. Ury, J.M. Brett and S.B. Goldberg, 1988, Three approaches to resolving disputes: interests, rights and power. In: "Getting Disputes resolved. Designing systems to cut the costs of conflict". San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; pp. 3-19 (Chapter 1)

▪

L. Nathan, 2001, The Four horsemen of the Apocalypse: The structural cause of violence in Africa. Track Two 10(2), CCR. Cape Town (Regionalization on the same topic for Latin America) + recommended reading It is agreed that an article describing the same topic issue as that of Nathan, will be written/researched for Latin America, with the eventual addition of recommended reading

Part 4: Practice – Articles still under consideration (to be kept or to be taken out)

▪

L. Nathan, 1999, "When Push comes to Shove"; The failure of international mediation in African civil wars. Track Two 8(2); CCR. Cape Town Part 5: Strategy – Articles to be kept

▪

Costanza, R., 2000, Visions of alternative (unpredictable) futures and their use in policy analysis. Conservation Ecology 4(1)

Annex 6 Preparatory meeting for the implementation of the PCCP courses in Latin America and the Caribbean “Prevención de Conflictos y Cooperación en el Manejo del Agua en America Latina” Approved Handouts contents Part 1: Water Fishing game Fishing game – handout Fishing game – forms Part 4: Practice Prisoners dilemma The water message game Mutare case Mutare – 1995 - hand out Pungwe – 1995 - handout It is agreed that at least one Latin American Case has to be added in this section Part 5: Strategy The original course does not have any role-play related to this part. It is agreed to add a roleplay related to this chapter. Part 6: Roleplay Incomati Negotiation role-play Incomati role-play – roles Incomati river basin – 2001 Incomati river basin – 2002 It is agreed that at least one Latin American Case has to be added in this section Evaluation form

Annex 7 Preparatory meeting for the implementation of the PCCP courses in Latin America and the Caribbean “Prevención de Conflictos y Cooperación en el Manejo del Agua en America Latina” Recommended Reference Materials

Proposed references (general)
Part 1 Water  Schiclomanov publication 1.3. Water quality issues in river basins  Proceeding about the calculation of ecological flow (IHP course in Costa Rica, 2005) Part 2 Issues  General Comment n.15, on art.11 – art. 12 “International Convention on economic, social, and cultural rights” (November, 2002)  Berlin rules (2002) Part 3: Conflict  PccP publications n.7, 19, 22, 28, 29 (to complement the part 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3)  Papers by A. Biswas  Papers by CEPAL authors  Papers by Wolf (in English)  Papers of the IWRN Dialogues  Bibliography by the University of Peace  Documents of the security summit of the Americas  Documents by REDES network  Documents by RESDAL network  UNESCO Securipax network  “Las violencias en America Latina”, Montevideo 2002 Part 4: Practice  Papers by OAS 4.1 Trust-building  Literature: PccP Publication n.22 4.3 Information systems and policy oriented research  PccP publication n.7 (available in Spanish) Part 5: Strategy  Papers by G. Galopìn and others  Papers by CLASCO (Consejo Latinoamericano de ciencias sociales)  Experiences by PES (FAO Water for Food Conference, February 2005) 5.1 Public participation  Literature: O.A.S. and I.D.B Literature to be provided by Adalberto Saviñón: Part 3

 Latin american literature on conflict: Lindavista material 3.2 Conflict analysis  Lederach 3.3 Conflict prevention, transformation resolution and follow up  K. Clements; R. Stavenhagen, S, Haufman/Sonoski Part 4 4.1 Trust-building  S. Kaufman 4.2 Communication skills  A. Kahame (Collaboration) 4.4 Interest-based processes: negotiation and mediation 4.6 Team building / role clarification  M. Delegación (manual); Lobbing at multilateral meeting Part 5 5.1 Public participation  O.A.S. and I.D.B Literature to be provided by Manuel Bernales: Part 3  Luis Sánchez Tam  Alfonso Klauser Gutiérrez 3.2 Conflict analysis  Self Fullfilling Profecy Part 4 4.1 Trust-building 4.2 Communication skills Literature to be provided by Pieter van der Zaag: Part 3  Latin American ways of resolving conflict (e.g. indigenous approach) 3.2 Conflict analysis  Baland and Platteau 3.3 Conflict prevention, transformation resolution and follow up  Rutgerd Boelens et al. (an indigeous …management in Andean Countries) Part 4 4.8 Use of technical systems for decision making  Software literature: WEAPZI; SEI  Bayesian Networks Literature to be provided by Josè Ochoa Iturbe: Part 4 4.5 Collaborative decision-making, incorporating diversities  Publications about organizational behaviour studies Literature to be provided by Jorge Duque: Part 4 4.4 Interest-based processes: negotiation and mediation 4.5 Collaborative decision-making, incorporating diversities

 Max Bazeman, 2002; “Judgment in Managerial Decision Making” 5 Edition, Wiley & Jons 4.8 Use of technical systems for decision making  Software literature: Journal for DDS Literature to be provided by Beatriz Campillo: Part 3 3.2 Conflict analysis  Elite Theory Part 4 4.4 Interest-based processes: negotiation and mediation 4.7 Negotiation preparation  Working group at UNAM 4.8 Use of technical systems for decision making Literature to be provided by Claudia Natenzon: Part 5 5.2 Networking

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Annex 8 Preparatory meeting for the implementation of the PCCP courses in Latin America and the Caribbean “Prevención de Conflictos y Cooperación en el Manejo del Agua en America Latina” Suggested Case Studies Part 1: Water 1.3. Water quality issues in river basins  S. Francisco (Brasil),  Catatumbo (Venezuela-Colombia)  Bermejo (Bolivia, Argentina)  Colorado river (Mexico-USA)  ISARM (Bolson) 1.4. Water-related Disasters SADC (Africa) experience has be replaced by similar LAC experiences:  Central American monitoring system focusing on crop production (verify if there is an official protocol)  Plan Puebla/Panamà  La Plata River flood alert system (Early warning system)  Comité Interguvernamental de la Cuenca de El Plata (CIC)  Mercosur subgroup n.6 on environmental disasters  2004 Mercosur resolution to develop a common protocol on how to manage environmental emergencies (floods and water pollution) or others Part 3: Conflict 3.4 Approaches to conflict resolution (To be provided by Manuel Bernales)  Ecuador/Perú  The recuperation of the lake of Managua  The use of Lauke river (Chile-Perú)  The use of Disaguadeo river (Bolivia-Perú)  The use of Sula Valley Resources (North Honduras)  The Mexican-USA border case  Case studies on the conflict in the Uruguay river (by S. Catarina University)  Case studies from INA (Argentina)  Itaipù case study Part 5: Strategy 5.4 Shared vision development  Regional case studies (Paranà, Uruguay, San Juan, etc…) Other case studies, especially suggested as handouts material:  Colombia  Santa Fè city floods, 2003 Argentina (to be Provided by Claudia Natenzon)  Material from the CEPAL/Journals  CEPAL Mexico disaster evaluation in Central America  Rio Lerma, Chapala Case (to be provided by Pieter van der Zaag)

Annex 9 Preparatory meeting for the implementation of the PCCP courses in Latin America and the Caribbean Cronology of the Activities Month Activity 1st Meeting Revision of the documents Translation/Regionalization Case studies identification Case studies development Writing of new papers and/or adaptation of existing literature Evaluation of new papers by referees Integration of documents First edition of the documents Identification of University/Venue for pilot course Course Trainers identification 2nd Meeting Second edition of the documents Course activities planning Course(s) implementation/monitoring 3rd Meeting(Immediately after the pilot course(s)) / Course evaluation and final review / Plan for the next biennium Final edition of the document Final report. Synthesis of the course regionalization process. Publication of course materials and of the final report Presentation at the WWF4 X X X May 2005 X X X X X June 2005 July 2005 August 2005 Sept 2005 Octob 2005 Nov 2005 Dec 2005 Jan 2006 Feb 2006 March 2006

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X X X

X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

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Annex 10 Preparatory meeting for the implementation of the PCCP courses in Latin America and the Caribbean Regionalization Coordinators The letter C indicates the coordinator of the chapter, the numbers in parenthesis indicate the section of the chapter in which the person will be involved. Introduction Gilberto Canali 4. Practice 1. Water Josè Ochoa Iturbe (C) Gilberto Canali Claudia Natenzon (1.4) 2. Issues Jorge Duque (C) Gilberto Canali Adalberto Saviñòn (2.1.3, 2.4) Beatriz Campillo (2.1.3) Manuel Bernales 3. Conflict Beatriz Campillo (C) Luis Silveira (3.3) Adalberto Saviñòn (3.3) Manuel Bernales 6. Role-play Gilberto Canali (C) (Develop terms of reference for selection of case(s) for role play) Adalberto Saviñòn (C) Jorge Duque (4.4, 4.8) Josè Ochoa Iturbe (4.5) Pieter van der Zaag (4.8) Manuel Bernales (4.7) Lena Salamé (Elephant story) Beatriz Campillo (4.7) 5. Strategy Claudia Natenzon (C) José Ochoa Iturbe (5.2) Adalberto Saviñón (5.4)

Annex 11 Preparatory meeting for the implementation of the PCCP courses in Latin America and the Caribbean Welcoming remarks by Mr. van Hoof Dear Participants, I am very pleased to welcome the first meeting for the implementation of the “Potential conflict to co-operation Potential” project in Latin America and the Caribbean. As each of us know, World is in a very difficult moment in relation to the water issues. The number of people without direct access to safe water is increasing, and the main problem of water is a problem of governance. If we were able to develop new policy strategies in order to sustainable manage water resources at a local, national and international level, we will come close to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals th (MDGs) related to water. In particular, the work performed under PccP will contribute to reach the 8 MDG “Develop a global partnership for development”. Moreover the Hague Ministerial Declaration, signed in March 2000 in occasion of the 2 World Water Forum, identifies the key challenges to achieving water security. These challenges provide the context for the World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), which already gave as output the publication of the first World Water Development Report, where the question of sharing water resources is addressed. From this perspective, UNESCO has launched PccP project, which addresses more specifically the changes of sharing water resources primarily from the point of view of the governments, and develops decision making and conflict prevention tools for the future. With this effort, we contribute to regional water security and peace trough strengthening water diplomacy. In particular, by realizing the PccP university courses we want to create a new generation of decision makers. The courses have already been realized in some universities in Southern African countries, with very good outputs. Our challenge is now to develop the same course in the Latin American region. It is of my knowledge that this group has been created by selecting distinguished experts in relation to water management in the region. The different background you have represents one more effort towards developing the course under the optic of Integrated Water Resource Management. Moreover, we firmly believe that education is one of the best human development tools, and I wish to reiterate this at the beginning of your work. I hope you will be able to take back to your country, to your institutions and organizations the experience gained with this new team in order to disseminate, in the future, the lessons we are learning today about Water Management and Peace Finally, I hope you will enjoy Unesco’s hospitality and the city of Montevideo. Thank you very much for your attention, and have good discussion
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