PERÚ by goodbaby



Peru has made the following progress with implementing the mandates of the Plan of Action of Quebec City: Electoral processes and procedures: - To continue strengthening its electoral mechanisms, Peru is following up and expanding on the recommendations contained in the report of the OAS Electoral Observation Mission (EOM) into the 2002 regional and municipal elections, with OAS assistance through the Unit for the Promotion of Democracy (UPD). Fight against corruption: - Peru has ratified the Inter-American Convention against Corruption. It also actively participates at the meetings of the Convention implementation follow-up mechanism. - Likewise, Peru is playing an active role in the negotiations for the United Nations Convention against Corruption. - In response to the serious incidents of corruption that Peru saw in its past, the country has enacted Law No. 27815, the Law on the Public Service Code of Ethics, which is applicable to all areas of the administration. This law governs the behavior of public officials in accordance with the ethical principles that must guide public service. - To ensure transparency, Peru’s domestic legislation requires public officials in senior positions to provide statements of net worth. Empowering local governments: - Regional and municipal elections were held in November 2002. In addition, legislation was passed to decentralize power and to transfer resources and responsibilities. - Using the process of regionalization as the vehicle for its political decentralization, Peru hopes to expand and improve its democratic system. In this connection, with OAS support it has begun implementation of a program called “Governability and Institutionalization of Dialogue and Consensus for Peru’s Social Development.” The aim of this program is to strengthen local governance with the regional governments and to improve ties between them and the national administration. Implementation of international obligations and respect for international standards: - As part of its efforts to fight and eradicate impunity, Peru signed extradition treaties with the 1 United States and with Costa Rica. It also adopted a Unilateral Declaration recognizing the competence of the Committee against Torture, as described in Articles 21 and 22 of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or 2 Punishment. - On February 13, 2002, Peru deposited its instrument of ratification of the Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearances. Strengthening human rights systems: - Demonstrating its willingness to comply with the judgments handed down in cases brought against it before international courts of law, the Peruvian State enacted Law No. 27775 3 regulating the procedure for enforcing such judgments. - Thus, and reflecting its political desire to return its relations with the inter-American system for the protection of human rights to a normal footing, the Peruvian State has adopted a series of

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These treaties were ratified by Legislative Resolutions Nos. 27827 and 27828, published on September 19, 2002. This unilateral declaration was approved by Legislative Resolution No. 27830, published on September 20, 2002. Dated July 7, 2002.

2 measures to demonstrate its observance of the Inter-American Court’s rulings and its 4 acceptance of the Inter-American Commission’s recommendations. Freedom of opinion and expression: - On August 3, 2002, Law No. 27806, on Transparency and Access to Public Information, was enacted. In it, the Peruvian government promotes transparency in state actions and regulates the basic right of access to information enshrined in Peru’s Constitution. Combating the drug problem: - Peru is promoting and strengthening the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) as a valid instrument for monitoring national progress. - Peru is also fully complying with the recommendations approved by CICAD and set forth in the national and hemispheric reports. - Peru has actively participated in the Intergovernmental Group of Experts for reviewing the MEM. - 1998 saw the first attempt at a concerted multilateral effort with the creation of the Brussels Consultative Group. In 2000, the Paris Group was established. Through these consultative groups, Peru secured cooperation worth a total of USD $186.4 million. - By means of Law No. 27693 of April 12, 2002, Peru created its Financial Intelligence Unit, thus continuing its support of the efforts being taken against organized crime, money laundering, the diversion of precursor chemicals, the funding of armed groups, and other types of illegal activities arising from trafficking in narcotics and weapons. - Close cooperation is taking place among the national antidrug authorities in joint operations involving organized crime, money laundering, the diversion of precursor chemicals, the funding of armed groups, and other types of illegal activities arising from trafficking in narcotics and weapons. - Peru has been promoting, at the multilateral and bilateral levels alike, the need to apply a comprehensive and balanced approach to antidrug cooperation, in order to prevent the phenomenon of displacement, also known as the “balloon effect.” - In the bilateral arena, Peru and Colombia signed an agreement to control the movements of 5 aircraft suspected of involvement in illegal drug trafficking and related crimes. Hemispheric security: - Peru attended the meeting of experts held in Miami in February of this year, where it presented a detailed report on its implementation, in concert with its neighbors, of the confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs) recommended in the Declarations of Santiago and San Salvador. Peru also proposed including a provision for the expansion of existing CSBMs and the adoption of next-generation CSBMs. such as the creation of mutual confidence areas. - The 57th UN General Assembly approved a resolution recognizing the creation of the “South American Zone of Peace and Cooperation,” a Peruvian initiative sponsored jointly by all the South American nations. This initiative sets specific goals for security, disarmament, and confidence-building measures, in compliance with the main international treaties and agreements dealing with those matters. These points represent key steps forward intended to instill a culture of confidence and transparency through dialogue and regional consensus, thereby opening up the way up for the Peruvian proposal for limiting spending on external defense in order to redirect those resources into social investment. - Under the aegis of the Andean Community (CAN), the Commitment of Lima or Andean Charter for Peace and Security was adopted. The signatory states reaffirmed their commitment and adhesion to the goals and principles of the of United Nations Charter and the Charter of the

4 With respect to the Inter-American Court, the Peruvian held public apology ceremonies for the relatives in the Barrios Altos, Durand and Ugarte, and Luis Alberto Cantoral Benavides cases. It has also complied with the Court’s orders in the cases of Durand and Ugarte, the Constitutional Court, Baruch Ivcher, and Barrios Altos, and with all the separate decisions issued in the Loayza Tamayo case, earning it the Court’s appreciation. As regards the IACHR, public apology ceremonies were also held regarding the case of Ms. Leonor La Rosa and the case of the former national intelligence service agent Ms. Mariela Barreto. 5 That agreement was signed in Bogotá on October 11, 2002. Under this agreement and in accordance with their national laws, the parties agreed to take the steps necessary to: (a) control air traffic in their corresponding national airspaces; (b) improve exchanges of information about the movements of aircraft suspected of involvement in the illegal trafficking of narcotic and psychotropic substances and in related crimes along their common border; (c) improve exchanges of experiences and technical knowhow relating to the control of their airspace; and (d) establish interagency operating procedures to enforce the agreement.



Organization of American States, and to the formulation of a community policy for security and confidence-building. The Peruvian Center for Action on Antipersonnel Mines (CONTRAMINAS) was created. Its task is to pursue state policy regarding comprehensive actions against antipersonnel mines in 6 Peru and to oversee compliance with the objectives of the Ottawa Convention.

Fight against terrorism: - Peru has been supporting the work of the CICTE and encouraging hemispheric cooperation to prevent, combat, and eradicate all forms of terrorism. - Peru is a party to the 12 United Nations conventions on terrorism issues. It has also signed the Inter-American Convention Against Terrorism, which is currently going through the ratification process in Congress. Strengthening participation in hemispheric and national processes: - Peru is pursuing a series of efforts to consolidate democracy. One example of this is the National Agreement, reached in June 2002, with the active participation of the government, the 7 main parliamentary party groupings, and Peru’s leading civil society organizations. - In order to develop educational programs for teaching democracy and human rights related matters, Peru has: a) Signed an Interinstitutional Cooperation Pact between the Interior Ministry and the 8 Peruvian mission of the International Committee of the Red Cross. b) Approved the National Plan for the dissemination and teaching of the Constitution and 9 human rights. Education: - In order to ensure access to quality basic education for all, Peru has launched its Pilot Plan of 10 the Rural Education and Teacher Development Program. 11 - Consolidation of the Huascarán Plan is underway. This is a technology-based project for raising the quality of education in Peru. Between August and December 2002, 1,103 education centers from across the country were incorporated into the Huascarán Plan, benefiting 1,370,530 pupils and 63,289 teachers. Another important achievement of this plan is that it has begun the design and production of a software package, of 100% Peruvian origin, to support teaching and learning within schools. Health:

Created under Supreme Decree No. 113-2002-RE, dated December 13, 2002. The Center’s goals include: working for the elimination of antipersonnel mines from Peruvian territory, and promoting prevention campaigns and the development of techniques to safely disarm weapons of that kind; working to assist the victims of antipersonnel mines and to encourage their reintegration into economic and social life; and promoting international cooperation to secure adequate funding for programs and projects and for training the human resources charged with implementing the Ottawa Convention. 7 This agreement is of enormous importance to Peru because it represents the first occasion on which state policies on matters of national interest have been established, en bloc, with a view toward building a democracy based on dialogue and justice, further consolidating the nation’s identity, affirming a shared view of the country as it forges forward into the future. Its signing led to the creation of the National Agreement Forum, the main goals of which include pursuing democracy and the rule of law, equality and social justice, the competitiveness of the country, and an efficient, transparent, and decentralized state. 8 This agreement is to help train duly qualified and experienced police instructors in human rights instruction techniques; it will also enable Peru’s National Police to receive specialized assistance from the International Committee of the Red Cross for reviewing, updating, and producing police manuals and teaching and information materials dealing with human rights issues. 9 Law No. 27741 of May 7, 2002, stipulates that study of the Peruvian Constitution, human rights, and international humanitarian law is obligatory at all levels of the civilian and military education systems and in university and nonuniversity higher education. It requires that text books, exercise books, and other printed school materials published, manufactured, printed, or distributed in the country must bear a printing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In addition, one of its articles requires that in places where Spanish is not spoken, this dissemination and teaching must be carried out in the local tongue, be it Quechua, Aymara, or any other language. 10 This program aims to improve the quality of basic education and to address shortfalls in access and performance in both rural and urban areas. With a planned duration of 10 years, it is managed by the Coordination Office for Rural Educational Development, in conjunction with other national departments, offices, and intermediary agencies that are involved. 11 Plan for the decentralization of education, using the internet and television, launched on October 15, 2001.




In order to improve the physical, mental, and social welfare of senior citizens by increasing the coverage and quality of health services, guaranteeing assistance with nutrition and 12 sustenance, and creating opportunities, the National Plan for Older Adults was approved.

Gender equality: - Supreme Decree No. 001-2000-PROMUDEH of February 1, 2002, enacted the National Plan for Equality of Opportunities between Women and Men. The aim of this plan is to develop strategies to improve the lot of women, particularly as regards matters such as education, health, violence, employment, social and political participation, and communication, in order to allow them to progress and to improve their socioeconomic and cultural circumstances and their quality of life, promoting their full involvement in the country’s development and their participatory integration into national development policies and strategies, against a backdrop of unconditional observance of human rights and social justice. Indigenous peoples: - On October 5, 2001, Supreme Decree No. 111-2001-PCM created the National Commission of the Andean and Amazonian Peoples (CONAPA). The new body’s function is to promote, coordinate, direct, execute, and supervise policies, programs, and projects related to organized indigenous populations and Afro-Peruvian communities, and to serve as a facilitator and 13 coordinator between those peoples, the State, and the market. - Law No. 27811 established a regime protecting the collective knowledge of indigenous peoples vis-à-vis biological resources, making Peru the first country in the world to enforce such a regime. Children and youth: - In order to promote actions in pursuit of public policies for ensuring the welfare and integral development of boys, girls, and adolescents, Peru has implemented its National Action Plan for 14 Children and Youth (PNAI). This plan, which covers the period 2002-2010, defines policies, programs, and strategies for tackling the serious problems that affect children and teenagers, and strives to uphold their right to equal opportunities of access to quality services. The plan proposes mechanisms whereby they can participate in exercising, promoting, and defending their rights, thereby helping tackle the poverty that afflicts our country.


The coordination, follow-up, and evaluation of how this National Plan is implemented is the responsibility of the Ministry of Women and Social Development, the agency in charge of national policy for senior citizens. 13 CONAPA is made up of 22 members, who represent state agencies, indigenous and Afro-Peruvian organizations, and civil society; all of them, including the Commission’s president, perform their duties on an ad honorem basis. 14 Adopted by means of Supreme Decree No. 003-2002-PROMUDEH, published on June 23, 2002. The main goals for the year 2010 include the following: (a) reducing infant mortality to no more than 20,000 live births; (b) reducing chronic malnutrition by 20%; (c) ensuring that 100% of children aged between 6 and 12 are enrolled in the appropriate school grade for their age; (d) eradicating the worst forms of child labor (mining, small-scale fishing, brickworks, etc.); (e) ensuring that all working children attend school; and (f) reducing the percentage of pregnant teenagers to no more than 4.5%.


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