Agricultural Revolution Population During the 1000, the population had been low, and had increased from 1300. Population decreased during the Black Death almost to the half percentage of the original population. Human population always has been an issue during the 1000~1300. It is estimated that in France, the population grew from 5 million to 9.2 million between the end of the tenth and the end of the twelfth. In Italy, the population increased from 5 million to 8 million. In England the population increased from 2.2 million at the end of the eleventh to 6,000,000 in 1300. The population for young children is getting higher. The longest age is 20 years old. 1. http://www.histoire-pour-tous.fr/en/dossiers/95-moyen-age/2630-croissance- demographique-au-moyen-age.html Technology Development Along with agricultural revolution, the agricultural technology and techniques in European countries are also improved. Starting from 500AD, various agricultural tools and methods are discovered. During 500-900Ad, heavy plow, horse shoes, the breast strap horse harness, whippletree, stirrup and horse collar, which helped to control horses during farming, were developed, invented and brought in from other countries. After 900 to 1100, the use of the hops, which were used to brew beer, was spread through European countries. Around 1000-1200, the artesian well, percussion drilling, tridal mills, rat traps and windmills were first found. Likewise, during 13th century, a wheelbarrow was first illustrated. While all these tools were invented, and developed, people was using the three-field system of crop rotation or closed-field system to increase their advantages. Development of Tools Heavy Plow (500AD)-A heavy wheeled plow, which was pulled by cows or horses, was used to stir up the soil so that farmers can remove the weeds and prevent their lands to be damaged by a heavy rain. Horseshoes (9th-10th century)-Protect horses' foot from injuries and disease, aslo horseshoes able horses to go to many different types of regions. The Breast Strap Horse Harness (700AD)-It lowers the stress on horses' neck that horses can work more. Stirrup (7th-early 8th century)-Stirrup in a piece of leather or iron made to rest feet while riding horse. Horse Collar(700-900AD)-Harness including straps. Whippletree (11th century)-pieces of woods which were attached at the center of plow or cart. His make arranging with harnessing much easier. The Hops (900-1100AD)-Plant grew in many places of Europe which was added to many liquors. Especially hops were put into beer that i added the bitter taste and stabilized and protected beer. Artesian Well(1126AD)-Drilled holes where water was poured out continuously with natural pressure. Percussion Drilling(1126AD)-Technique used to drill artesian well. Tridal Mills(12th century)-Mills which uses power produced by circulating water to grind grains. Rat Traps(1170AD)-Traps used to trap rats. Windmills(1185AD)-Which used wind power to grain grains into flours. Wheelbarrow(13th century)-A large container with only one wheel and two handles used to carry heavy things. Three-Field System In Northern Europe, farmers developed three field system to higher the efficiency of farming. With this method, farmers divided their land into three and planted different corps which have different harvest dates in the each of the three parts. Closed-Field System Closed field system was used among southern Europe where the villeagers shared less than in Northern villages. In Southern farmland, the land was divided into closed rectanglular shapes with corps which had different harvest dates. References http://scholar.chem.nyu.edu/tekpages/Timeline.html http://eawc.evansville.edu/chronology/mepage.htm http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/westciv/medsoc/17.shtml.
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