The Federalist

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					The Federalist Washington’s 1st Administration
1789 – 1792 Theme: “Launching the Ship of State” * Europeans watched to see if the colonies could govern themselves. Election: Washington was Unanimously drafted by the Electoral College in 1789!!!!! Issues: 1.Launching the Ship Of State. 2.Interstate Commerce 3.Indian Raids in the NWT President – George Washington VP – John Adams January 7, 1789 – First Election First Inauguration – 4/30/89 ( Pg. 190) I. 4 Basic Questions – In Washington’s First Term. #1. “How should this new system of government work?????” * (Constitution Article 2, Section II) The Cabinet – A group of advisors. Not specifically mentioned in the Constitution!!!(note Article II, Sec. 2, clause 1) 1. Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson 2. Secretary of Treasury – Alexander Hamilton 3. Secretary of War – Henry Knox 4. Attorney General – Edmond Randolph 5. Postmaster General – Samuel Osgood * Speaker of the House – James Madison * Chief Justice of the Supreme Court – John Jay * Move the capitol from New York City to Washington DC (– pg. 194 = Jefferson agreed to accept assumption if the Capital was move to Virginia).

#2. “How should we establish a court system?” (Constitution: Article #3). A. Supreme Court: Created by the Constitution, but organized by the Judiciary Act of 1789. - 5 Judges (associates) on Supreme Court and 1 Chief Justice. B. Lower Courts: federal district and circuit courts, or Inferior Courts. - Also organized by the Judiciary Act of 1789 - Court of Appeals – pg. 192 – “The Second Chance Court” (Richard Hill 9/24/00). #3. “How should the President be addressed?” #4. “How do we finance the federal government?” – pg. 193 - Hamilton’s 6 part Financial Program: Hamilton is “The Father of the National Debt”-chart p.195 1. Funding at Par – War Bonds p.193 2. Excise Tax – Luxury Tax 3. Assumption p. 194 - Pay off States Debts - Pay off National Debt – money borrowed by National Gov. - Speculators 4. Tariffs – taxes on Imports. 5. Uniform Currency 6. BUS – The Bank of the United States caused a split in the country over the interpretation of Article I, Sec 8, clause 18 of the Constitution = Implied or Delegated powers. II. Controversy – Implied Powers vs. Delegated Powers

Loose Construction Favored Law & Order Strong Federal Gov. Favored the BUS Hamilton’s Position

Strict Construction Freedom – Rights for the Common Man States Rights Opposed BUS Jefferson’s Position

Anti-Federalist weren’t Anti Federal Government: all the founding fathers favored a Federal Constitution-BUT!!- the Jeffersonians opposed the Federalist using implied powers to give the federal government t-o-o-o much power. The anti-federalist had a strong distrust of authority. *Show the Film Strip: “The Beginning of Political Parties” III. Bill of Rights – 1791 *First Ten Amendments of the Constitution IV. Issue : The French Revolution – Impressment - Jefferson favored the French - Hamilton favored England V. What did Hamilton do??????????????????? *Created a plan to meet the National Debt * then he devised a plan to pay off the National Mortgage * He gave us a Good = Credit Rating.

Washington’s 2nd Administration
1792-1796 Theme: “Trials of the policy of Neutrality”

Washington’s Philosophy: We can’t win a war! or “why can’t we be Friends?” The Election: Nov. 1792 Federalist Vs. George Washington John Adams

Anti Federalists George Clinton

Issues: 1.The French Revolution 2.Impressment 3.Federal Power = Implied or Delegate? *Washington received 132 Electoral votes *John Adams received 71 Electoral votes *George Clinton received 50 Electoral votes *Kentucky becomes 15th State- June 1, 1792 Jefferson-Hamilton Feud: Political Parties emerge = 1792-1793 -Hamilton-leader of Federalists = favor Law and Order -Jefferson-leader of Democratic Republicans = favor immigrants and the French Revolutionaries. “Liberty,Fraternitay, and Equality”. *Also called Anti-federalist French Revolution: UPDATE!! England goes to war against the French = the first coalition attacks France *Jan 1793-Louis 16th beheaded *Jan, 1793-The Arrival of Citizen Genet – a emissary of the Revolutionary Government of France. *Impressment : the practice of stealing and enslaving sailors taken off foreign countries ships. * Concept – Self Interest (text p. 200) March, 1793-Washington sworn into office March 4 1793. * What is Lame Duck?????

April 19, 1793- The Proclamation of 1793 = issued by Washington after he decided to receive Genet. December 1793-Jefferson leaves the Cabinet of George Washington and heads the rival political fraction in the USA the AntiFederalists. (Read from “The American Tradition” p. 129-130). *this begins the TWO PARTY SYSTEM in American politics Gaining Federal Control: *1794 = The Whiskey Rebellion. *1794 = The Battle of Fallen Timbers – MAW(Mad Anthony Wayne) . The Treaty of Greenville-(Chief Little Turtle of the Miami Indians) the southeaster quarter of the Northwest Territory was sold to the USA for $10,000, and peace was restored on the frontier. *Industrial Revolution: *Sam Slater – America’s First Factory = Pawtucket Rhode Island – 1789 * Eli Whitney invented a machine that removed seeds from shortstaple cotton quickly = the Cotton Gin -1793 *A toll road running sixty miles from Philadelphia to Lancaster Pa. provided good year-round surface began the “Turnpike Era” in 1794 Foreign Respect: *1795 –Jay Treaty = British promised to leave the forts in the NWT but will not to stop Impressment, and USA gained most favorable nation status. *1795-Pinckney = USA gained the “Right of Deposit” at the port

of New Orleans.
ISSUE : Foreign “European Wars” and Impressment * Washington’s Farewell Address = no entangling alliances!!!!!


John Adams 1796—1800
Theme: “Millions for Defense, not one cent for Tribute” or the Demise of the Federalist –p.203 The Election of 1796: *Issues: 1.War with France 2. The Republicans = the emergence of the Republicans as a powerful and apparently permanent opposition seemed to the Federalists a grave threat to national stability. *Candidates: Federalists Republicans John Adams Thomas Jefferson Thomas Pinckney Aaron Burr *Playing Politics: A. Hamilton, who felt he would not have the influence with Adams that he had enjoyed with Washington, attempted to use the electoral system to make Thomas Pinckney president. Hamilton urged Federalist to leave Adam’s name off their ballots. Adams’ supporters retaliated by leaving off Pinckney’s name. The result was that Adams won an electoral victory of only three votes, and Thomas Jefferson came in second. Thus a Federalist President was elected with a Republican Vice President. Adams won the Election! *Thomas Jefferson became VP * John Marshall was appointed Sec. of State.

* Adams was and Honest,and Truthful Presideant *Inauguration – March 4,1797 In 1795 The French Directory assumed rule in prove to be ineffective and corrupt!!!!!! In 1799 it was overthrown by the army led by a popular general –Napoleon. Washing ton had warned against Entanglement in his “Farewell Address” The Trilogy: #1 The XYZ Affair:(p.203) The ratification of the Jay Treaty and the election of Adams convince the French that the USA was firmly in the camp of the British. Consequently the French government ordered the seizure of American ships and confiscation of their cargoes. = American public opinion turned distinctly antiFrench!!!! Adams tried to Avoid War. Adams sent Charles C Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry and John Marshall to Franc to negotiate with Talleyrand. He suggested a bribe of $250,000. *Americans want War!!1 this leads to a War in the US Press. Republicans Vs John Adams *Mathew Lyon – The Spiting Lyon #2 Reaction to the criticism of the President The Allen and Sedition Acts: “The Federalists pushed through Congress four measures that curbed freedom of speech and press and limited the liberties of foreigners in the United States”(The
American Tradition)

Act Concerning Aliens Act Respecting Alien Enemies Naturalization Act Sedition Act

1798-Department of Navy created Although America actions stopped short of a declaration of war, an undeclared naval war took place between 1798 and 1800(The American

# 3 Reaction: The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions “Jefferson and Madison anonymously wrote arguments that were adopted by the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures respectively” (The American Tradition) The Compact Theory of Gov’t: There were several points in the theory: 1. The federal government had been created by the states 2. The federal government was merely an agent for the states, operating under a “compact,” or agreement, which had delegated to the federal government certain specific responsibilities and no more 3. The federal government, or its agent, could be criticized by its creators, the states, if it committed unauthorized acts Issues: 1. War with France-Napoleon became the new ruler of France in 1799 2. 1800-Napoleon received a New American delegation and signed the Convention of 1800 ending Navel War. 3. The Election of 1800 The midnight Appointee’s: John Marshall, one of the midnight appointee’s, was made chief justice of the Supreme Court