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					US History
         New Immigrants

• 1870-1920 - about 20 million Europeans
  came to U.S.
• before 1890 - most from west and
  north Europe (Great Brit., Ireland,
  Germany)
• after 1890 - more from south and east
  Europe (Italy, Austria-Hungary, Russia)
  U.S. population increase: 1850 to 1900
Most of this increase can be attributed to the large number
 of immigrants who arrived in the U.S. during the second
       and third waves of immigration from Europe

 80,000,000
 70,000,000
 60,000,000
 50,000,000
 40,000,000
 30,000,000
 20,000,000
 10,000,000
           0
               1850   1860   1870   1880   1890   1900
          New Immigrants

• Push Factors (reasons to leave)
  – many left to escape religious persecution
    (Jews)
  – agricultural poverty - potato famine
  – relaxation of emigration laws
         New Immigrants

• Pull Factors (reasons to come)
  – promise of freedom and hope
  – network of family and friends in U.S.
  – need for and recruitment of cheap labor
           New Immigrants

• Immigrants from China and Japan
  – came to west coast in smaller numbers
  – Chinese came during gold rush, help build
    railroad, turn to farming, mining, domestic service
  – 1884 - Jap. gov. allowed Hawaii to recruit Jap.
    workers
  – Am. annex Hawaii in 1898 > Jap. immigration to
    west coast increased
          New Immigrants

• Immigrants from West Indies and
  Mexico
  – 1880 - 1920 - about 260,000 went to east
    and southeast U.S. from Jamaica, Cuba,
    Puerto Rico, etc.
  – Mexicans came to find work or flee
    political turmoil
          New Immigrants

• Life in new land
  – the journey - 1-3 weeks
  – mostly by steamship - in cargo holds -
    rarely allowed above deck
                 Ellis Island
• New York Harbor
• had to pass inspection
• physical exam by doctor, gov. inspector checked
  documents and questioned them (literacy test,
  ability to work, had at least $25)
• About 2% sent back (serious health problems or
  contagious disease)
• more than 16 million immigrants passed through -
  sometimes 11,000/day
Ellis Island, NY Harbor
Ellis Island, NY
Physical and
  Mental
Inspections
Arrival at Ellis Island
            Angel Island

• San Francisco Bay
• mostly Chinese – about 50,000
  between 1910-1940
• processing - harsh questioning and
  long detention
• filthy, ramshackle buildings - people
  confined liked prisoners
Angel Island, California
 The barracks on Angel Island
(left) and an Inspection Station
(right) for Chinese immigrants
From Angel Island to Chinatown
   Becoming a U.S.
citizen did NOT mean
  your troubles were
          over
           Culture Shock
– people confused and anxiety - didn't understand
  culture
– con men and thieves take advantage
– had to find job, housing, learn English language
  and American customs (school, citizenship)
– often sought out others who were similar > ethnic
  communities
– people pooled money to build neighborhood
  churches/synagogues, form social clubs, set up
  aid societies (medical treatment/costs) and
  orphanages, old people homes, cemeteries,
  newspapers
    Immigrant Restrictions

– rise of nativism caused by growing
  number of immigrants
– fear of job competition
– religious (Jews, Catholics), racial, cultural
  prejudices
– demand for immigration restrictions
Chinese Exclusion Act (1892)

 – banned entry to all Chinese except
   students, teachers, merchants, tourists,
   and government officials for 10 years
 – 1892: law extended 10 more years
 – 1902: Chinese immigration prohibited
   indefinitely - repealed 1943
   Gentlemen’s Agreement

• 1907-1908 - Japan agreed to limit
  emigration to U.S.
     Characteristics of Urbanization
        During the Gilded Age
1.   Megalopolis.
2.   Mass Transit.
3.   Magnet for economic and social opportunities.
4.   Pronounced class distinctions.
       - Inner & outer core
5.   New frontier of opportunity for women.
6.   Squalid living conditions for many.
7.   Political machines.
8.   Ethnic neighborhoods.
                       New                     New
                      Use of                   Class
      New             Space                  Diversity
  Architectural                                                      New Energy
      Style



   New
Symbols of
                       The City as a
                                                                     New Culture
 Change &             New “Frontier?”                              (“Melting Pot”)
 Progress



             Make                                          New Form of
             a New             New Levels
                                of Crime,                Classic “Rugged
              Start                                       Individualism”
                               Violence, &
                               Corruption
     Urbanization Problems

• Housing
  – row houses - attached single-family dwellings
    that shared side walls (townhouse)
  – tenements - single-family homes in which several
    immigrant families moved into - overcrowded
    and unsanitary
  – dumbbell tenements - 5-6 story buildings shaped
    like barbells - built to meet new plumbing and
    ventilation standards
“Dumbell “ Tenement
“Dumbell “ Tenement, NYC
Tenement Slum Living
5 cent lodging
Tenement Slum Living
Struggling Immigrant Families
Two Views of the Lower east Side
Mulberry Street – “Little Italy”
St. Patrick’s
 Cathedral
Hester Street – Jewish Section
  1900
 Rosh
Hashanah
Greeting
 Card
Pell St. - Chinatown, NYC
Urban Growth: 1870 - 1900
             Urbanization

• Transportation
  – cable cars – (1873) San Francisco, CA
  – electric street car – (1888) Richmond, VA
  – electric subway – (1897) Boston, Mass.
• Water
  – 1840-1850s - public water works built in NY
    and Cleveland but few homes had indoor
    plumbing
  – chlorination to city water - 1893
  – filtration - 1908
               Urbanization

• Sanitation
  – horse manure in streets, sewage ran
    through open gutters, factories release
    smoke into air, no dependable system of
    trash removal
  – by 1900 some cities had sewer lines and
    sanitation departments
              Urbanization

• Fire
  – aided by water limitation and abundance of
    wooden buildings, candle and kerosene use
  – volunteer firefighters not always available when
    needed
  – 1853 - 1st paid fire dept (Cincinnati, OH)
  – in most cities by 1900
  – 1874 - invention of automatic fire sprinklers
  – replacement of wooden structures with brick,
    stone, concrete
         Great
      Chicago Fire
           1871
 Though the fire was one of
the largest U.S. disasters of
    the 19th century, the
rebuilding that began almost
    immediately spurred
Chicago's development into
  one of the most populous
 and economically important
       American cities.
             Urbanization

• Crime
  – crime increased as pop. increased
  – pick-pockets, thieves flourished, con-men
  – 1844 - 1st full-time salaried police force -
    NYC - but most law enforcement units too
    small to help
AP US History
William Le Baron Jenney

               1832 – 1907


               “Father of
                the Modern
                Skyscraper”
W. Le Baron
 Jenney:

  Central
 Y.M.C.A.,
Chicago, 1891
             Louis Sullivan
   1856 – 1924
   The Chicago
    School of
    Architecture
   Form follows
    function!
Louis Sullivan:
Bayard Bldg.,
       NYC,
        1897
Louis Sullivan: Carson, Pirie, Scott
   Dept. Store, Chicago, 1899
D. H. Burnham

   1846 – 1912
   Use of steel
    as a super
    structure.
    DH
 Burnham:
   Fisher
[Apt.] Bldg,
  Chicago,
   1896
      D. H. Burnham:
Marshall Fields Dept. Store, 1902
        DH Burnham:
Railway Exchange, Chicago, 1904
          Frank Lloyd Wright
   1869 – 1959
   “Prairie House”
    School of
    Architecture
   “Organic
    Architecture”
   Function follows
    form!
 Frank Lloyd Wright:
Allen-Lamb House, 1915
       Frank Lloyd Wright:
Hollyhock House [Los Angeles], 1917
 Frank Lloyd Wright:
“Falling Waters”, 1936
Interior of “Falling Waters”
F. L. Wright Furniture
F. L. Wright Glass Screens




             Prairie wheat patterns
          Frank Lloyd Wright:
Susan Lawrence Dana House, Springfield, IL
                 - 1902
        Frank Lloyd Wright:
Johnson Wax Bldg. – Racine, WI, 1936
      Frank Lloyd Wright:
Guggenheim Museum, NYC - 1959
New York City Architectural Style:
                1870s-1910s
1. The style was less innovative than
   in Chicago.
2. NYC was the source of the capital for Chicago.
3. Most major business firms had their
   headquarters in NYC  their bldgs. became
   “logos” for their companies.
4. NYC buildings and skyscrapers were taller than
   in Chicago.
Western
Union
Bldg,.
NYC -
 1875
Manhattan
   Life
Insurance
  Bldg.

NYC - 1893
 Singer
Building
NYC -
  1902
Woolworth
 Bldg.

NYC - 1911
 Flatiron
 Building
NYC – 1902
  D. H.
 Burnham
Grand Central Station, 1913
    John A. Roebling:
The Brooklyn Bridge, 1883
   John A. Roebling:
The Brooklyn Bridge, 1913
 Statue of Liberty, 1876
(Frederic Auguste Bartholdi)

				
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