STOCKS Chef Tomaseski PNW BOCES Culinary Arts/Hospitality Academy WHAT ARE STOCKS? The liquids that form the foundation of soups and sauces! WHAT MAKES UP A STOCK? 5 Principles to successful stocks 1st Principle is - Start with cold Water ► The 2nd Principle is - Cut your vegetables to the appropriate size for the type of stock ► The 3rd Principle is - Select your protein base: beef, chicken, fish ► The 4th Principle is - Simmering ► The 5th Principle is - Skimming ► The The 1st Principle is: Start with cold Water cold water? Most proteins, vitamins and minerals dissolve in cold water. ► More flavor! Part of the flavor comes from these components, using hot water would lessen the flavor and nutrition of the stock ► Why Cut your vegetables to the appropriate size for the type of stock The 2nd Principle is: ► The ► ex.: size of the cut helps the maximum flavor to be extracted. A fish stock only simmers for a half hour (30 minutes) so the cut should be a julienne (thin strips: ¼” thick, 2-3” long) ► ex.: A brown stock simmers for 4-6, to sometimes 24 hours, so the cut should be large dice (1” cubes) The stock will have time extract the flavors and not fall apart after the long cooking period. Select your protein base: beef, chicken, fish The 3rd Principle is: ►All bones are washed, then: Roasted or Blanched Roasted bones for Brown Stocks Blanched bones for White Stocks For brown stocks roast bones, mirepoux add tomato product For white stocks, sauté mirepoux and sub parsnips for carrots The 4th Principle is: Simmering Gentle extraction aids in flavor and nutrition Boiling causes cloudiness through agitation of the ingredients The 5th Principle is: Skimming Keeps the stock clear The foam on top of the stock contains impurities EQUIPMENT CHOICES Aluminum: reacts with acidic products, cause a chemical change during long cooking processes Copper: Expensive, also reacts with acidic products, a great conductor of heat, in the case of stock production, can heat too fast. Stainless Steel: the best choice, non reactive, heats evenly WHAT MAKES UP A STOCK? ► Composed of Four Elements: 50%:Bones (nourishing element) 10-25%:Mirepoux (50% Onion, 25% carrot, 25% celery) Bouquet Garni/Sachet dépices 100% COLD water 50% BONES roasted or blanched Bones ► Beef, Veal, Chicken are the most common ► 50% by weight-ex. Your Chef says we have 25# of bones, following the formula that means you need 12.5# of mirepoux (6 1/4# onion, 3# 2oz. Of carrots and 3# 2 oz celery) and 50# (6 ¼ gallons) of cold water! TWO TYPES OF STOCKS: WHITE: use blanched bones and white mirepoux (no carrots) BROWN: use browned/roasted bones, mirepoux and tomato product ► Washed, ► 10-25% MIREPOUX (meer-pwah) ► Mirepoux: (a.k.a.: rough garnish, O.C.C.) a combination of aromatic vegetables, most commonly two parts onion, one part celery, one part carrots; used to flavor stocks and soups. ► The length of time the stocks simmers determines the size of the cut used to prepare the mirepoux. The longer the cooking time, the larger the size of the dice. 100% WATER water must be COLD and potable (safe to drink)! ► Some proteins only dissolve in cold water ► Cold water helps the stock remain clear ► Each gallon of water weighs 8# (8 pints) ► The Aromatics and Spices ► Sachet ďépices: ► Bouquet garni: (sah-SHAY day-PEESE) a bag of spices used to flavor stocks and sauces (boo-KAY gahr-NEE) Fresh vegetables and herbs tied together and used to flavor stocks and sauces TIME STOCK: An amber liquid made by roasting poultry beef, veal or game bones. Simmering for 4-6 hours, after roasting bones with mirepoux (large dice-1″) and adding aromatics. ► WHITE STOCK: A clear , pale liquid made by simmering blanched poultry beef or veal bones for 2-4 hours, with sautéed mirepoux (medium dice½ ″), and aromatics. ► FISH STOCK: 30 minutes, can be finfish or shellfish (lobster, shrimp), sautéed mirepoux (julienne- 1/4 ″ strips) and aromatics ► BROWN Key Terms ► Stock: foundation of soups and sauces; flavorful liquid made from the gentle simmering of bones +/or vegetables in water to extract their flavor, aroma, color, body and nutrients. ► ► Demi-Glace: A stock or sauce reduced to half its original volume (1 quart to 1 pint) quart to 1 cup) Glace: A stock or sauce reduced to quarter its original volume (1 ► ► Fumet: (foo-MAY) A highly flavored stock made w/ fish bones Remouillage (ray-moo-LAJ) is a stock made from bones that have been already used in another preparation. It can replace the water as the liquid in stock making. Steps to Preparing a Stock bones ► Blanch or brown bones (50%) ► Cut mirepoux to the proper size for the type of stock to be prepared (10-25%) ► Add cold water based on the basic stock formula (100% water, 50% bones, 25% mirepoux & sachet bag) ► Bring the stock pot to just under a boil and keep stock simmering for the required time ► Wash Finishing a Stock the stock is simmering it must be skimmed often, removing the scum that forms on the surface to maintain the clarity and flavor of the stock. ► After the stock has simmered, the stock must be strained. The bones and mirepoux and be used a second time to make stock or strengthen a weak stock, this is called remouillage. (ray-moo-LAJ) ► As Cooling a Stock ► Cooling Stock Pour hot stock or sauce into a metal stockpot. (Metal conducts heat more quickly, plastic should not be used as it acts as an insulator) Place pot in an empty sink on bricks or blocks so that the cold water can circulate underneath and on all sides of the pot. This is called venting. Allow cold water to run continuously. The constant replacement of cold water will bring down the temperature of the contents rapidly. If available, ice may be added to speed th cooling process. Ocassional stirring is recommended to distribute the the heat evenly. When cooled to at least 70°F, immediately cover and refrigerate the stock @ 40°F. Other Methods of cooling a Stock ► Use of an ice wand or paddle (Rapi-Kool) *Pour item to be cooled into multiple large shallow pans Use a Blast Chiller: (a specialized piece of equipment designed to chill large quantities of hot food) SOUPS Chef Tomaseski PNW BOCES Culinary Arts/Hospitality Academy Key Terms ► ► ► ► ► ► Soup: A liquid food made with nutrients from meat, fish, poultry +/or vegetables. Thin Soup (aka clear soup): A soup made without starch Thick Soup: A soup made with starch Specialty Soup: A soup gaining special recognition, usually linked to a certain region or location in a state or country. Cold Soup: A raw or cooked soup, served chilled and highly seasoned. Consommé: The most perfect soup. A rich flavorful broth or stock that has been clarified. Thick Soups ► Cream like a roux. They are often finished with heavy cream, half & half or whole milk. Soups: These soups are made with a thickener, ► Purée the all the ingredients in the soup. ► Bisque: A thickened cream soup with a puree of the main ingredient, usually shellfish, such as, lobster, shrimp or crab. ► Chowders: Hearty soups made similar to cream soups, with large pieces of main ingredients, usually potatoes, and garnishes. Soups: These soups are thickened by pureeing SAUCES Chef Tomaseski PNW BOCES Culinary Arts/Hospitality Academy a.k.a. Mother Sauces Grand Sauces ►Espagnole ►Béchamel ►Veloute ►Tomato (ess-spah-NYOL) ►Hollandaise (HALL-en-daze) (BAY-shah-MELL) (veh-loo-TAY) ESPAGNOLE ► Brown sauce/Espagnole Made from brown stock and brown roux Derivatives (small) sauces: addition of red wine and parsley ►Diable: addition of white wine or vinegar, cayenne ►Lyonnaise: addition of sautéed onions, butter, white wine & vinegar ►Piquante: addition of shallots, white wine, vinegar, chopped gherkins, parsley, chervil, tarragon ►Bordelaise: TOMATO from stock (ham/pork) and tomato product, classically thickened with roux. ► Derivatives (small) sauces: Creole: addition of sweet peppers, onions, chopped tomatoes Portuguese: addition of onions, chopped tomato, garlic and parsley ► Made HOLLANDAISE ►A ► rich emulsified Sauce made from butter, egg yolks, lemon juice and cayenne. Emulsion: a system (as fat in milk) consisting of a liquid dispersed with or without an emulsifier in another liquid that usually would not mix together. ► Derivatives (small) sauces: Bearnaise: addition of tarragon, white wine, vinegar, shallots Maltaise: addition of grated orange zest, orange juice Choron: addition of tomato Béchamel ► Made roux. ► Derivatives (small) sauces: from whole milk and thickened with Cream: addition of cream, instead of milk Cheddar Cheese: addition of cheddar cheese Soubise: addition of pureed, cooked onions Mornay: addition of parmesan cheese VELOUTE from veal, chicken or fish stock, thickened with a blonde roux. ► Derivatives (small) sauces: Allemande: (Veal veloute) glace, pimento butter parsley addition of egg yolks ► Made Albufera (Ivory): (chicken veloute) addition of cream, meat Percy: (fish veloute) addition of white wine, shallots, butter and THICKENERS ► ► ► Most Common Thickening Agents: ROUX: 50% fat (butter) & 50% Flour (A.P.) SLURRIES: A mixture of starch and cold liquid, typically flour, cornstarch, potato, rice or arrowroot ► LIAISON: (lee-AY-zohn) Mixture of egg yolk and cream to add flavor and smoothness to a sauce. ► BUERRE MANIE: (byurr man-YAY) Softened butter and flour kneaded together and added to a sauce in its finishing stages. The flour must be cooked out of the sauce, before serving. Other Sauces…. is a thick pureed sauce, such as a tomato coulis, raspberry coulis, typically, the main ingredients is fruits or vegetables ► SALSA: is a cold mixture of fresh herbs, spices, spices, fruits, and /or vegetables. ► Although they do not fit the traditions of a sauce, they add FLAVOR, MOISTURE, TEXTURE, and COLOR to the dish, as all sauces do! ► COULIS: THE END ►HOPE YOU TOOK GOOD NOTES THERE IS A QUIZ-TOMORROW!