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Theodore Roosevelt - DOC

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					Progressive Presidents Three presidents, T. Roosevelt, W.H. Taft, and W. Wilson, worked to advance Progressive reforms. Their efforts helped change how Americans thought, and continue to think, about the role of government.   Prior to the Progressive Era, what was the role of the government in business? The Framers wanted the presidency to have prestige but a limited set of powers. However, as the US moved through the Progressive Era, the role of the President changed. Progressive Presidency = 1901-1921 All were committed to reform, in different ways

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I. Theodore Roosevelt     AKA Teddy Roosevelt or TR 26th president after W. McKinley was assassinated in 1901 Age of 42, the youngest president in US history Roosevelt was a different type of politician during this time because he didn’t think in terms of favors and deals, he thought that being involved in politics was his noble duty. Teddy Roosevelt was a self-proclaimed “radical conservative” He took bold initiatives in foreign affairs and attacked powerful corporations. He brought new excitement and power to the Presidency, as he vigorously led Congress and the American public toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy. o Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act  He took the view that the President as a "steward of the people" should take whatever action necessary for the public good unless expressly forbidden by law or the Constitution." o Arbitration—legal process where a neutral, outside party helps resolve disputes  Some of Theodore Roosevelt's most effective achievements were in trustbusting and in conservation.

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o Trustbusting:   Roosevelt’s work in breaking up monopolies was known as trustbusting. The American public and government were concerned over the power of monopolies and believed that the government should have power over them. Roosevelt eventually came to believe that large corporations will have a role in the U.S. economy so it makes sense to let the government regulate their actions instead of just breaking them up.

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o Square Deal:   Roosevelt believed that there were good trusts and bad trusts. The good trusts were those that met Roosevelt’s standards and in return they were promised a “square deal” in which every person, worker and industrialist were treated fairly.

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Ran for presidency in 1912 against Taft and Wilson creating a third party Supported preservation and conservation of natural resources   Created the US Forest Service 150 million acres set aside under reserves

II. William Howard Taft    Quiet, cautious, and reserved—unlike TR who was physically fit, active, bold Roosevelt supported him, which helped Taft win the presidency Continued reform efforts of TR—limit power of big corporations, added land to national forest system Trustbuster: argued for more strict interpretation of Sherman Anti-Trust Act Raised tariffs, in opposition to his campaign promises Passed legislation creating the Department of Labor and Children’s Bureau Supported 8-hour workday and created this rule for government employees

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Added 2.7 million acres to TR’s National Wildlife Refuge System

III. Woodrow Wilson     Governor of NJ Supported regulation of big business Clean up machine politics New Freedom Program o Eliminate all trusts o Limited trusts power  Supporter of the average citizens, restrict corporate influences and reduce corruption in the federal government Laws passed supporting tariff reform, banking reform, and the Federal Trade Commission created to enforce Clayton Antitrust Act First president to speak before Congress since Washington introducing and lobbying for legislation Trustbuster: passed the Clayton Antitrust Act making unions exempt under antitrust legislation Sought to ban child labor, instead passed the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act (children under 14 couldn’t be hired) Supported 8-hour workday for all, but secured for railroad workers Supported the National Park Service (Yellowstone founded in 1872 by Congress) Banking Reform o First urged by Taft, but not much accomplished o Federal Reserve Act passed, 1913, establishing a US bank and rules for banking—independent banks did not have to follow these rules, only US backed banks o The Fed (Federal Reserve System) offers a safety net to banks by lending them money if they are short of funds, monetary policy set to regulate the amount of money in circulation, and setting the interest rates and how much banks can lend.

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The Fed Flowchart

Board of Governors A seven-member board oversees the Federal Reserve System Federal Reserve Banks Twelve Federal Reserve Banks provide financial services for banks in their region

Member Banks All national banks are members of the Federal Reserve System

Other Banks Other banks may not be members but must still follow some Federal Reserve rules

American People Americans deposit money in and borrow money from banks

Progressive Constitutional Amendments: 16th (1913, Wilson) allows the federal government to impose an income tax; graduated income tax where wealthier individuals pay a larger percentage of their earnings 17th (1913, Wilson) direct election of Senators by popular vote, previously they were elected by the State legislatures 18th (1919, Wilson) prohibition “the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors” 19th (1920, Wilson) “the right of citizens of the US to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on the account of sex”

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