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very own     pollution prevention magazine                    four times a year.
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mame listed on    The     SPOnSOrS’       Page in the next issue of PSC.
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                                           General Engineering Laboratoric
                                               4    New Life for Old Plastic: A Visit t o Martin Color-Fi
                                                    From humble beginnings and now a $100 million company, Martin Color-Fi sets industry
                                                    standards in the manufacture of fiber, yam, and carpet from recycled plastics. Our visit to
                                                    the Edgefield, South Carolina, manufacturer reveals what goes into, and comes out of,
                                                    plastics recycling. -Hans VanderKnyff


                                               9    Center for Environmental Policy: An interview with Claire Prince
                                                    A unit of the University of South Carolina’s Institute of Public Affairs, the Center for
                                                    Environmental Policy was created to further the institute’s research and public service
                                                    mission in the environmental arena. It has worked to link the university’s academic
                                                    resources with state and federal governmental agencies, business and industry, and environ-
                                                    mental interests. pZSC spoke with Claire Prince, the center’s new director, to find out what
                                                    the center is all about and how she views her new role there. -Hans VanderKnyff


                                               13   Eco-Efficiency: Holistic Thinking t o Advance Sustainable Business
                                                    Practices
                                                    It’s the next step for companies who want to become more competitive, more innovative,
                                                    and more environmentally responsible. What is it? Eco-efficiency. It involves using fewer
                                                    natural resources and reducing the generation of waste and pollution per unit of product or
                                                    service delivered. -Deborah Savage & Karen Shapiro


                                               15   Clemson’s Expanding Role in Waste Treatment Research
  2 guest commentary                                Clemson University’s Vitrification Research Laboratory has helped to develop the technol-
       The Definition and Solution of
                                                    ogy for safe, long-term storage of radioactive waste. In this article we take a tour of the
       Environmental Issues Using Innovative
       Research SCUREF Programs and                 facility. -Donald L. Erich & Heidi D. Rees
       Approaches-Dr. Rom Dufey
 3 opening thoughts
25 environmental hotlines                      19   Lessons from the Governor’s P2 Award Applicants
26 annual index
                                                    While we applaud the winners and honorable mentions of the South Carolina Governor’s
28 contacts/resources
28 p2sc w e b tips                                  Pollution Prevention Award for their noteworthy achievements, we should not overlook the
                                                    environmental contributions made by all the applicants. So in this and subsequent issues of
                                                    P,SC, we look at the achievements of selected applicants-winners     and non-winners alike.
                                                    -Hans VanderKnyff

hackground photo
 Keith McGraw
 University of South Carolina
inser photo
 Marlin Color-R
guest commentary
The Definition and Solution of Environmental Issues Using Innovative Research:
SCUREF Programs and Approaches Dr. Rom Duffey

The past and future of South       overall the universities include     Westinghouse Savannah River          wastes with thorium and other
Carolina is deeply connected to    many and extensive minority          Company is being accom-              salts;
environmental issues, and to       interests and participation.         plished in two ways. Through       - examination of filtration
the effective treatment and safe        The objectives of               a contract negotiated with the       technology for purification
disposal of hazardous and          SCUREF are the furtherance of        Westinghouse Savannah River          facilities;
nuclear wastes. The need for       research and educational             Company (WSRC), technical          - examination of geologic

innovative, efficient, and cost-   excellence, to conduct basic         managers may contract with           structures and potential
effective approaches to            research to assist in the solution   faculty at SCUREF institutions       seismic (earthquake) poten-
environmental concerns and         of current and future problems,      for assistance with site-based       tial;
legacies has led to a deep         and to elevate the math and          research problems.                 - review and analysis of
involvement of the South           science capabilities of students.          The second vehicle is a        contaminated ecosystems
Carolina academic community.       In addition, there is potential      Cooperative Agreement,               (plant and animal life) and
     The South Carolina            for extensive research in            negotiated with DOE, to              their recovery (regrowth); and
Universities Research and          support of new site missions,        support programs in education,     - examination of the health and
Education Foundation               including tritium production for     basic research, community            other risks associated with
(SCUREF) is a not-for-profit       beyond the year 2000; the safe       outreach, and technology             environmental hazards.
consortium of universities         treatment of used research           transfer. Projects under the
formed in 1989, namely             reactor fuel; and the treatment,     Cooperative Agreement are          Meet the new SCUREF
Clemson University, the            blending, and disposal of            cost-shared by the SCUREF          director ... SCUREF and
Medical University of South        weapons plutonium.                   institutions and are directed      Director Dr. Romney Duffey
Carolina, South Carolina State           SCUREF has developed           toward current and future needs    are committed to pursuing
University, and the University     and supported scholarships in        of DOE, particularly in the        novel research opportunities
of South Carolina.                 science and engineering, user        fields of environmental            and their utilization in the field.
     The underlying theme of       facilities, graduate and             restoration and waste manage-           In his prior work at
the consortium is that by          undergraduate experiences for        ment. Since 1993, over $60M        Brookhaven National Labora-
working collaboratively and        science and engineering, and         has been awarded for more          tory, Dr. Duffey was involved
sharing resources the partici-     public outreach programs on          than 300 projects, many of         in the study and design of
pating universities can conduct    environmental issues. Major          which have national impact.        waste treatment facilities for
significant multidisciplinary      projects have been developed               Typical examples of          wastes from the operation and
research programs. These           with the Department of Energy        innovative efforts at the          decommissioning of Russian
institutions are the premier       (DOE) and with the contractors       universities which have            submarines and nuclear-
higher educational entities in     at the Savannah River Site,          progressed from the germ of        powered icebreakers.
the state, with proven expertise   which has been and remains an        being bright ideas include:             His experience with the
in research and education, and     important environmental study        - studies of the vitrification     power industry’s research arm,
particularly in environmental      area.                                  (encasing in glass) of high-     the Electric Power Research
science, engineering, and               Considerable quantities of        level wastes;                    Institute, also made him aware
technology.                        hazardous and nuclear wastes         - development of                   of the need for cost-effective
     The campuses represent a      are left over from the Cold            bioremediation (using            solutions that could be both
resource of over 5,000 faculty.    War, and from the processing           microbes) for volatile organic   demonstrated and field-
In addition, South Carolina        of nuclear materials. Research         waste streams;                   deployed in an acceptable way
State is a historically black      and technical support for the        - examination of novel             to the regulator, the operator,
college or university, and         Department of Energy/                  treatment techniques for         and the stakeholders.    f?sc


2                                                                                             POLLUTION PREVENTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA
              opening thoughts
              Hans VanderKnyfi Associate Editor/Senior Writer


              Just before an issue of <SC goes to                      debate those who are no longer around
              press-after all the final editing lies                   to defend themselves, and sometimes I
              behind me and the deadline for the                       win). According to Herr Planck,
              next issue looms through the mist of                     “Scientific discovery and scientific
              unfinished rough drafts-I make a                         knowledge have been achieved only
              well-intentioned, albeit belated,                        by those who have gone in pursuit of
              attempt at objectivity. It’s a midlife                   them without any practical purpose
              crisis of an editorial nature, I suppose,                whatsoever in view.” I’m not a
              and the nagging questions begin to rob                   scientist, but I’ve read enough
              me of my sleep: What have we really                      abstracts from South Carolina
              accomplished? What’s it all worth?                       researchers to conclude that Planck
              Have we produced any “light?”                            was naive in his restrictive use of the
                    As I record these meandering                       word “only.”
              thoughts, the photocopied layout for                          Researchers within the South
              this Winter issue lies before me. Its                    Carolina university system (and
              focus or theme, boldly displayed on                      elsewhere) most certainly have a
              the cover, reads simply, “South                          practical purpose in view as they
              Carolina Researchers in P2.” And-                        invest so much time and energy in
              still engaged in my celebrated                           their projects. Whether in the labora-
              “objective” mode-I look over the                         tory, at an industrial plant, or at a
              cover once more and ask myself, “So                      remote field site, they apply all the
              what?’ Our readers, for the most part,                   skills and knowledge of their profes-
              need good, solid, hands-on information                   sions in a quest for new and better
              they can adapt to their own industrial                   ways of preventing, minimizing, or
              needs and concems; why would they                        treating hazardous waste. Yes, we
              care about what those ivory-tower                        should care what they do-the fruits of
              professors and graduate students do in                   their research can hold profound
              the laboratory?                                          implications for industry . . . and for the
                    Before I answer my own question,                   environment in general.
              let me first take issue with the late                         Enjoy the magazine! We hope
              German physicist, Max Planck (I often                    you find it of use and of interest.




                                                  Statement of Purpose
                                                  The Hazardous Waste Management Research Fund was estab-
                                                  lished by the South Carolina General Assembly as a part of the South
                                                  Carolina Universities Research and Education Foundation in 1989.
                                                       P2SC is publishedunder the auspices ofthe Fund to serve the needs
                                                  of South Carolina’s industries and citizens. P2SC seeks to inform its
                                                  readers about research, technologies, and strategies that will help t o
                 meet the goal of preventing pollution, before it has to be treated, stored or discarded. Questions and
                 comments about the Fund o r P2SC should be directed to: Executive Director, Institute of Public Affairs,
                 University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208.




WINTER 1997                                                                                                                 3
VNllOtlV3 HlflOS NI NOllN3h3tld N O l l f l l l O d   P
I  n the thirty years since “plastics” became the
   catchword of a generation as the result of the
   popular 1967 film Thr Grtu/iur/~.     plastics have
                                                           really hadn’t become part of the national conscious-
                                                           ness. “Wejust made our products and didn’t really
                                                           talk much about recycling back then, because it
continued to encroach upon nearly cvery aspect of          wasn’t ‘fashionable.”’ says Martin. Today. of course.
our lives. The comforters on our bed\, the jacket4 on      recycling is truly “fashionable.”
our backs. the \hoes on our feet, the carpets under our          For ii better understanding of Martin Color-Fi
Iket . . . these products are but a few examples of the    and how the coinpany brings new life to old playtic.
far-reaching ~ises plastic. The Summer ’96 issue of
                     of                                    let’s take a quick tour of the process.
f,Sc‘. to give another example, mentions the steadily
increasing plastics content of automobiles. The            The Raw Material
material i \ comparatively inexpensive and lasts           In recycling, plastics of different kinds arc generally
forever. I n fact. its longevity proves to be a mixed      not mixed. because the resulting inaterial can turn out
                                                                                                                      Martin Color4
ble\sing.                                                  brittle o r otherwise unacceptable for its intended
       Such unprecedented growth i n the use of plastics   purpose. Martin Color-Fi accepts only polyethylene
carries ;I downside: its manulricture in\ olves \ arious   terephthalate (PET or PETE) products as its raw            has found what
chemical\ that generate hazardous wa\te in one form        material. mostly in the form of baled soda bottles
or another. and the finished product is generally          (PET is the only type of plastic able t o retain
nondegradable. Furthermore. plastics take up               carbonation); PET products can be identified by a “ I ”    might be
considerable \pace in landfills: estimates range a\        in the recycling triaingle imprinted on them [.we tlie
high a\ 30% by volume.                                                                  These soda bottles. which
                                                                              .sit/dit~rl,
                                                           trc~c,o/n/,trr~?.ii~g
                                                                                                                      considered a
       Municipal curbside-re ling programs have            make up most of the plastic being recycled today. arc
s e n ed to keep many toris of such recyclable materials   ;I form of polyester, making them an ideal raw

out of 011r landfills and habe lessened the need to        material for inany of the product\ that Martin Color-      perfect market
maniifacturc new plastics. The popiilarity of bcvcr-       Fi makes.
ages sold in plastic bottles eventually brought about            The company receives the pla\tic from many
large enough \iipplie\ of non-mixed. homogeneous           sources: various municipalities (for post-consumer         niche: recycling
plastic\ to make recycling efforts worthwhile. But         products). packaging coinpanic\ (for off-spec
while many millions 01‘ pounds o f plastic are being       “waste”), and brokers. The material\ include off-\pcc
                                                                                                                      plastics not only
dutifully recycled every year. many more millions 01‘      ”prc-forms” (bottle fornms bcforc they’re blown into
pounds arc still ending up in the trash.                   the familiar two- and three-liter containers) and
       Even though much of the recycled plastic once       chunks of molten polymer. The company isn‘t                serves the
held carbonated beverages. it is generally not used        particular about the form in which it receives the raw
again to hold foods or consumable liquids: it must         materials: the plastic can be whole or shredded or
seek some lesser purpow in life. So what can we do         even in the form of plastic film.                          environment, it’s
with this material’! Who actually takes all this post-
coiisuiner and other plastic and puts it to good use’?     The Bottle-Washing Process
                                                                                                                      also good
One company is Martin Color-Fi. a pioneer in               The incoming bottles are fed into a cylindrical drum
pla\tics recycling,                                        containing spoke-like projections that break LIPthe
       Froin its humble beginnings i n the late 1970s.     bales. From the drum. the bottles travel down a            business.
the Edgefield. South Carolina. firm has grown into a       conveyor belt. alongside of which employees hand-
\,crtically integrated $ I O 0 million company. Today it   sort the material in what’s really a quality-control
sets induwy standards in thc manufacture of fiber.         operation. They look for and throw out non-PET
yarn. aiid carpet from recycled plastic.;. I n fact. the   items. such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products and
company recycles enough plastic every year to cover        nonplastic waste. Once in a while the incoming
4.270 football fields with ten-foot-high stacks, if it     materials offer a gruesome surprise: a dead dog or
were all beverage bottles. That amount translates to       cat. (Such macabre discoveries add a hint of irony to
many cubic yards of landfill space left unused.            the term “PET products.”) One inore step in the
      James F. Martin. the company’s founder.              sorting process consists of separating the bottles by
demonstrated in I978 that a fiber comparable to            color: most bottles are clear, but some are green or
virgin polyester could be inade from waste material.       amber.
To place that accomplishment in the proper perspec-              After sorting. the bottles head for a granulator
tive, we should bear in mind that recycling at the time    that grinds the material into a substance called “bottle


WINTER 1997                                                                                                                              5
                                                                                   The Manufacturing Side of the Business
                                                                                   Today, Martin Color-Fi owns and operates four
                                                                                   divisions:

                                                                                   Fibers and Recycling Division (which began as
                                                                                   Martin Fibers, Inc., in 1978) in Edgefield, South
                                                                                   Carolina, recycles waste plastic as described above
                                                                                   and produces polyester fibers and pellets used in
                                                                                   automotive fabrics and carpets, indoor carpets, home
                                                                                   furnishings, construction reinforcement, plastic
                                                                                   packaging, and automotive components. After the
    Martin Color+i                                                                 required sorting, washing, and blending, this division
                                                                                   is ready to begin manufacturing the product for which
                                                                                   it‘s well-known: plastic fiber. At this stage, the bottle
recycles enough
                                                                                   flake must be thoroughly dried. The material is
                                                                                   placed in a hopper, from where it’s fed into an
      plastic every                                                                extruder; here the plastic is heated, screened for any
                                                                                   remaining impurities, and forced through a die face
                                                                                   called a spinnerette. As the heated plastic leaves the
      year to cover                                                                spinnerette, it’s air-cooled: the plastic solidifies and
                                                                                   becomes a fiber.
     4,270 football     A bale of post-consumer bottles that Martin Color-Fi
                                                                                         The new fiber is drawn to give it strength and
                        recycles and uses as raw material for fiber production.
                                                                                   crimped to give it texture; the latter process requires
                                                                                   heating to set the crimp. Cut into one-inch to seven-
    fields with ten-                                                               inch staple lengths, the fiber enters the bale press,
                                                                                   where it’s packaged into 600-pound bales. After
                        flake.” The bottle flake then goes through a bath,         being weighed and labeled, the bale of fiber is ready
foot-high stacks,       which is primarily a hot-water solution with a small       for shipment.
                        amount of noncaustic detergent. In the bath, the “base           A good example of Martin Color-Fi’s recycling
       if it were all   cup” flake and the labels float away. Any remaining        efforts at the Edgefield division is its NatureTexT”
                        dirt is also removed. [Note: Base cups, no longer          fiber, made from 100%recycled plastic, including
                        common on sodu bottles, are made of high-density           50% post-consumer materials.
          beverage      polyethylene (HDPE) and cannot be used in Martin
                        Color-Fi ‘ s process. The company does recycle the         Pigments and Additives Division (purchased in
                        HDPE, however.]                                            1993) in Dalton, Georgia, supplies pigments and
            bottles.          The washed bottle flake undergoes a process          additives for use in the extrusion of solution-dyed
                        similar to the spin cycle on a washing machine,            fiber. A distinguishing characteristic of Martin Color-
                        which removes any glue that may still reside in the        Fi’s process is the adding of pigment for color-dyed
                        material. The bottle flake then passes through an          fibers. Making the color an integral part of the fiber,
                        electrostatic process to remove any remaining metal,       rather than just “adding it on” later, gives a more
                        such as aluminum bottle caps; the plastic picks up an      color-fast product. Furthermore, the company’s
                        electrostatic charge, but the aluminum caps do not,        solution-dying process releases no harmful chemicals
                        allowing for easy segregation of the two materials.        or colorants into the environment.
                              Martin Color-Fi sometimes blends other plastic
                        materials with the bottle flake, depending on the          Yarn Division (purchased in 1994) in Laurens, South
                        specifications for a particular fiber or on the avail-     Carolina, produces about 13 million pounds of spun
                        ability of waste materials. If the fiber is to be 100%     and filament carpet and rug yarns every year for use
                        post-consumer, the process uses only bottle flake. But     in residential, commercial, and automotive applica-
                        if a higher or lower viscosity is required, for example,   tions. It processes nylon, polyester, olefin, acrylic,
                        the company will blend in other materials. The plastic     and rayon yams, both natural and pre-dyed.
                        is now ready for manufacturing.




6                                                                                          POLLUTION PREVENTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA
                                                                                                                          Martin ColopFi

                                                                                                                          sometimes

                                                                                                                          blends other

                                                                                                                          plastic materials

                                                                                                                          with the bottle

                                                                                                                          flake, depending

                                                                                                                          on the

                                                                                 ssettes, and reusable cafeteria trays.   specifications for

                                                                                                                          a particular fiber

                                                                                                                          or on the

manufacture commercial products, includ                                                                                   availability of
walled pressure pipes, windows, doors, as well as          tend to have poor physical properties-they are often
crystal-clear food packaging, particularly bottles for     brittle because most polymers are incompatible and do
cooking oils, water, household chemicals, food wraps,      not chemically adhere to each other. Generally, the            the waste
and health and beauty aids. Its properties include g&      greater the number of plastic components in a blend, the
clarity and chemical resistance.                           poorer are its properties.
      Recycled polyvinyl chloride can be used to make                                      y being manufactured from      materials.
drainage pipes, fencing, handrails, house siding, tiles,                   material plastics, although limited ways
sewer pipes, traffic cones, garden hoses, and drains.                      rove the mechanical properties of products

4-Low-density polyethylene (LDPE)                               While recycling of composite plastics is currently
LDPE is widely used in applications requiring clarity      extremely limited, when recycled such plastics might be
and processing ease. Its most common use is as film for    used to make landscaping lumber, farm             pens,
sacks, shrink wrap, stretch wrap, and trash bags.          roadside posts, industrial pallets, marine pilings, benches,
     men recycled,LDPE can be used to make most of         and picnic tables. The lack of any significant recycling of
the products from virgin LDPE.                             this material reflects the current need to subsidize such
                                                           activity to be cost-effective.



 WINTER 1997
                                                                                                                                            7
                                                                                  Autoniotive & tran.spoIrtation
                                                                                  Trunk liners
                                                                                  Interior fabrics
                                                                                  Carpets and tloormats
                                                                                  Recreation vehicles
                                                                                  Boats
                                                                                  Floor coverings
                                                                                  Commercial carpets
                                                                                  Residential carpets
                                                                                  Area rugs
                                                                                  Bath rugs
                                                                                  Itidustrial and construction
            The                                                                   Paint rollers
                                                                                  Geotextiles
      company’s                                                                   Abrasive buff pads
                                                                                  Rope
                                                                                  Filtration applications
       solution-                                                                  Concrete, asphalt, and stucco reinforcement
                                                                                  Appurel & travel
                                                                                  Footwear
           dying                                                                  Outerwear
                                                                                  Sportswear
                   top photo The research and development line at the
         process   Martin Color-Fi Sumter facility allows them t o perform
                                                                                  Luggage
                                                                              .   Home,furnishings
                   custom color matching. Here a color specialist checks
                   fiber production against a customer standard.                  Sofa and chair fill
     releases no                                                                  Pillows
                   bottom photo A bale of solution-dyed fiber is being            Blankets
                   packaged in a bale press. It will be weighed, labeled,
                                                                                  Comforters
        harmful    and shipped.
                                                                                  Upholstery


    chemicals or   Carpet Division (also purchased in 1994) in Dalton,        Conclusion
                   Georgia, manufactures specialty carpets for automo-        Martin Color-Fi has found what might be considered
                   tive, recreational vehicle, and manufactured-housing       a perfect market niche: recycling plastics not only
       cok”        applications, as well as the hospitality, corporate, and   serves the environment, it’s also good business. Jim
                   health-care markets. Every year the company                Martin takes pride in helping the environment by
                   produces six million square yards of carpet.               using recycled materials and by using manufacturing
        into the                                                              processes that are environmentally responsible. By
                   Where Recycled Plastics Fibers Are Used                    recycling plastic, he says, the company keeps the
    environment,   To get an idea of the great potential in such fibers,      material from entering already overburdened
                   look at some of the applications of Martin Color-Fi’s      landfills, saves energy, and conserves natural
                   products:                                                  resources. There’s a lot to be said for that. PSC




8                                                                                     POLLUTIONPREVENTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA
      Centerfor
 Environmental Policy


             &n Interview with Claire Prince




P,SC For t h o w who may not be familiar with the          Fund to fund research in hazardous waste reduction
Cenrcr tor Environtnental Policy. p l c a ~    cxplain     and pollution prevention through USC, Clemson
M hen it w i t h formctl and tor w h a t purpose.          University, the Medical University of South Carolina,
Prince The Center for Environmental Policy was             and South Carolina State University. The fund is
created in 1992 within the University of South             housed under, and administered by, IOPA. Dr. Doug
Carolina's Institute of Public Affairs. The Institute of   Dobson, IOPA's director, has been involved in P2
Public Affairs [IOPA] is a research and public service     and other environmental activities through his
arm of USC. There are a number of centers and              management of the research fund.
programs housed within IOPA: for example, the                   The Center for Environmental Policy, which is
Center for Governance, the Center for Bioethics, and       separate and distinct from the research fund, was
the Center for Health Services and Policy Research.        created to further IOPA's research and public service
IOPA also administers other programs, such as              mission in the environmental arena. Since its
Leadership South Carolina and the Washington               creation, the center has worked to link USC's
Semester Intern program.                                   academic resources with environmental stakeholders
     In 1989, the [South Carolina] General Assembly        external to USC, specifically with state and federal
created the Hazardous Waste Management Research            governmental agencies, business and industry, and


WINTER 1997                                                                                                        9
                        environmental interests. The center’s first director,        pZSC As the new director, what do you see as the
                        Dr. John Mark Dean, helped to develop an academic            overall mission of the center?
                        focus for environmental policy research, which was           Prince Generally stated, the center’s mission is to
                        continued with the addition of Dr. Langdon Warner            engage in thoughtful, objective research, public
                        in 1993 as a full-time associate professor with the          policy analyses, public service activities, and
                        center. W e also have a full-time administrative             technical assistance focusing on environmental issues
                        assistant for the center, and a technical assistance         that are important and relevant to the ongoing
                        manager responsible for the center’s technical               legislative and public policy debate in South Caro-
                        assistance work.                                             lina. To do this, the center will strive to link USC’s
                                                                                     research expertise to environmental issues that are
     “The center is                                                                  identified by the state’s environmental stakeholders.
                        pZSC When did you come on board as the new
                        director, and what has the transition been like?
      positioned to     Prince I joined the center as its new director on Oct. 1 ,   P,SC You mentioned these “environmental stake-
                        1996. Prior to joining the center, I was the director of     holders” earlier: who are they?
                        research for the Senate Labor, Commerce and Industry         Prince: Obviously, every citizen in South Carolina
     offer research     Committee, which is chaired by Sen. J. Verne Smith of        who enjoys our state’s natural resources is an
                        Greer, S.C. Sen. Smith was the                                                    environmental stakeholder. In
                        primary sponsor of the legislation                                                fashioning decisions that effect
 and analysis on        creating the Hazardous Waste                                                      environmental policy in this
                        Management Research Fund, and                                                     state, there are numerous
  environmental         chaired the legislative oversight                                                 stakeholders in both the public
                        committee formed to monitor the                                                   and private sectors. In the public
                        fund’s expenditures. In working                                                   sector, the governor, the
        issues in an    with Sen. Smith and the oversight                                                 General Assembly, and the
                        committee, I came to know and                                                     state’s regulatory agencies, all
                        work closely with IOPA and Dr.                                                    have a role in shaping the
objective, factual      Dobson.                                                                           environmental debate. In an era
                             So, making the transition                                                    of “environmental devolution,”
manner without          over to IOPA was somewhat                                                         we are seeing more and more
                        easier since I knew and had                                                       responsibility falling to our
                        worked with many of the staff                                                     local governments to assume
      being labeled     people involved with the                                                          environmental decision making.
                        research fund. Frankly, I was                                                     In the private sector, business
                        less familiar with the Center for Environmental              and industry are key stakeholders as are organized
             with a     Policy since it is separate from the fund. Before            environmental and community civic groups.
                        accepting the directorship, I spent a considerable
       predisposed      amount of time looking at what the center had done           pZSC What is the center’s role in working with these
                        in the past, and what the expectations were for the          stakeholders?
                        center’s future activities.                                  Prince I think the center has a unique opportunity to
     perspective or          The change in directorship has given us an              serve as a neutral third party in the continuing debate
                        opportunity to stop and think about the original             over environmental policy in this state. The center is
                        mission of the center, what it has accomplished in the       positioned to offer research and analysis on environ-
               bias!’   four years since it was created, and what the center’s       mental issues in an objective, factual manner without
                        future goals and objectives should be. We have just          being labeled with a predisposed perspective or bias.
                        completed a series of internal, facilitated discussions      The center can draw upon the knowledge and
                        to reevaluate the mission of the center and to set a         expertise of university faculty for research and
                        series of short- and long-term objectives for the            information, and relay that information in a timely
                        center. Organizational changes are always labor-             and useable fashion. One of the goals of the center
                        intensive initially, but I believe these discussions         over the next year is to strengthen our relationships
                        have helped us to develop a better focus on the types        with key stakeholders in the environmental debate,
                        of activities the center should be involved in and the       and to heighten awareness about the availability of
                        kinds of relationships we need to work to cultivate.         the center as a resource.


IO                                                                                           POLLUTION PREVENTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA
pZSC You’ve briefly described the overall mission.                 W e have also used our retired engineers to assist
How do you foresee transforming that mission into the         DHEC’s Center for Waste Minimization in conduct-
center’s day-to-day activities?                               ing one-day site assessments at the request of the
Prince I really see the broader mission of the center         facility. We are also involved in a project with the
concentrated into three general areas of activity:            State Energy Office which will use retired engineers
technical assistance, public policy development, and          to conduct training sessions and workshops to
information and outreach. The center, primarily               increase awareness in indu,srry concerning the
                                                                                                                         “The center can
through the efforts of Dr. Warner, has worked hard to         benefits of energy-efficient drives and motors.
develop a technical assistance component. Through                  Providing technical support to industry has given     and should be an
several different projects, the center has worked on          us an opportunity to strengthen our relationship with
building stronger relationships with industry and other       other organizations that provide technical assistance,
public-sector organizations that work with industry.          primarily the Center for Waste Minimization at             environmental
This past year, the center completed an eighteen-             DHEC and, most recently, the Southeastern Manufac-
month project to assist participating textile manufac-        turing Technology Center. We are assisting SMTC in
turing facilities in identifying pollution prevention and     instances where environmental issues are raised
                                                                                                                         ‘policy expert’
waste reduction opportunities. This was done in               during the course of its work with a manufacturing
cooperation with the textile industry’s trade organiza-       facility. W e realize that groups like SMTC and others     so that the
tion, DHEC’s Center for Waste Minimization, and               are also involved with industry-particularly small
Clemson University. The core component of the                 and medium-sized industries-to provide technical
project was the use of retired engineers who served as        assistance and other services and we are not inter-        state’s decision
“paid volunteers” to conduct site assessments and             ested in duplicating those efforts. But to the extent
provide technical assistance.                                 we can identify opportunities to work together and
                                                              partner with other organizations providing similar
                                                                                                                          makers and
CSC Looking back on it as the new director, do you            services, we will attempt to be involved in that effort.
feel the textile project was effective?                       There is a need to better coordinate technical             other
Prince 1 think the textile project was particularly           assistance services so that each effort compkments-
effective for several reasons. First, its focus was on        rather than competes with-each other. We do feel
one industry sector, which allowed the recruitment of         the need is there to offer assistance with pollution       environmental
retired engineers with an expertise in textile manufac-       prevention and waste reduction efforts, and we will
turing to assist in the site visits. Second, the participa-   continue to seek opportunities to fulfill that part of
tion of the trade organization lent the project credibil-     the center’s mission.
                                                                                                                          interests can use
ity and access with textile manufacturers. Third, the
project was nonregulatory, and steps were taken to            CSC You’ve mentioned public policy development             the center as a
ensure those participating facilities were not placed at      as a second component of the center’s overall
a competitive or regulatory disadvantage. Fourth, the         mission. Could you describe what you mean by that?
project furthered the center’s goal of promoting              Prince In keeping with IOPA’s larger mission of             research and
pollution prevention by showing that waste reduction          research and public service, we will engage in
and pollution prevention activities make good business        activities which have the potential to further our
sense. And finally, the project effectively joined            public service mission. I think there is a real need to
                                                                                                                         analytical expert
academic, governmental, and industry interests in a           provide objective research and analysis on environ-
way that had good results for all involved.                   mental issues of concern to our state’s business and       for issues on the
                                                              environmental interests, and to our executive and
CSC Do you see a continuing role for the center in            legislative branches of government. We hope to
the area of technical assistance?                             develop public policy research efforts in a way that is    environmental
Prince We do see a continuing role for the center in          meaningful and useful to governmental, environmen-
technical assistance. We are working to build upon the        tal, and industrial interests in South Carolina. For
success of the textile project by replicating the concept     example, last year the General Assembly enacted the
                                                                                                                         agenda!’
for the plastics industry. Discussions are underway           Environmental Audit Privilege and Voluntary
with the trade organizations representing the plastics        Disclosure Act. A number of other states have
industry, and we hope to provide similar pollution            enacted similar legislation, and it has been a conten-
prevention assistance through the use of retired              tious issue both within South Carolina and with EPA.
engineers with expertise in that field.                       The center is currently funded to conduct an imple-


WINTER 1997
                        mentation study of South Carolina’s audit law, and to    its new director?
                        provide a comparative study of the impact such laws      Prince: I hesitate to say because I’m afraid I may
      “I believe the    have had in other states. This is an example of public   read this a year from now and realize I severely
                        policy research that, in my opinion, is timely and       overstated my abilities! Seriously, I think my
        Center for      important to the ongoing debate about the public         strengths lie in the fact that I have had an opportu-
                        policy decisions surrounding this issue. Another         nity to be involved in environmental policy making
                        example of public policy research the center is          from several vantage points. Having spent eight
 Environmental          currently conducting is a study of the comparative       years in the State Senate working for a senator who
                        costs of local solid waste recycling programs in         has a long history of involvement in environmental
                        South Carolina. The study is intended to determine       issues, I had the opportunity to leam how the
Policy can serve        the most cost-effective recycling programs currently     legislative process shapes environmental decision-
                        utilized within South Carolina. As a matter of public    making. I have had the opportunity to work at
      as a vital link   policy, this research is important for local govem-      DHEC in the Division of Environmental Quality
                        ments struggling to assess the cost-benefit of their     Control. That experience gave me a much better
                        recycling efforts.                                       appreciation for how regulatory agencies struggle
           between            I believe the center can and should be an          with implementing legislative mandates, and how
                        environmental “policy expert” so that the state’s        environmental policy is influenced by regulatory
                        decision makers and other environmental interests        decisions. I have spent a year in private practice
         academia,      can use the center as a research and analytical expert   working on environmental cases, and wrestling with
                        for issues on the environmental agenda. We will          all of the complex legal and practical implications
government, and         continue to work to develop other activities that will   of applying environmental law and policy to “real
                        further the public policy development component of       world” situations. Through all of these experiences,
                        the center.                                              I realized that my legal education needed a stronger
        the private                                                              focus on environmental law. So, I went back to
                        pZSC You’ve described the third component of the         school and earned a Master of Studies in Environ-
                        center’\ mi\sion as information and outreach. Can        mental Law from Vermont Law School. When I
     sector in ways     you be more \pecific‘?                                   graduated from law school in 1984, there were no
                        Prince Broadly speaking, this aspect of the center’s     environmental law courses offered, and very few
 that will foster       work will really focus on publications and targeted      continuing legal education courses in environmental
                        education forums that further the technical assistance   law. That has changed now, but I think the combi-
                        and public policy research and analysis work of the      nation of experiences and going back to school has
              more      center. In the past, the center’s publications program   helped give me a better foundation in environmental
                        has been sporadic at best, and we would like to better   law and policy.
                        develop that aspect of the center’s work. W e think            I think the perspective I bring to the center is
        meaningful      there is a need to provide timely, readable and          an understanding of the environmental policy-
                        relevant factual information on environmental issues     making process, and working relationships with
       dialogue on      that the state’s policy makers and the general public    individuals who have an interest in, and influence
                        may hear about through the media and other sources,      over, environmental matters. Hopefully, I can draw
                        but not necessarily understand in terms of its impact    on my experiences to better link USC’s resources
 environmental          on South Carolina. At the same time, there are           with activities external to USC that drive the
                        targeted audiences with whom the center can provide      environmental public policy debate. I think there is
                        information and expertise through work shops,            an important role that the academic community can
     issues that are    sponsored programs, and specific training sessions.      play in the public policy arena, but there has to be a
                        W e hope to work cooperatively with other organiza-      mutual understanding of the factors and influences
important to all        tions to develop opportunities to be involved in these   that drive that debate. I believe the Center for
                        types of activities.                                     Environmental Policy can serve as a vital link
                                                                                 between academia, government, and the private
             South      4 S C At a time when the center appears to be going      sector in ways that will foster more meaningful
                        through somewhat of a transition, what experience        dialogue on environmental issues that are important
                        and strengths do you feel you bring to the center as     to all South Carolinians. RSC
       Carolinians!’


I2                                                                                       POLLUTION PREVENTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA
              I   n a report to the United Nations for the 1992
                  Earth Summit in Rio, the Business Council for
              Sustainable Development (BCSD) coined the term
              “eco-efficiency.” According to BCSD, eco-efficiency
              (E2) is “reached by the delivery of competitively
              priced goods and services that satisfy human needs
              and bring quality of life, while progressively
              reducing ecological impacts and resource intensity
              throughout the life cycle, to a level at least in line
              with the earth’s estimated carrying capacity.”
                     In simple terms, E2 means using fewer natural
              resources and reducing the generation of waste and
              pollution per unit of product or service delivered. Its
              environmental benefits are self-evident. However,
              efficient use of material resources is equally a
              business proposition-especially as governments
              increasingly deploy market incentives to capture the
              true cost of resource consumption.
                     E2 is an extension of engineering and manage-
              ment concepts such as design for environment-
              changing product design to allow reductions in
              material and energy use-and total quality manage-
              ment-reducing process and product failures while
              achieving higher quality at lower cost. As an
              umbrella concept covering pollution prevention,
              waste minimization, and cleaner production, E2 is the
              next step for enterprises committed to becoming
              more competitive, more innovative, and more
              environmentally responsible.
                     From a resource standpoint, E2 may be viewed
              as the convergence and synthesis of energy effi-
              ciency, water conservation, toxics use reduction, and
              solid waste source reduction.
                     Tellus’ Eco-Efficiency Initiative works with
              businesses and government to remove barriers to, and
               identify the opportunities for, adopting E2 practices
               within industry in North America and globally.
               Members of the Eco-Efficiency Working Group are
              drawn from three of Tellus’ research groups, and
               combine expertise in pollution prevention, energy
               efficiency, water conservationlquality, and solid
               waste. Building on many years of collaboration with
               a variety of industry sectors, the initiative’s current
               strategy is three-pronged:
               @ demonstrate that E2 is more than a good idea-it
                    really works;
               @ develop and disseminate E2 decision support
                    tools; and
               @ facilitate innovative financing strategies to bring
                    E2 projects to fruition.
                      Current Tellus Eco-efficiency projects include:
               @ Development         Eco-Efficiency Decision Support


WINTER 1997                                                        13
                      FIGURE I
                      The Elements of Eco-Efficiency




In simple terms,

E2 means using

     fewer natural

     resources and

      reducing the        Tools To justify E2 investments from a business            (especially small business) and to educate
                          point of view, managers need decision support              potential borrowers on the barriers they are likely
                          tools demonstrating the benefits of E2 projects in         to face during the financing process.
     generation of        the language of financial officers. With funding
                          from the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE)                 Tellus is currently developing a Resource
                          we are developing a tool, E2FINANCE (Eco-              Directory database that will list sources of financing
        waste and         Efficiency Financial and Cost Evaluation               for implementing industrial E2 projects. Expanding
                          System), to meet this objective. Based on Tellus'      on a previous guidebook developed by Tellus for the
     pollution per        P2FINANCE software series, E2PINANCE is a              Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association
                          software package for evaluating the profitability      (NEWMOA) and US EPA Region 1, the new
                          of E2 projects. In addition to allowing the entry      database will include financing sources for projects
 unit of product          and analysis of comprehensive costkavings data         focusing not only on pollution prevention, but also on
                          relevant to an E2 project (e.g., raw materials         energy efficiency, water conservation, and solid
                          costs, waste disposal costs, water costs), E2/         waste reduction. Funding from US EPA Region 1 and
        or service        FINANCE will have a special focus on energy            US DOE Region 1 has been provided to develop this
                          efficiency projects via inclusion of energy            Internet-accessible database for financing resources
                                                                                 in the New England states. Pending additional
         delivered.       modules that allow tracking of both energy costs
                          (via rate structures, etc.) and actual energy use/     funding, Tellus plans to expand the database to
                          loads. With the energy modules in place, we will       include nationwide coverage. RSC
                          proceed to design and incorporate E2FINANCE
                          modules on water, other raw materials, and solid
                           waste.                                                Reprinted with permission from Tellus Institute's Environmental
                      @   Eco-Efficiency Finuncing Strategies In addition        Perspectives, Nov. 1996. Karen Shapiro manages Tellus' Cleaner
                                                                                 Technology Policy program and is overseeing development of E2/
                           to overcoming barriers within a firm, access to       FINANCE and the E2 Resource Directory. Deborah Savage, a
                           external financing for E2 projects is a critical      senior scientist at Tellus, focuses on pollution prevention and
                                                                                 environmental accounting, including development of Tellus' P2/
                           ingredient to advancing E2. One approach is to
                                                                                 FINANCE software. Tellus Institute is a nonprofit environmental
                           educate lenders on the benefits of E2 projects to a   research and consulting organization in Boston, MA.
                           firm's profits and long-term competitiveness.
                           Another approach is to disseminate sources of         Coming in a later issue of <SC.. . a more detailed look at the P2/
                           such financing to the industrial community            FINANCE and E2lFlNANCE software and how to get a copy.



14                                                                                        POLLUTION PREVENTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA
                                                             T
                                                                       he Environmental Systems Engineering
                                                                       Department at Clemson University and its
                                                                       Vitrification Research Laboratory have been
                                                             providing technical support to the Department of
                                                             Energy (DOE) for over four years. Working closely
                                                             with Savannah River and other DOE sites, the Vit
                                                             Lab has helped to develop the technology and
                                                             processing conditions to stabilize hazardous and
                                                             radioactive waste for safe, long-term storage in glass.
                                                                   The Vit Lab has restricted its efforts to experi-
                                                             ments involving non-radioactive materials, and has
                                                             worked solely with model, or surrogate, wastes.
                                                             Surrogates use chemical elements that behave in a
                                                             manner similar to the actual waste to model the
                                                             behavior of the wastes. This approach eliminates the
                                                             need to deal with radionuclides and hazardous
                                                             materials. As such, surrogates are a valuable tool to
                                                             help gain an understanding of the processing


                         Clemson’s
The new Clemson
Environmental Research                                       behavior and the stability of wastes treated by
Laboratory.                                                  vitrification.
                                                                   Models are limited in utility though, because no
                                                             matter how good the selection of surrogates is, they


                         Expanding                           cannot fully simulate the behavior of the actual
                                                             waste. So, similar to studies done in wind tunnels or
                                                             with computer models, the time comes when real
                                                             materials must be tested under actual conditions to


                         Role                                determine their response. When dealing with
                                                             radioactive and hazardous wastes, specialized
                                                             facilities are required to ensure that workers, the
                                                             environment, and the laboratory itself are not put in


                         in Waste                            danger of being contaminated. A recent donation by
                                                             Waste Management, Inc. (WMX), to Clemson
                                                             University has provided this capability and the
                                                             vehicle for a logical extension and expansion of


                         Treatment                           Clemson’s vitrification research.

                                                             History
                                                             Clemson created the Vitrification Research Labora-


                         Research                            tory in 1992 in cooperation with DOE/Westinghouse
                                                             Savannah River Company, Envitco, Inc., and Stir
                                                             Melter, Inc. The 2,000-square-foot pre-engineered
                                                             metal structure was put into place directly behind the
                                                             L. G. Rich Environmental Research Laboratory at
                                                             Clemson’s Research Park. Its space is fully occupied
                                                             by two joule-heated melters, a DC arc graphite
                                                             electrode melter, and their auxiliary power, feed,
                                                             offgas, and data acquisition systems.
                                                                  In the summer of 1996, Clemson had a unique
                                                             opportunity to acquire the WMX/RUST Clemson
                                                             Technical Center (CTC) laboratory located adjacent
                         Donald L. Erich and Heidi D. Rees   to the Environmental Systems Engineering depart-
                                                             ment. This two-story, 60,000-square-foot facility


WINTER 1997                                                                                                      15
                     contains analytical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale         start-up and to maintain temperatures during tests.
                     laboratories, offices, and conference rooms. The               The EPI DC Arc Melter has a graphite crucible
                     facility is fully authorized by federal and state         contained inside a sealed, water-cooled, atmosphere-
                     regulatory agencies to handle hazardous, radioactive,     controlled vessel. The melter is capable of processing
                     and mixed-waste materials. As such, it provides the       approximately 25 kg of material per charge and can be
                     room, the lab capabilities, and the licenses and          operated in either the cold- or hot-top mode. Power is
 The goal of the     permits needed for the logical extension of the           supplied from a 100-kW DC supply through consum-
                     Vitrification Laboratory’s research. The CTC              able graphite electrodes. The vessel cover contains
                     laboratory contains the space and infrastructure to       three ports, located 120” apart, that can be used for the
        university   install several pilot-scale radioactive or mixed-waste    addition of feed materials-thereby increasing the
                     treatment processes. One bay is already occupied by       melt capacity-or the installation of a monitoring
 administration      a radwaste-capable Envitco melter similar to the one      device such as a camera or pyrometer. While the
                     in the Vit Lab. In anticipation of donation of the CTC    current melter design allows only batch-type opera-
                     laboratory to Clemson, the DOE put a project in           tion, it could be modified for continuous operation.
          and the    place with the Vit Lab that calls for a treatability           The newest melter added to the lab is an Envitco
                     study of actual Oak Ridge Reservation mixed waste.        WASTE-VIT MM-005 Mini-Melter. The melter is an
                     The Vitrification Laboratory moved into the new           environmentally friendly cold-top melter designed to
       laboratory    facilities in November 1996, providing the funding,       melt 12 lb/hr of soda-lime-silica glass with an
                     research, and staff core needed to expand Clemson’s       operating temperature of 1400°C. The melter is water-
 management is       role in environmental research.                           cooled for safety and longevity, and is purged in
                                                                               molybdenum-containing areas to prevent oxidation. It
                     Processing Equipment                                      can process slurry or dry feed and has ports available
       that CERL     The Vitrification Laboratory and Clemson Environ-         for batch chargers, offgas, viewkamera use, and an
                     mental Research Laboratory (CERL) currently have          auxiliary port for possible sampling of the glass
                     four melters available for conducting waste-process-      surface.
      become an      ing research. These melters are described below.
                          The first melter used was an Envitco EV- 16          Research Experience
 internationally     Joule-heated melter. The Envitco melter has a             The Vitrification Lab has conducted a number of
                     refractory lined melting chamber and is capable of        vitrification process-development campaigns in
                     continuously processing glass at rates exceeding one-     support of DOE’S mixed-waste management programs
      recognized     half ton per day. Glass temperatures in excess of         including:
                     1500°C have been measured in the vessel, while the
                     glass exiting the melter is typically in the range of     Compositional Studies Durability studies of glass
research facility    1300-1400°C. It is capable of cold-top or hot-top         compositions that could be made from wastewater
                     operation and has been operated with both dry or          treatment sludges located at Savannah River Site, Oak
dedicated to the     slurry feeds. Because of its high temperature             Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), and Los
                     capability, this melter allows a wide compositional       Alamos National Laboratory were conducted to
                     range for a given waste material.                         determine whether they were candidates for vitrifica-
        study and         Clemson’s WV-0.25 Stir Melter is one of only         tion. By considering two levels of the major oxides, a
                     three stirred melters in operation. It has an InconelTM   space of thirty-two possible glass compositions was
                     690 melt chamber and an InconelTM      690 stirring       defined. To determine the ability of the glasses to
     resolution of   electrode. Maximum processing temperature is              effectively isolate hazardous metals, fixed-level oxide
                     limited to approximately 1070°C because of the            additions of three hazardous metals were made.
 environmental       materials of construction. The melt chamber has an        Leaching studies found that at the higher ratio of glass
                     internal “tea pot” spout with an external drain tube,     formers (SiO,, AI,O,, and B,O,) to glass modifiers
                                                                                             -    -
                     allowing for continuous operation. The melter has         (Na,O, CaO, BaO, NiO, FeO, and PbO), the most
           issues.   separate ports for dry feeding and slurry feeding of      durable glasses were made, as measured by the sodium
                     the batch and other additives. Ten-kW of power is         normalized release rate (NaNRR) and the seven-day
                     available for Joule heating through the stirrer/          Product Characteristic Test (PCT). It was also found in
                     chamber circuit. In addition, there are external          compositions with low former-to-modifier ratios that
                     resistance heaters with a 7-kW power supply for           the relative quantities of soda and lime affected the
                                                                               NaNRR. High Na,O-to-CaO ratios further decreased


16                                                                                     POLLUTION PREVENTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA
FIGURE I
The Structure of the Systems Approach to Environmental issues Within CERL
                        Applications                                      Systems

   Product characterization
     & by-product handling

                                                                                                                   Working closely
                Treatment
                 Processes
                                                                                                                   with Savannah

                                                                                                                   River and other
                                                                                     I




                               Basic Sciences             Applied Engineering
                                                                                                                   DOE sites, the

the glass durability. At high former-to-modifier ratios       Despite devitrification tendencies due to high
                                                                                                                   Vit Lab has
the soda-to-lime ratio had very little effect. These          calcium content, the RFP waste glass passed
studies provided a starting point in defining the             Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure           helped to
additions that need to be made to various waste               (TCLP) and PCT requirements. Volatilization of
streams so that a durable glass will be formulated.           the plutonium surrogate and RCRA metals was
                                                              low; melter wear, especially for the electrodes,     develop the
Surrogate Waste-Processing Studies The lab has                was high.
conducted eighteen major surrogate demonstrations         @ High-Sodium Hanford This is a high-sodium,
studies on vitrification. Some of the highlights are:         nitrate-containing, low-level waste from the high-
                                                                                                                   technology and
iT M-Areu Borax additions were made to provide                level waste vitrification process. A surrogate
    borosilicate glass compositions with waste                slurry was tested in the Envitco melter. The glass   processing
    loadings between 70% and 95%. It was found                chosen was sodium aluminum-calcium silicate.
    that the higher the waste loading, the more               Tests using both slurry feed and dry feed after
    durable the glass.                                        drying the sludge and glass-forming materials        conditions to
a   Rocky Flats Plant A borosilicate glass with 50%           were conducted. The glasses produced were very
    waste loading was made by adding 14% borax,               durable and the offgas emissions of simulated
    36% diatomaceous earth, and 3% aluminum                   radionuclides and heavy metals were low.
                                                                                                                   stabilize
    oxide. The aluminum oxide was added to                L;a Oak Ridge K-25 Plant B&C Pond Sludge This

    increase the viscosity of the glass to a level            waste is from a settling pond used for holding       hazardous and
    suitable for draining from the melter. In addition        wastewater sludges from the K-25 plant. An
    to the glass-forming additives, activated carbon at       alkali-lime-silicate glass with 50% waste loading
    3% was chosen as a feed additive to deter the             was tested in the Envitco melter. Due to the low     radioactive
    formation of sulfate salts. The RFP sludge was            melting temperature, minimal processing
    fed to the melter as a slurry with 55% solids             problems were experienced with this waste. Even
    content. This glass composition had a melting             after extended hot hold periods in the melter, the
                                                                                                                   waste for safe,
    temperature of approximately 1 150°C.                     glass did not devitrify.
    Processing of the RFP waste was very difficult.            In addition to the support work for DOE, several    long-term
    Offgasing and foaming, resulting from high            industrial clients have supported research at the
    nitrate and high sulfate content, prevented           Vitrification Laboratory. Based on negotiations
    continuous draining and feeding of the melter.        currently taking place, the level of commercial          storage in glass.
    Stable sulfate salts formed on the surface of the     research activity at the CERL is expected to increase
    melt and hindered feed incorporation into the         significantly.
    molten glass. The sulfate salts also caused
    blocking of the offgas treatment system, halting      The Future
    processing until the system could be cleared.         The vision for utilization of the CTC by Clemson


WINTER 1997                                                                                                                          17
                       University is the creation of the Clemson Environ-
                       mental Research Laboratory. It is the goal of the
                       university administration and the laboratory manage-
                       ment that this become an internationally recognized
                       research facility dedicated to the study and resolution
                       of environmental issues. The CERL will be staffed,
                       and its activities structured, to provide a systematic
                       approach to solving environmental issues. This will
                       be accomplished by selecting or developing the
                       required technology, and combining it with the
                       appropriate application to solve the technical need.
                       The result is a waste treatment system. Applications
                       are expected to range from characterization (site,
                       waste form, chemistry) through treatment processes
                       (thermal and non-thermal) to waste product durability
                       and handling, and by-product treatment and disposal.         surplus stockpile of highly enriched uranium
                       The technical capabilities existing within the               and weapons-grade plutonium.
                       university range from the basic sciences to applied
                       engineering demonstrations. This approach is shown
                       schematically on page 17.                                 Engineering and Science at Clemson University, or
                            A full complement of interdisciplinary resources     possibly from other universities. BSC
                       is available to address projects conducted at CERL.
                       In addition to the engineers, scientists, and techni-     Donald L. Erich is the acting director for the Clemson University
                                                                                 Environmental Research Lab. He holds a BS and MS in metallur-
                       cians employed by CERL, additional technical and          gical engineering. Heidi D. Rees is a projectassistant at the lab, and
                       scientific resources can be drawn from the College of     she holds a BS in organizational communications.




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8                                                                                          POLLUTION PREVENTION I N SOUTH CAROLINA
T      he Governor’s Pollution Prevention Award is
       South Carolina’s recognition of those compa-
nies and facilities that have prevented pollution
through various innovative efforts. In so doing, they
have demonstrated a commitment to protecting South
Carolina’s precious environment. Moreover, they
                                                           Lessons
                                                          from the
have helped validate the underlying lesson-stressed
so often in this magazine-that environmental
concern and good business go hand in hand.
     The Technical Advisory Committee for the
Hazardous Waste Management Research Fund judges
the entries in the Governor’s Award competition. In
evaluating the applicants for the Award, the commit-
tee takes into consideration:
@ the amount of waste reduction achieved;
@ the technological significance of the project;
@ the economic benefits or cost savings realized;
@ the environmental significance of the project; and
@ the level of commitment and leadership displayed
    by company management.
     But we should not overlook a significant fact
regarding the Governor’s Award competition: while
we applaud the winners and honorable mentions for
their noteworthy achievements, we should not
overlook the environmental contributions made by all
the applicants. Non-winners, in this context, are not
losers, and we can all learn and profit from their P2
experiences. For this reason, p S will look at the
                                 ZC
achievements of selected applicants-winners and
                                                         a
                                                         CJ overnor’s
non-winners alike-in this and subsequent issues.
     These profiles are based on the Governor’s
Award applications submitted by the participating
companies, and we thank them for their permission to
use the information.

Fiber Services, Inc.: Reducing Solvents
and Environmental Costs
For the past two-and-a-half years or so, Fiber
                                                          PoIIution
                                                         Prevent ion
Services, Inc., has actively sought ways to reduce
waste, and the company has placed special emphasis
on the elimination of hazardous materials. To
evaluate its progress, the Greenville, South Carolina,
manufacturer asked for a site visit from the South
Carolina Department of Health and Environmental
Control’s Center for Waste Minimization. With the
center’s help, the company was able to identify two
changes it could make to eliminate the use of two
                                                           Award
hazardous materials: one change was immediate, and
the other is being implemented as alternative
materials are tested and approved.
     The immediate replacement of a solvent in one
of the cleaning processes eliminated the yearly
                                                         Amlicants
                                                             I   I

WINTER 1997                                                          19
                                                                                the company’s position as a good neighbor in the
                                                                                community. “What we accomplish through this
                                                                                project is a modest contribution to environmental
                                                                                improvement,” says Wickis; “Elimination of
                                                                                hazardous waste, by its nature, means a positive
                                                                                impact somewhere ‘downstream’ from us.” The
                                                                                company wants to maintain its good standing with
                                                                                the community and its customers, many of whom are
                                                                                industry leaders. The next step: a new project aimed
                                                                                at reducing office waste.
                                                                                     The first small company ever selected for this
                                                                                distinction, Fiber Services and its division, Evergreen
                                                                                Molding, were named Manufacturer of the Year in
                                                                                1991 by the Greenville Chamber of Commerce; they
                                                                                were also a 1996 nominee for the same recognition.

                                                                                Beverage-Air: P2 Accomplishments on
     Elimination of                                                             Several Fronts
                                                                                Beverage-Air, a Spartanburg, South Carolina,
                                                                                manufacturer of commercial refrigeration equipment,
        hazardous                                                               has attacked all of its pollutants over the past few
                                                                       is
                      Fiber Services, Inc., located in Greenville, S.C., the
                       I996 GPPA winner for a small-sized business or           years. The company’s pollution prevention and
                      industrial facility.                                      waste minimization efforts-as with more and more
         materials                                                              companies these days-reflect a philosophy of doing
                                                                                more than just staying in compliance with permit
 enhances Fiber       generation of 360 gallons of hazardous waste. The         levels and conditions. “We are committed to
                      other change, involving replacement of a chlorinated      environmental excellence not only because it makes
                      solvent in the molding process, has reduced con-          good business sense,” says Safety/Environmental
          Service’s   sumption of the solvent by 5 1%, with the goal of         Manager John Paluszak, “but, more importantly,
                      complete elimination by mid- 1997. The cost saving        because it makes good nzoml sense.” The pollution
                      so far has been more than $2,000.                         prevention projects, he readily admits, did not make
      position as a        The chlorinated solvent has been used in the         Beverage-Air a more profitable company, but the
                      molding process to remove oils and contaminants           firm is proud of doing its part to help protect the
good neighbor in      from metal parts as they are fabricated. The facility     environment for future generations.
                      molds 5,000 of these parts every day for itself and its
                      sister company in Italy. The company president, who       Paint shop modifications and paint substitution
the community.        is the process design engineer, worked with his           Beverage-Air’s efforts focused on two major areas:
                      counterparts in Italy to develop a multistage,            the paint shop and the foaming operations. The
                      computer-controlled hydrosonic process to replace         company began its waste minimization efforts in the
                      the solvent. “To our knowledge,” says Fiber Services      paint shop, where it was using baked-enamel wet
                      Vice President Fred Wickis, “it’s unique to us as is      paint, along with xylene and toluene (to thin the
                      most of the manufacturing process.”                       paint) and methyl ethyl ketone (to wipe down the
                           The projected annual savings from both stages of     parts to be painted). Annually, the paint shop used
                      this project is $13,500. Beyond the monetary              about 20,000 pounds of methyl ethyl ketone; 15,000
                      savings, however, elimination of these materials          pounds of xylene; 1,000 pounds of toluene; and
                      reduces reporting and recycling costs and contributes     68,000 pounds of wet paint. The shop decided to
                      to the health and safety of the facility’s employees.     change over to using all powder paint in its opera-
                      Fiber Services’ business is based on leading-edge         tions. In the conversion, they:
                      technology in the industry, and the implemented             ~,’
                                                                                      built an environmental room around their two
                      changes do not jeopardize that foundation.                      large powder-paint booths to allow the reclama-
                           Elimination of the hazardous materials enhances            tion of black and white paint;




20                                                                                      POLLUTION PREVENTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA
.   '    installed a small powder-paint booth in their wet-
         paint area:
.   .    replaced the white powder-paint booth and
         modified the black powder-paint booth;
.   '    modified one wet booth to handle powder paint;
.   '    removed the pumps and piping to the wet booths;
.   '    removed the remaining wet booth and filled in
    the sump; and
.   routed a conveyor through the parts washer for
    '



    the old wet-painting area to decrease the amount
    of methyl ethyl ketone used to wipe down parts.
     Aftcr these changcs, Beverage-Air has seen
substantial reductions in the purchase of chemicals.
In a recent one-year period, the company bought                                                                                    Neither of
5,600 pounds of methyl ethyl ketone, a 72% reduc-
tion. It bought 450 pounds of xylene, a 97%
reduction. And it achieved a 100% reduction in the                                                                                 Beverage-Ai r's
purchase of toluene.
     Methyl ethyl ketone and xylene still see use in
the wiping down of parts and products, but the
                                                                                                                                   projects would
amounts needed may go down even more. To
                                                              S.C. Attorney General Charles Condon was guest
eliminate fugitive emissions altogether, Beverage-
                                                              speaker during the I996 GPPA presentation.                           be classified as a
Air's staff will continue to seek alternatives that will
meet their cleaning requirements.
                                                                                                                                   technological
Equipment changes in the foaming operation To                 foam guns, an activity requiring probably no more
insulate their products, Beverage-Air uses a two-part         than I O 0 pounds per year. That quantity reflects a
foam. The foam guns the company used in the past              reduction of about 10,700pounds per year, or a
                                                                                                                                   advancement,
were of the internal-mixing kind, which required              reduction in air emissions of more than 99%.
washing of the guns and tips with methylene                                                                                        but they do
chloride. As a result of the cleaning, the foaming            Significance of the projects Paluszak tells us that
operation generated about 10,800pounds of methyl-             neither of these projects would be classified as a
ene chloride fugitive emissions every year.                   technological advancement, but they do represent                     represent major
     Today, the operation uses foam guns from BASF            major advances in the company's operations. The
Corporation; these guns use an external.mixing tube           materials they used are all readily available stock
with an air-over-water flush. The result? A nearly            items, and the projects did not require much research-
                                                                                                                                   advances in the
complete elimination of methylene chloride. Here's            and-development time and money.
how they went about it. They:                                      The near-elimination of stack point emissions                   company's
    ran laboratory analyses on test flushes and               and the substantial reduction in the fugitive emissions
    received authorization from the Spartanburg               of hazardous chemicals have allowed Beverage-Air
    Sanitary Sewer District for waste discharges from         to exit from the Title V permitting program. As an                   operations.
    this operation;                                           added benefit, the reduction in hazardous waste will
    tied in a drain and settling basin to the sanitary
    ,'                                                        allow the company to go from a large-quantity
    sewer to discharge water from the foam-gun                generator status to a small-quantity generator status.
    flushes;                                                  Here's a two-year look at the company's waste
 . ran air and water lines to their ten foaming areas;
    '                                                         generation and the results it achieved:
 ,  increased the water supply from a two-inch main
    '


                                                              Waste Type   Qty generated (Ibs)   Qty generated (Ibs)   Reduction
    to a three-inch main; and                                                  7194 - 6195           7195 - 6196
 . installed the foam guns and hoists.                        Hazardous         17,800                 2,750            85%
                                                              Special           157,300               I 14,000          28%
     Future use of methylene chloride in the foaming
operation will be limited to the maintenance of the




WINTER 1997                                                                                                                                          21
     TABLE I                                                                                 The total cost of the paint-shop project was
     Annual Usage Reductions                                                            about $3 10,000. The decision to proceed was based
                                                                                        on environmental considerations, not financial ones:
      Material                    1991       1992     I993     I994   199s       I996   the cost of painting with powder compared with the
      Cadmium (Ibs)               20,000    15,000      0        0      0           0
      Cyanide Salts (Ibs)                               0      0        0    0
                                                                                        use of wet paint (including the disposal of waste) is
                                  28,000    24.000
      Copper (Ibs)                24,000    20,000 2,500 2,000 2,000         0          virtually the same.
      Bleach (gal)               155,000   I3 1.000     0      0     0       0               The total cost of the foam-gun project was about
      Chromic Acid (gal)             560        400     30     0     0       0
      Hydrochloric Acid (gal)     53.000    50,000 55,000 5 1,000 45,000 4 I,000        $86,000. At fifty-four cents per pound, the annual
      Sulfuric Acid (gal)         20,000    2 1,000 19.800 15.600 9,400 2,300           cost savings for this project is about $5,778. With a
      Total U n i t s Used      300,560 26 1,400     77,330 68,600 56,400 43,300
                                                                                        fifteen-year payback period, this project’s appeal-as
                                                                                        with the paint-shop project-was one of environmen-
                                                                                        tal benefits, not financial gain.
     FIGURE I                                                                                The company’s management hired a consulting
     HeddlelDrop W i r e Recycling                                                      firm to conduct semi-annual, unannounced inspec-
                                                                                        tions of the facility to ensure continuing compliance
                                                                                        with environmental regulations. According to John
                                                                                        Paluszak, Beverage-Air’s environmental efforts are
                                                                                        not driven by financial considerations (as noted
                                                                                        earlier) nor by concern for the surrounding commu-
                                                                                        nity-there are no neighborhoods surrounding the
                                                                                        plant site. “We are striving for environmental
                                                                                        excellence, not because we are worried about our
                                                                                        neighbors’ concerns,” he says, “but because we are
                                                                                        committed to keeping the environment safe for our
                                                                                        workers and their families.”
                  I993               I994               I995              I996*
                                                                        *Expected       CAPSCO, Inc.: Improving the Plating
                                                                                        Process
                                                                                        Ten years ago, representatives of CAPSCO, Inc.,
                                                                                        were sitting before a judge, wondering if the local
     TABLE 2
                                                                                        sewer authority was going to allow them continued
     Material                              Expenses                   Savings
                                  1991                I992               I995           use of the publicly owned treatment works (POTW).
     Chromic Acid                $1.100               $950              $1.000          At that time, the Greenville, South Carolina, com-
     Bleach                      93,000              78,600             90,000          pany pledged to reduce or remove the use of all
     Copper                      40.000              32,000             25,000
     Cadmium                     20.000              15.000             12.000          hazardous materials as much as possible and still run
     Cyanide Salts               34,000              30,000             25,000          a successful business. It began by installing over
     Total Savings                                                    $153,000
                                                                                        100,000gallons of storage capacity-now referred to
                                                                                        as the bay tanks-at a cost of approximately $40,000.
                                                                                        Their purpose is to ensure that every drop of process
                                                                                        water is tested for compliance before being released
                                                                                        to the Western Carolina Regional Sewer Authority
                                                                                        (WCRSA).
                                                                                             After forty years, doing metal-plating work with
                                                                                        materials like cadmium, chromium, and cyanide had
                                                                                        become a way of life for CAPSCO. To better protect
                                                                                        the health of its employees, neighbors, and custom-
                                                                                        ers, however, in 1991 the company began pursuing
                                                                                        alternatives to its hazardous processing constituents.
                                                                                        Together with its industrial and textile customers,
                                                                                        management decided to eliminate the use of cadmium
                                                                                        and cyanide from the processes. By the end of 1993
                                                                                        this goal had been realized: the use of cadmium and


22                                                                                              POLLUTION PREVENTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA
cyanide was history. The use of copper was cut 90%
and the use of chromic and sulfuric acid was reduced
by at least 60%.
     As seen in Table 1 (page 22), reductions in
hazardous materials have been significant. Further-
more, to reduce flow rates to the sewer authority,
CAPSCO began using recovery-well water instead of
city water. when possible, as rinse water in the
process; the used rinse water would then undergo
treatment and be discharged to the sewer. Water
economixrs and countercurrent flow methods also
contributed to flow reduction.
                                                                                                                     After forty
Process technology Four major plating lines
underwent redesign, thereby converting approxi-
mately 40% of CAPSCO’s business to metal-
                                                                                                                     years, doing
finishing processes containing nonhazardous
materials.                                                                                                           metal-plating
      With the support of the company’s textile           At the October I996 GPPA presentation CAPSCO,
customers, copper cyanide was totally eliminated          Inc., Environmental Manager Owen Roberts holds the
from dropwire and heddle refinishing. These
                                                          winner award for a medium-sized business o r industrial    work with
                                                          facility. Lynn Cooper (left), manager of Michelin-
reductions are included in Table 1.                       North America and director of the Technical Advisory
      The cadmium and cyanide processes were              Committee for the Hazardous Waste Management
                                                          Research Fund presented the awards.                        materials like
replaced with zinc cobalt chloride plating, which
produces a product that is equal or superior to the
original processes, but uses constituents that are less                                                              cadmium,
hazardous. “The technological communication               Economic benefits The economic benefits may be
between Dayco-one of our major customers-and              realized from a number of directions (see Table 2,
CAPSCO was a large factor in the success of the           page 22). The expense of making the process                chromium, and
project,” says Owen Roberts, CAPSCO’s manager of          changes is estimated to be $100,000. This expense,
environmental affairs. “Once the technology was           however, was recovered as the company proceeded
                                                          through 1993, 1994, and 1995 with greatly reduced
                                                                                                                     cyanide had
developed, our good customer Dayco was so
impressed with the procedure that it changed the          environmental concerns and the absence of any
specifications of its plated parts to meet the zinc       citations from regulatory agencies. Annual savings         become a way
cobalt chloride plating process.”                         realized from the reductions in hazardous materials
      Approximately 40% of the company’s total            are shown in Table 2, in the “1995 savings” column.
business involves the textile industry. Thanks to the                                                                of life for
dedication of the company‘s research team, millions       Environmental significance With the total elimina-
of steel heddles and drop wires that were previously      tion of‘ copper, cadmium, bleach, and cyanide salts
disposed of in landfills are now being refurbished and    from the processes, and the reduction of sulfuric and
                                                                                                                     CAPSCO.
recycled each month. This information is shown on         chromic acids, the surrounding environment of the
Figure 1 (page 22).                                       CAPSCO community can be further protected. The
      CAPSCO also discontinued its electroless nickel     company rests assured that the soil and ground water
process and replaced it with an anodizing process that    in the vicinity of the facility can never be affected by
was developed to continue the type of surface             these hazardous materials. To further substantiate
protection required by its customers.                     that its environmental concerns reach beyond the
      To reduce indoor pollution, all gasoline combus-    boundary of its plant property line, in 1993 CAPSCO
tion fork lifts were refitted or replaced with natural    selected a treatment facility that renders all of its
gas units. Further air pollution was reduced when a       transported hazardous waste nonhazardous before
307’0-more-efficient boiler was installed for general     disposal. This action accounts for over 300,000
operations. Other recycle, reuse, or repair operations    pounds of material each year. Management feels
ificlude oil, paper, and glass reduction.                 secure knowing the hazardous constituents contained


WINTER 1997                                                                                                                           23
     in its only transported harardous waste (processed
     filter cake) will pow no burden o n generation\ to
     come. I n summary. the products produced by
     CAPSCO have become less toxic. and the hu/ardou\
     wastes \hipped are rendered nonhazardou+ for all
     pcr\on\ who c o m e in contact with them.
           CAPSCO i \ committed to operating the coin-
     pany in a manner that meets o r exceed\ all federal.
     state. and local enc ironmental regulation\,. The
     company al\o acti\ely ~xtrs~ies   idea\ and product\
     rc\tilting i n waste miniinimtion. thereby en\uring the
     safety and welfare 01' its employee\ and the coiiitnii-
     nity. Management helieves there i \ always time atncl
     effort tor pollutioii prevention. and its h a m d o u s
     waste elimination and reduction program has provcii
     this theory. Working together with all o f its custom-
                                    pro.ject. All tcchnolo-
     er\ is the key to a \~icce\\l'~iI
     gics. proccxses. equipment. o r procedurcs arc to be
     shared and discussed i n the advancciiicnt of pollution
     prevention. "In the fight tor protecting the enc iron-
     iiient." \ays Roberts. "there are no trade wcrets o r
     competitors." RSC




24          POLLUTION PREVENTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA
                                                                                                             environmental hotlines

Asbestos Ombudsman                  Emergency Planning and                                                   National Pesticide                SC DHEC Education
ClearinghouselHotline               Community Right-to-Know                                                  Telecommunications                Resource Library
Washington, DC                      Information Hotline                                                      Network                           Columbia, SC
(X00)36X-5XXX0 1 (703)305-5938      (E PCRA)                                                                 (800)858-7378 or (806)743-309 I   (803)737-3945
                                    Arlington, V A
Center for Environmental            (800)535-0202o r (703)412-9877                                           National Response Center          Southeast Waste Exchange
Research Information (CERI)                                                                                  Washington, DC                    Charlotte, N C
Cincinnati, OH                      Environmental Protection                                                 (800)424-8802or (202)267-2675     (703)537-4289
( 5 13)569-756?                     Agency (EPA) Region IV
                                    Atlanta, G A                                                             New England Solid Waste           Stratospheric Ozone
Central Carolina Technical          (800)2X2-0219t l , J / l ,     (11,N             I I                     Research Library                  Protection
CollegelSouth Carolina                     I
                                    (X00)24 - 1754       lllllil     IIC        ,1111        I\ \ I   It<\   Boston, M A                       (CFCs-Clean A i r Act)
Environmental Training              (404)147-7 IO9        t I I,   \\    ,\lL        0111/11111\111 ill      (617)573-9687                     Washington, DC
Center                                                                                                                                                 I996
                                                                                                                                               (800)296-
Sumter, SC                          Hazardous Waste                                                          Pollution Prevention
(X03)77X-663X                       Management Research Fund                                                 Information Clearinghouse         Toxic Substances Control
                                    Columbia, SC                                                             (PPIC)                            Act (TSCA) Assistance
CHEMTREC Center                     (803)777-X I 5 7                                                         Washington, DC                    Information Service
Non-Emergency Services                                                                                       (202)260-1023                     Washington, DC
(800)262-8200 o r (202)XX7- 13 I5   Hazardous Waste                                                                                            (202)554-I404
                                    Ombudsman                                                                RCRAlSuperfundl
Center for Environmental            Washington, D C                                                          Underground Storage Tank          Waste Reduction Resource
Policy, Institute of Public         (800)262-7937                                                            Hotline                           Center
Affairs, USC                                                                                                 Arlington, V A                    Raleigh, NC
Columbia, SC                        Indoor A i r Quality                                                     (800)424-9346r (703)4 12-98 IO
                                                                                                                         o                     (800)476-8686
(803)777-4508                       Information Clearinghouse
                                    (IAQulC)                                                                 Safe Drinking Water
Clemson University                  Washington, DC                                                           Washington, DC
Continuing Engineering              (800)438-43
                                              I8                                                             (800)426-479 1
Education Program
Clemson, SC                         Information Exchange-
(803)656-3308                       Hazmat
                                    (800)752-6367         I 5      i i L L l 111moi\
                                                                             ~


Control Technology Center           (800)367-9592         1111noi\
                                                                oi11\


Research Triangle Park, N C
( 9 I 9 r53 I-0800                  National Lead Information
                                    Center
DHEC Center for Waste               (800)532-3394        f'"L"'l         1,1101117 111011


Minimization                        (800)324-5323        lilll111L      $1   ',\\,\I',,,'L


Columbia, SC
(803)734-476 I
Call Bob Burge\\




WINTER 1997                                                                                                                                                             25
annual index
4SC: Pollution Prevention in South Carolina



This index covers four quarterly      Federal Facilities                    Environmental Solutions           Research
issues in Volume 4 (Spring '96        The Challenge of Managing             through Technology Transfer,      Clemson ' s Expanding Role in
through Winter '97). Copies of        Environmental Consequences at         Michael Muthig (Fall '96,20)      Wuste Treatment Research,
back issues are available, but the    Federal Facilities, Beth Partlow                                        Donald L. Erich, Heidi D. Rees
quantities are limited. To order,     (Fall '96,2)                           The Other DHEC: The Center       (Winter '97, 15)
mail a check (payable to the                                                f o r Waste Minimization, Hans
Institute qf Public Affairs) for $2   Pollution Prevention Program           VanderKnyff (Spring '96,4)       Exposure and Heulth Risk
per copy to:                          Implementation Tools: Tri-                                              Assessment for Hazardous
  e S C Back Issues                   Services' Pollution Prevention        Pollution Prevention Program      Waste Incineration, Charles E.
  Institute of Public Affairs         Technical Libruiy, Kristyn R.         Implementation Tools: Tri-        Feigley, Caroline A. Macera,
  University of South Carolina        Malina (Fall '96, 14)                 Services' Pollution Prevention    Carlton A. Homung, L.-J. Sally
  Columbia, SC 29208                                                        Technical Library, Kristyn R.     Liu (Spring '96, 26)
                                      Savannah River Site Keeps             Malina (Fall '96, 14)
Automotive Industry                   Pollution Prevention at the Top,                                        Removing Petroleum Contami-
Back to the Drawing Board:            Natalie D. Ferguson, Linda K.         What Comes Ne.ut after You've     nation from Low-permeability
CCPCT Researchers Hope to             Karapatakis (Fall '96,4)              Picked the Low-hanging Fruit      Soils, C. Marjorie Aelion, Brian
Design Solutions to the Tough                                               of P2?, Eric H. Snider (Spring    C. Kirtland (Summer '96,26)
Pollution Problems Associated         Shaw Air Force Base: On the           '96,23)
with Automobiles, Lori Phan           Front Line against Pollution,                                           Solid Waste
(Summer '96,24)                       Hans VanderKnyff (Fall '96, 12)       P2 Web Sites                      Paper Profits: Cryovac-Duncan
                                                                            The American institute j b r      Recycles Its Paper and
Looking at P2 through New             Fiber Industry                        Pollution Prevention (AIPP),      Cardbourd, Hans VanderKnyff
Glasses, Jennifer Metts (Fall '96,    WARR Is Good Business: Waste          (Summer '96,28)                   (Spring '96, 18)
24)                                   and Release Reduction ut Hoechsf
                                      Celanese, James C. Pullen,            Environet: Carolina Environ-      South Carolina DHEC
Pollution Prevention in the           (Summer '96, 14)                      mental News, (Winter '97, 28)      The Other DHEC: The Center
Automobile Industry, Gary                                                                                     f o r Waste Minimization, Hans
Weinreich (Summer '96, 18)            Governor's P2 Award                   The I S 0 14000 InfoCenter,        VanderKnyff (Spring '96,4)
                                      Applicants                            (Summer '96,28)
Eco-Efficiency                        Lessons,from the Governor's P2                                          Strategic Environmental
Eco-Efficiency: Holistic Thinking     Award Applicants, (Winter '97,        The Pacific Northwest             Management
to Advance Sustainable Business       19)                                   Pollution Prevention Research     The New Business Paradigm:
Practices, Deborah Savage,                                                  Center (PPRC), (Spring '96,       Environmental Management as
Karen Shapiro (Winter '97, 13)        I S 0 14000/ 1400 I                   28)                               a Strategic Business Issue,
                                      I S 0 14000, Pollution Prevention,                                      David J. Warner (Summer '96,
Environmental Conferences             and Global Competitiveness,           The Waste Reduction Resource      8)
The Environmental Law, &              Phillip E. Barnes (Summer '96. 2)     Center, (Fall '96, 2 8 )
Technology Conference: Past,                                                                                  Wastewater Treatment
Present, and Future, H. Thomas        I S 0 14001: Guidance f o r Meeting   Paper and Cardboard               Wuste Not, Pay Not: Managing
Howard (Spring '96, 2)                the Socio-Economic Responsibili-      Paper Profits: Cryovac-Duncan     Wastewater Treatment Plant
                                      ties of an industrial Facility Part   Recycles Its Paper and            Capacity f o r Compliance
Environmental Hotlines                I, Elbert G. Massad (Summer           Cardboard, Hans VanderKnyff       Purposes and Economic
(Every issue)                         '96.4)                                (Spring '96, 18)                  Growth, William G. Armes
                                                                                                              (Spring '96, 10)
Environmental Laboratories            PZ Resources                          Plastics
Environmental Laboratories            Center,for Environmental Policy:      New Life f o r Old Plastic: A
Analyze and Reduce Waste,             An Interview with Director Claire     Visit to Martin Color-Fi, Hans
Jennifer C. Metts (Spring '96, 14)    Prince, (Winter '97,9)                VanderKnyff (Winter '97,4)




                                                                                                   POLLUTION PREVENTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA
                                                              entries
                                                                                1997
                                                                                Governor’s
                                                                                Pollution
                                                                                Prevention
                                                                                Award




Topics                                                   15th Annual
Brownfields
Compliance Audits
New EPA air regulations impacts
Criminal enforcement of
                                           uth Caroli
 environmental statutes
Understanding the media
Upstate infrastructure
Pollution prevention technology

Speakers
Charles Condon, sc Attornf’y General
Robert D. Inglis, Member of Congress
Kathy Prosser, [ntrxnational ~ o m comm.
                                   t
State/federal government regulators
Engineers/scientists/attorneys

Workshops
Environmental issues in the
  textile industry
I S 0 14000
Environmental economics
Using the Internet to understand EPA


For information contact                                        Sponsored by
Fran Graingrr                               Greenville Chamber of Commerce
USC Institute of Public Affairs                   S.C. Chamber of Commerce
(803)777-9392                                    University of South Carolina
                                                          Clemson University
contacts/resources                                                 p2sc web tips

Contacts/Resources provides         able Business Practices pg.    Carolina Environmental                    First published in late
more information about the          14; Tellus Institute, I 1      News, a bimonthly publication        1995, the magazine now offers
people, organizations, and topics   Arlington St., Boston, MA      from National Technical             selected features on the Web,
presented in this issue of <SC.     02 1 16; (6 17)266-5400.       Communications Co., Inc.,           complete with search capabili-
                                                                   offers “practical information       ties. Its “Features and Articles”
The Definition and Solution of      Clemson ’ Expanding Role in
                                             s                     for environmental profession-       Web pages may be found as
Environmental Issues Using          Waste Treatment Research       als.” Following the successful      part of the Enviro-Net Web site
Innovative Research: SCUREF         pg. 16; Donald Erich,          format of its sister publica-       (“Digital Resources for
Programs and Approaches pg.         Clemson University Environ-    tions-the Florida Specifier         Environmental Professionals”)
2; Romney B. Duffey,                mental Research Lab, 100       and Georgia Environmental           presented by the Florida
SCUREF, University of South         Technology Drive, Anderson,    News-Carolina Environmen-           Specifier. Steer your Web
Carolina, Box 7, Aiken, SC          SC 29625; (864)646-2413ext.    tal News provides environmen-       browser to http://www.enviro-
29801; (803)641-3737 or             207.                           tal industry professionals with     net.com/technical/news/nc. html
(864)656-1564.                                                     technical news, regulatory          and see what it has to offer.
                                    Governor’s Pollution           updates, and coverage of the
New Life for Old Plastic: A         Prevention Award Applicants    fast-growing pollution abate-       To check out the Enviro-Net
Visit to Martin Color-Fi pg. 4;     pg. 20 Fiber Services,         ment industry in the Carolinas.     site itself, go to http://www.
Martin Color-Fi, Inc., PO Box       Incorporated: Reducing         The subjects include air            enviro-net corn to reach the
469, Edgefield, SC 29824;           Solvents and Environmental     quality, hazardous materials        home page. You’ll find the
(800)843-6382 or (803)637-          Costs Fred Wickis, 200         management, solid waste             Editor’s Page, news updates,
5376.                               Brozzini Ct.; Greenville, SC   issues, water resources and         technical resources, regulatory
                                    29615; (864)288-2482.          distribution, wastewater            resources, and the Marketplace
Center for Environmental            Beverage-Air: P2 Accomplish-   treatment, and P2. In addition,     (including a Directory of
Policy: An Interview with           ments on Several Fronts John   you’ll find a calendar of events,   Companies, environmental
Claire Prince pg. 10; Claire        Paluszak, Beverage-Air, PO     information on new products,        industry calendar, classifieds,
Prince, Center for Environmen-      Box 5932, Spartanburg, SC      industry briefs, Region IV          and environmental associa-
tal Policy, Institute of Public     29304-5932; (864)580-5329.     news, and more.                     ti on s).
Affairs, University of South        CAPSCO, Inc: Improving the
Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208.       Plating Process Owen
(803)777-4568.                      Roberts, CAPSCO, Inc.,
                                    1101 West Blue Ridge Dr.,
Eco-Efficiency: Holistic            Greenville, SC 29609-3350;
Thinking to Advance Sustain-        (864)235-8000.




                                                                                          POLLUTION PREVENTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA
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